· a fibrous capsule, positioned retroperitoneal in

·     The renalsystem: Consists of kidneys, ureters, the urethra, the bladder andsphincter muscles which form the urinary tract.  The renal system produces, stores andeliminates waste products such as urea, excess ions and water from thebloodstream in a form of urine, excreted by the kidneys. Besides acting as afiltering system, the renal system is also responsible for regulating acid-basehomeostasis and pH, for controlling blood volume and stabilising blood pressureas well as regulating electrolytes. Consequently, the kidney is the upperurinary tract, whereas the remaining structures are the lower urinary tract.

Theanatomical features of the renal tract involve two bean-shaped kidneyssurrounded by a fibrous capsule, positioned retroperitoneal in the posterior abdominalwall of the side of the spine- approximately between the size of 10-14cm inadults (Field et al., 2010).This is solely in charge of producing urine by filtering waste and excess waterfrom the blood which passes through the ureters to fill up the bladder. The twoureters, essential in the renal tract activity, are muscular hollow tubes thatconvey urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder. The size of the uretervaries from 20- 30cm, depending on the individual’s height and positioning ofthe kidney. However, the left ureter tends to be 1cm longer.

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Its primaryfunction is to carry urine from the kidney to the bladder (Bergman, 1967). 


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