02.1. protection knowledge among final year medical

02.1. Paolicchi et al., (2015)The reserach said that there is considerable need for radiographers to improve their awareness on radiation protection knowledge and they give validated questionnaire for the selected 780 participants and evaluate the knowledge related to radiological examination on Italian radiographers. According to their research young radiographers who have less than 3 years of experience has higher knowledge other than the well-experienced radiographers. Only 12.1% of radiographers attend radiographic courses routinely.so they estimated that radiographers have less amount of radiation protection knowledge regarding medical examinations and should increase the knowledge.
02.2 Sundaram (2017) The research is based on accessing the radiation protection knowledge among final year medical student’s training prior to the graduating in Norway.It is Online based questionnaire were sent to all participants from two universities and 99 students completed. Only 18 students out of that scored 50% marks; from this research, they conclude that overall medical students’ knowledge about radiation dose and risks associated with radiography examinations to be inadequate.
02.3 Soye and Paterson (2008) The research said that accessing health professionals knowledge of radiation doses during radiological examinations in northen Ireland. This was based on quesionere and data collected from randomly selected 300 consultants and 200 junior doctors.quisionere was included radiation dose from a chest radiograph, the annual dose from background radiation, and to evaluate the radiation dose and cancer risk from several common radiological procedures.153 answered quesionere were returned and mean score of 7.1 out of 18 was taken. This survey informed that professionals’ awareness on radiological examniasion is poor.
02.4 Furmaniak and Ko?odziejska (2016) this research was based on to assess radiation awareness among dentist, radiographers, dentistary students and radiography students. A questionnaire including 13 multiple-choice questions was given to the 200 dentists, 200 radiographers, 100 dentistry students and 100 radiography students. questionnaire was asked about basic knowledge concerning dental radiological examinations.According to the results 301 quesioneres were obtained and mean score of correct answers were 8.13 out of 13 responds.this survey shows that radiation awareness among dentists, radiographers and students is inadequate.even some groups having traning their knowledge on radiation protection was low.

02.5 Mynalli ; Biradar (2017) research was evaluated of awareness on Radiation Protection and Hazards among Paramedical Personnel Working in Radiology Department of a Teaching Hospital. Paramedical personnel are the ones health-care workers who provide clinical services to patients under the supervision of a physician. Its sampling technique was conducted by questioner with 17 questions included their knowledge towards X-ray safety and practice of safety techniques among 100 paramedical personnel. According to the results, knowledge on radiation was high in those working in Radiology department than those who visit with the patient for imaging.
02.6 Masoumi ; Hasanzadeh (2018) this research was done for the Survey on the Radiation Protection Status among Radiology Staff. 32-item questionnaire was created to assess the level of radiation protection knowledge, practice, and attitudes towards the basic principles of radiation protection.this survaey showed that the level of radiation protection level is inadequate.
02.7 awosan ; Ibrahim(2016) this research was based on Knowledge of Radiation Hazards, Radiation Protection Practices and Clinical Profile of Health Workers in a Teaching Hospital in Northern Nigeria.this study was conducted by using 110 radiology ,radiotherapy and dentistry staff.it is based on semi structured ,pre-testd quesionere to obtain information.by analyzed results Sixty five (59.1%) had good knowledge of radiation hazards, 58 (52.7%) had good knowledge of Personal Protective Devices (PPDs), less than a third, 30 (27.3%) consistently wore dosimeter, and very few (10.9% and below) consistently wore the various PPDs at work.this research concluded that poor radiation protection practices despite good knowledge of radiation hazards among the participants.
02.8 Yurt ; Çavu?o?lu(2014) this research topic was Evaluation of Awareness on Radiation Protection and Knowledge about Radiological Examinations in Healthcare Professionals Who Use Ionized Radiation at Work. The data was obtained from physicians, nurses, technicians and other staff working in different clinics by quisionere. 92 participants took part to this study.in here assessing the knowledge about ionizing radiation level and their awareness about radiation doses. Their level of knowledge about ionizing radiation and doses in radiological examinations were found to be very weak. This study demonstrated that general knowledge in relation to radiation, radiation protection, health risks and doses used for radiological applications are insufficient among health professions using with ionizing radiation in their work.

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02.9 Abdellah and Attia (2015) they states that Assessment of Physicians’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Radiation Safety at Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt. This research was based on self-administered questionnaire including 18 questions for radiation safety was sent to a purposive sample of 120 physicians at Suez Canal University Hospital. The sample included 22 radiologists, 15 oncologists, 25 surgeons and 18 orthopedists. This study demonstrated that physicians at the Suez Canal University Hospital had deficient knowledge, unsafe practices and negative attitude towards radiation safety policies & precautions.

02.10 Arslano?lu and Bilgin (2007) this research was based on Doctors’ and intern doctors’ knowledge about patients’ ionizing radiation exposure doses during common radiological examinations. For the methodology process, they given questionnaire is included the radiation doses of routine radiological diagnostic procedures was administered to 177 doctors and intern doctors. They are from 3 university hospitals, and doctors from an education and research hospital, one dispensary, and 3 outpatient clinics. From results they assumed Most of the doctors and intern doctors underestimated real radiation doses and 93.1% of the participants underestimated the actual dose. This study demonstrated that the level of knowledge of the participants was inadequate.

02.11 Szarmach ; Piskunowicz(2015) this research said that radiation safety awarenesss level among medical staff. This research was done for the evaluation of the knowledge of radiation safety during radiological examination among medical staff. This survey based on questionnaire that consists with 7 questions with knowledge of effects of exposure to ionizing radiataion related to responders proffesion and work experience. Data obtained by 150 individuals from four professional groups: nurses, doctors, medical technicians, support staff. According to the results nurses – 66 (44%) responders, followed by physicians – 51 (34%) responders and medical technicians – 21 (14%) responders. In addition, 12 (8%) auxiliary staff members (others) were included in the study .

02.12 Sharma ; Singh (2016) the topic of this research was an evaluation of knowledge and practice towards radiation protection among radiographers of Agra city. This study based on radiographers who working in various hospitals of agra city. A quesionere is consists with 22 questions dividing 3 sections. First section of questionnaire taken data about socio-demographic details of the study subjects. Second section of questionnaire contained questions about their working pattern in radiology and knowledge of participants regarding radiation protection. The last and third section of questionnaire had questions about their practices regarding radiation protection. Data of 50 participants was included in the final analysis. This research data concluded that (100%) of study sample were aware of use of special materials in doors and walls such as lead for more protection, periodical radiation dose check from TLD and usage of personal Protective devices. 54% had correct knowledge of annual limitation dose for individuals whereas 66% could tell correctly about Dosimeter. Regarding practices, less than 60% of subjects used wall shield during working hours.


02.1 running smoothly. This helps employees understand their

02.1 – Understand organisational structures
Q1 – The private sector are companies who are privately owned which means that they are not part of the government. This can be either profit and non-profit. Examples of private sector companies include stores such as New Look, Apple and River Island. The public sector is companies and organisations that are owned by the government. Examples of this include, doctors, dentists and teachers. Finally, the voluntary sector is organisations that help benefit and enrich society. These are non-profit. Examples of this include charities such as Halton Haven, YWCA and Dogs Trust.
Q2 – There are many different types of organisational structures to ensure that the business is running smoothly. This helps employees understand their roles and responsibilities within the company. Introducing the business to a formal structure can help put it in a better working position. The hierarchy structure is most commonly used in larger businesses such as a longer chain of command. There are many advantages and disadvantages of the hierarchical structure. An advantage of using this structure is there are chances for promotion as everyone knows who is above them within the company. However, a disadvantage of using this structure is that it might take longer for a larger company to adjust to change. A flat structure is used is smaller companies where there is no chain of command and only one manger that controls and has final say in the company. The advantage of using this structure is it allows employees to increase the responsibility within the business. On the other hand, a disadvantage of using this structure is that their maybe no opportunities to develop and grow with the business.
Q3 – There is many different legal structures used in all types of businesses. When picking a legal structure for your company you have to consider the structure that will work best for your type of company. As this may affect the tax and the national insurance that you have to pay, if the business gets into any trouble and the way management decisions are made. Becoming a sole trader is the easiest way to run the company. As you do not have to pay any registration fees which means that you get to keep all the profits that are brought into the business. However, if you own a company that needs investments then this would not be the best legal structure as you are responsible for any debt that the business gets into.
If the business decides to get into a partnership, then there are three different types. An ordinary partnership has no legal presence from any of the partners. This means that if anyone within this partnership goes bankrupt, dies, resigns then the partnership must be cancelled. A limited partnership allows partners to avoid personal asset liability. Before entering into this partnership, there must be an agreement that is signed by both companies. Finally, limited liability partnerships (LLPs) are obligated to have two selected members who will take on most of the responsibility. A partner’s liability is limited to the amount of money that they have invested within the company. They are limited to any personal guarantees they have given to raise finance. This means that one of the members has some protection on the company should they get into any financial trouble.


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