1.1.What is International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation?The International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation is a UN-sponsored awareness day. It is a movement that promotes women’s rights over themselves, their physical and mental health and their bodies. These efforts are part of the campaign fighting for the banishment of violence against women and girls as a whole.
1.2.Who is the target audience?All IPSF Member Associations and the general public.1.3. When?The day is a UN-sponsored awareness event that takes place on February 6 each year.2-PROJECT DESCRIPTION:2.1.
Objectives:Gender equalityThe principle that everyone should receive equal treatment and not be discriminated against based on their gender;To promote the abandonment of FGM – once FGM has been fully abandoned, positive effects will reverberate across societies as girls and women reclaim their healthTo raise awareness of women’s rights as well as to put a stop to FGM and any violation of women’s rights2.2. Audience:Pharmacy studentsHealthcare studentsGeneral public3. DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS:3.1 Social Media Campaign Posters : #STOPFGM#SayNoToFemaleGenitalMutilation#IPSFawarea) Introduction Post to International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation: why is FGM a global concern? Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female circumcision, excision, or genital cutting, comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the genital organs for non-medical reasons. It reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women and violates established human rights. Although primarily concentrated in 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East, FGM is a global concern and is also practiced in some countries in Asia and Latin America. In addition, FGM continues to persist amongst immigrant populations living in Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand.
On this International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation, UN and UNFPA encourage everyone to spread awareness to take concrete actions against female genital mutilations. Use the last page of the booklet or create a GIF with member’s photos (passing very quickly)b) What are the Health Consequences? Women and girls who experience FGM have undergone a harmful experience, which may cause psychological consequences for life . FGM increases the short and long term health risks to women and girls and is therefore unacceptable from a human rights and health perspective. As future health professionals, we must be aware of the health risks this practice poses and spread awareness about this issue to our communities. No Health Benefits, only harm!Short-term ConsequencesSevere pain due to cutting the nerve ends and sensitive genital tissue.
Proper anesthesia is rarely used, and is not always effective when used. The healing process can also be painful, and may be prolonged or intensified accordingly.Excessive bleeding or hemorrhage as a result of the clitoral artery or other blood vessels being cut during the procedureShock caused by pain, infection, and/or hemorrhageGenital tissue swellingInfections due to use of contaminated instrumentsUrination problems such as urinary retention and pain passing urine due to tissue swelling, pain, or injury to the urethraImpaired wound healing leading to pain, infections, and abnormal scarringDeath caused by infections such as tetanus and hemorrhage that can lead to shockLong-Term ConsequencesPain due to tissue damage and scarring resulting to trapped or unprotected nerve endingsInfections such as chronic genital infections, chronic reproductive tract infections, and urinary tract infectionsPainful urination due to obstruction of the urethra and recurrent urinary tract infectionsMenstrual problems such as painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea), irregular menses, and difficulty in passing menstrual bloodKeloids (excessive scar tissue formation)Sexual problems: decreased sexual desire or even pain, difficulty in penetration, reduced amount/absence of orgasms during intercourse;Obstetric complications : higher probability of needing caesarean section, extended hospital stay, and suffering post-partum haemorrhage or prolonged labour;Obstetric fistula: condition that leaves women leaking urine, faeces or both, leading to chronic medical problemsPerinatal risks: WHO and UNICEF show that high-FGM-prevalence countries have high maternal mortality ratios and high numbers of maternal death. Psychological consequences such as an increased likelihood of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorder, and depressionReference: http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/fgm/health_consequences_fgm/en/c) Medicalization of FGM In some countries FGM is increasingly performed by health-care providers, which is alarming.
According to UNFPA, around one in five girls that undergo FGM are cut by health workers. Medicalization of FGM is justified by some health professionals to reduce the incidence of its complications. However medicalization of FGM will not reduce the long term complications of FGM, has no benefits, has no medical indication, and thus its performance violates the code of medical ethics. Furthermore its medicalization would result in a setback in the global efforts to eradicate this harmful practice, and will give the green light to its performance by non health-care providers with subsequent increased incidence of complications. As future health professionals, pharmacists should never support FGM. WHO strongly urges all health professionals to not conduct any form of FGM.d)Human Rights Violated by FGMFemale genital mutilation violates a series of well established human rights principles, norms and standards. These are the main International Human Rights Violated by this practise, according to UNFPA :-The right to be free from gender discrimination-The right to life (When the procedure results in death)-The right to physical and mental integrity, including freedom from violence-The right to the highest attainable standard of health-The right not to be subjected to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishmente) Key facts about FGMFemale genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
The procedure has no health benefits for girls and women. Procedures can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, as well as complications in childbirth and increased risk of newborn deaths. More than 200 million girls and women alive today have been cut in 30 countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where FGM is concentrated.
FGM is mostly carried out on young girls between infancy and age 15. FGM is a violation of the human rights of girls and women.The prevalence of FGM has decreased in most countries and an increasing number of women and men in practising communities support ending its practice. Reference: WHOe) Video related do FGM https://www.youtube.
com/watch?v=ZL7qJAB3aWkCaption: Meet Sara, a women from Kenya who went through FGM at the age of 7. Learn how this changed her life, and how everyone can do to make a difference in abolishing it. Like her, more than 200 million girls and women alive today have been cut and even more will be at risk in the future. This dangerous and irreversible practise negatively impacts the general health, child bearing capabilities and educational opportunities of girls and women. 3.2 Organize a FGM campaign toolkita) FlyersFemale Genital Mutilation: No Benefits, Only Harm! At least 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone a form of female genital mutilation (FGM).
Female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision, excision, or genital cutting, comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the genital organs for non-medical reasons, mostly carried out between infancy and at the age of 15. This procedure has no health benefits for girls and womens. Besides this, it is usually performed without permission and often against their will, violating a woman’s right to make important decisions about their sexual health.Immediate ComplicationsLong-Term ComplicationsSevere pain, excessive bleeding, infections (such as tetanus), urinary problems, shock, deathVaginal problems, menstrual problems, sexual problems, increased risk of childbirth complications, psychological problems If current trends continue, 15 million additional girls between ages 15 and 19 will be subjected to FGM by 2030.
But together, we can stop this unfair practice and end FGM now!b)Guideline What can you do to create awareness about the dangers of this practise? Target audience : Students (seminars, workshops, etc.)Communities affected by FGM: children; older people (that for example have kids, and are thinking of keeping the tradition) General public (on the streets campaign)