1.1 users complete their task. It has to

1.1   ReferringExpression GenerationReferring expression generation (REG) is the sub-task ofNatural language generation (NLG) that received most academic consideration. WhileNLG is strictly focused on transforming non-linguistic data into naturallanguage, REG focuses on making referring expressions that identify specified targets.This task can be split into two sections.

The content selection part recognisewhich set of properties identify the proposed target and the linguistic realisationpart characterises how these properties are converted into natural language. There have been systematic investigations to infer howpeople generate referring expressions, dating back to the 1970s (Winograd,1972). One common approach is the Incremental Algorithm (Dale and Reiter, 1995;Dale and Reiter, 2000) which uses logical expressions for generation. a gooddeal of work in REG follows the Gricean maxims (Grice, 1975) which provide afoundation for how people will behave in conversation. Since then there hasbeen a development of algorithms in the NLG community with the sole purpose ofproducing a range of referring expressions.

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1.1.1    GIVEChallengeThe major challenge on Generating Instructions in VirtualEnvironments (GIVE) is an interesting approach to the incredibly tough problemof NLG systems evaluation.  For NLGsystems, GIVE represents an end-to-end-evaluation. The software allows eachplayer in a 3D game world to be connected with one another with the aid of anNLG system over the Internet.

In the GIVE scenario, for instance, users areinvolved in a treasure hunt in a virtual environment they are not familiarwith. The complete representation of the virtual environment is provided by thecomputer. What the NLG system aims to achieve here is to providenatural-language instructions (in real time) that will help users completetheir task. It has to do with research opportunities in sentence planning,realization, text planning, and situated communication.One fascinating aspect of situating the problem ofgeneration in a virtual setting is the fact that relational and spatialexpressions play a more prominent role than in other NLG tasks. Aside from NLG,GIVE could be beneficial when used as a testbed to improve the components ofdialogue systems. GIVE has proven to provide consistent results that are alsomore comprehensive than those obtained from a traditional lab-based evaluation.

1.1.2    RefCOCOgThis is a dataset collected from in a non-interactivesetting on Amazon Mechanical Turk. This data is comprised of 85,474 referringexpressions for 54,822 in 26,711 images.

Selected images contained between 2and 4 objects of the same category of subject.      1.2   UserExperience  User Experience (UX) concerns user’s feelings and mentalitiesabout using specific systems or services. It includes meaningful, practical andoften experiential, and important parts of human–computer interaction.

Moreover, it includes user’s perceptions of framework aspects like i.e.usability, efficiency and utility.

In order for there to be a valuable and purposeful UX, informationhas to be:·       Useful: Content should be original and fulfila need·       Usable: Site must be easy to use·       Desirable: Image, identity, brand, and otherdesign elements are used to evoke emotion and appreciation·       Findable: Content needs to be navigable andlocatable onsite and offsite·       Accessible: Content needs to be accessible topeople with disabilities·       Credible: Users must trust and believe inpresented contentUser experience (UX) concentrates on having a profoundunderstanding of users, what they require, what they esteem, their abilities,and limitations. Likewise, it considers the business objectives and goals ofthe team managing the project. User experience best practices encourage toimprove quality of the user’s interaction with and impression of the product orservices. UX is dynamic as it is continually changing with time because ofcircumstances we use the new and upgraded systems are also changing. Technology1.3   PHP ScriptingLanguagePHP (Hypertext Pre-Processor) is a broadly used open source and general-purposescripting language that is ideally suited for web development (php.net.

N.p.,n.d., 2017).

Unlike client side languages i.e. JavaScript, PHP code is executedon the server, where HTML is generated and then sent to the client. The outputof running that script is displayed to the client but what client don’t know,is the underlying code. What characterise PHP is that it’s fairlystraightforward for a newcomer, however offers numerous advanced features forprofessional programmers as well.The main focus of PHP is on server-side scripting, so you canachieve anything that can be achieved with any other CGI program, i.e.receiving and sending cookies, dynamic page generation, or data collection.

Twothings are needed to make these things work: a web server and PHP parser(server module or CGI), web browser. You have to run the web server, withworking PHP installation. Output of PHP program is accessible with any webbrowser, while viewing the page through the web server. PHP can be easily usedon every major operating system, whether it’s MS Windows, Mac OS X or Linux.PHP also offers support for almost all of today’s web servers, includingMicrosoft’s IIS, Apache or basically any server able to utilise FastCGI PHPbinary.  Beginning web development with PHP, you have the flexibility ofchoosing OS and the web server. You also have the option of usingobject-oriented or procedural programming, or you can combine both methods.

WithPHP, you are not restricted to only HTML output. PHP allows outputting PDF files,images and even Flash animations. It’s also possible to output any text easily,such as XHTML or even other file types. Those files can be auto-generated byPHP and saved in the file system, rather than just printing them out andcreating a server-side cache for dynamic content.


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