1. the misuse or fraud of an


Know how to recognise signs of abuse1.1. Define the following types of abuse:• Physical abuse – is an intentional act of using force against someone else that results in pain, or bodily injury for the individual. This can include shaking, biting, hitting, burning or misuse of medication.• Sexual abuse – is the forcing of sexual behaviour onto another person without their consent, or the person could lack the capacity to consent or they feel coerced because the abuser is in a position of power. It could be in a direct form, such as being forced to perform sex acts or intimate touching without consent. Or it could be in an indirect form, such as being forced to watch pornography or having to watch someone else masturbate.

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• Emotional/psychological abuse – is any sort of act that damages another person mental wellbeing which can include bullying, threats, humiliation, denial of any basic human rights and blackmail. This could result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder.• Financial abuse – is the theft of an individual’s money or personal possessions. It is also the misuse or fraud of an individual’s money where somebody can forcibly control another person’s assets or money without consent from the individual.• Institutional abuse – it’s the maltreatment of an individual from an organisation, institution or system of power. Which happens when the routines of an institutional environment become more important than the individual.• Self-neglect – is a behavioural condition when an individual fails to care for themselves, failing to meet their own basic human rights, whether by choice (self-harm), or unintentional (due to physical or mental health issues). • Neglect by others – is a passive form of abuse that means that the perpetrator is failing to meet the needs of an individual’s care.

Failing to provide an individual with their basic human rights, and any need that the victim cannot provide for themselves. These can be acts of omission (not giving someone their medication) or commission (intentionally leaving an individual’s drink somewhere they can’t reach it).1.2. Identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each type of abusePhysical abuse can occur in many forms these could be multiple or minor bruising of different areas, or marks from being slapped, scratched or bitten or pinched with inconsistent explanations.

You need to look for fingerprint and teeth marks. Or it could be in the form of burns and scalds, including oddly shaped bruises or burns, such as shape of an iron, lighter or cigarette end. Or any broken bones or unexplained falls, you need to pay attention if an individual suddenly loses mobility when they were previously quite active it could be down to an unreported broken bone. You need to ask yourself why it was unreported and report your suspicions to your senior.

Always keep an eye out for signs of malnourishment, sudden loss of weight, unhealthy skin and other signs of neglect. If an individual seems to drowsy or confused to regularly, it may be due to the fact that they have had too much pain relief or sedative, keep an eye out for misuse of medication. If an individual starts to cover themselves or make defensive gestures towards you or near another individual it may be a sign that the individual has been physically attacked previously.Sexual abuse signs can be shown in the form of fear of physical contact from an individual.

Any signs of bleeding, irritation, injury, sexual transmitted disease or infection around the genitals. Look out for foul smells or soreness. Any bruising in intimate places, bitemarks or scratches on breast or inner thigh. If any individual starts suddenly starts making inappropriate conversation of a sexual nature it may be because of sexual abuse.

If an individual suddenly withdraws themselves from social contact or becomes distressed or starts crying or self-harming or neglecting themselves for unexplained reasons you must presume this may be because of sexual abuse. If an individual is receiving emotional/ physiological abuse you may see signs of sadness, depression, no spontaneous laughter or smiles or uncontrollable crying. An individual may start to isolate themselves from people when previously they were more outgoing and start to have a low self-esteem or lack of confidence. An individual may start to exhibit fear or anxiety towards a certain member of staff and request not to be near that staff member. An individual may suddenly have a change in appetite or start refusing food or medication, or their sleeping patterns may change induced from nightmares or insomnia. The individual may become increasingly irritable and tense or may start seeking attention with their behaviour by either self-harm or self-abuse through misuse of drugs or alcohol.An individual could be being financially abused if they have a sudden inability to pay bills when previously they were paying on time.

Or if the individual is reluctant to spend money (even when money shouldn’t be a problem). If there is no food within the individuals house when previously it was okay. Unexplained outgoings on an account, or items going missing such as money, chequebooks, bank cards or valuable jewellery. There could be a risk of financial abuse if there a sudden interest in other people’s money or assets or changes in the terms of will.

Institutional abuse can stem from rigid routines (such as mealtimes) or restricted visiting times or activities sessions provided when its suitable for the convenient for the staff. Institutional abuse can also happen when an individual’s religious or cultural needs are not met. It also happens when staff members restrict an individual’s access to food, fluids, toilets or baths (for example certain people only get to bath on certain days). It also happens when people set poor examples of professional standards of behaviour and don’t give individuals privacy and respect in turn taking away an individual’s dignity.

It also happens when individuals have restricted access to social care or medication (if a patient has to wait for pain relief due to the convenience of the staff), or if the medication is misused such as giving an individual too much sedative to make the individual sleep for the benefit of the staff.An individual is at risk of self-neglect if they are letting themselves live in unhygienic conditions (in the presence of vermin), or neglecting their personal hygiene or not exercising refusing to leave their rooms or won’t socialise with people. If individuals refuse to seek medical advice or take their prescribed medication this may also be a sign of self-neglect. If an individual begins to over eat or under eat or starts self-harming either by cutting, hitting or scratching themselves then refusing to get medical help these are sure signs of self-neglect.Signs of neglect can come from withholding things from individuals such as medication, choices, rights, health and social care. Or by isolating the individual and discouraging active participation. Or failing to meet physical, emotional, cultural, social, intellectual, and social needs.

Also, by not providing adequate shelter, warmth, food, fluids and safety. Neglect is also exposing an individual to risks, dangers and not following your Duty of Care. 1.3. Describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuseSome factors that contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse are age (young or old) as these individuals may lack the capacity for full understanding; isolation as lonely people are more likely to abused as people take advantage from the fact they want some human interaction; mental and emotional health issues e.g. dementia, depression or stress; communication problems e.g.

speech or hearing impediments or learning disability; behavioural changes e.g. stroke or head injury; where violence is seen as normal in an environment or relationship because if people grow up in a violent environment they will expect it in every other area of their lives; culture or religion as people will always be prejudice against things they are uneducated on and financial factors.

2. Know how to respond to suspected or alleged abuse2.1. Explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that an individual is being abusedIf you suspect that an individual is being abused, it is important that you speak to the individual allowing them to open up to you, you should never be judgemental towards the individual. You must record all evidence of the suspected abuse sometimes it will be necessary to take photographs if you are suspecting physical abuse. You must also record all finding in an unbiased factual manner on the appropriate paperwork ensuring that it is signed and dated. You must also report your findings to a senior member of staff (sometimes several) but do not gossip with your colleagues about what you have found as this may hinder the investigation. Before you leave the individual, you suspect of being abused, you must firstly give them reassurance and ensure that they are safe before you do anything else.

It may also be necessary to preserve evidence if you happen upon a seen where you believe that abuse has just taken place. You should never collude with other colleagues or jump to conclusions about the situation and never confront the person you think is responsible for the abuse.2.2. Explain the actions to take if an individual alleges that they are being abusedIf individual’s approach you to make an allegation about being abused you must always take it seriously, making sure that the individual feels heard and is not being judged.

You must also explain to the individual that you need to report what they have told you so that steps can be taken to ensure the service user’s safety. You must report the incidence to your senior members of staff and record everything the individual has told you in the appropriate paperwork ensuring its signed and dated. You must give reassurance to the individual, making sure they know that something will be done about it and you must ensure that the individual is at no risk of abuse before you leave them. Always remember that you have a duty of care and responsibility to act on a service user’s behalf.2.

3. Identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preservedTo ensure that all evidence is preserved from an abusive scene never move or remove anything from the scene, or clean or tidy the area. You shouldn’t touch anything within the scene, to avoid destroying fingerprints unless you need to make the area or the individual safe. Never allow access to anyone who isn’t involved with the investigation as they could tamper with evidence. You must preserve all clothing, bedding, footwear, and similar items and keep them safe and dry where necessary you may need to preserve items in a clean paper bag or unsealed envelope, or in a glass if the evidence is liquid. You need to make sure that all injuries are recorded, the state of the individual and the alleged abusers clothing needs to be taken into account and where possible it’s a good idea to get photographic evidence. You must also write a statement about the situation even describing the individual’s attitudes, which must be signed and dated.

3. Understand the national and local context of safeguarding and protection from abuse3.1. Identify national policies and local systems that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuseThe national policies and systems that relate to the safeguarding and protection from abuse, can be distinguished to be Care Quality Commission (CQC), Housing organisations, Court of Protection, Crown Prosecution Service (CPS), The Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DOLS), The Coroner, Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act(2006) which led to the creation of The Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA), No Secrets (Adult Protection), The Office of the Public Guardian (OPG), The Mental Capacity Act (2005), The Human Rights Act (1998), Care Home Policy and a range of laws enabling abusers to be prosecuted these include: Offences Against the Person Act (2003) which relates to physical abuse, Sexual Offences Act (2003) which relates to sexual abuse, Protection from Harassment Act (1997) which relates to physiological abuse and the National Assistance Act (1948) which relates to neglect.3.2. Explain the roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuseThere are many different agencies responsible for the protecting and safeguarding of individuals from abuse.

These include:Medical professionals – such as nurses, doctors, hospital staff, care staff etc. They can examine, diagnose and treat individuals who have been abused. They will record all evidence of abuse, taking photographs where necessary. Reporting the evidence onto the local authority so that social services can do an assessment of the needs to the individual. They also have to follow safeguarding policies and procedures and ensure that all staff members have a CRB check before they commence working.Police – must investigate and prosecute abusive cases.

They work with multiple agencies to prosecute abusive individuals and to provide support for victims and raise awareness of abuse.Care Quality Commission (CQC) – must always be made aware of any safeguarding adult concerns within a regulated service. If the concern is reported to the local authority CQC must be notified by the local authority and also by the regulated service, as is their duty. CQC is the health and social care regulator for England. Its aim is to ensure high quality care for everyone in hospital, in a care home and at home.

CQC monitors, inspects and regulate services to make sure that they meet fundamental standards of quality and safety and they publish what they find, with performance ratings to help people choose care. Any care setting that doesn’t pass the basic care standards CQC has the authority to shut them down.Local Council Authority- are there to make changes to the health care system as a whole, they keep an eye on governing bodies such as CQC. They make changes to funding and how processes are made to keep health care setting up to a high standard.Court of Protection- Deals with decisions and orders that affect people who lack capacity. The court will decide whether an individual has the capacity to make decisions for themselves. the court will then make declarations, orders and decisions on an individual’s health, finances and welfare matters for individuals who lack the capacity to do so themselves. the court will also appoint deputies and power of attorneys to make decisions on behalf of the individuals who lack capacity.

The court or protection also has the power to remove deputies and attorneys who fail to perform their duties sufficiently.Housing Organisations – Staff from Housing Organisations are in a position where they are able to identify tenants who are at risk of abuse, neglect and exploitation. In addition to recognising the risk of abuse of the adults whom they provide accommodation and in many cases care, staff of housing organisations have an important part to play in establishing protection plans for these individuals.

Coroners – Are independent judicial officers who are responsible for investigating violent, unnatural deaths or sudden deaths of unknown cause, which must be reported to them. The Coroner may have specific questions arising from the death of an adult at risk.The Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DOLS) – Provide legal protection for those vulnerable people who are or may become, deprived of their liberty. Safeguards exist to provide a proper legal process and suitable protection in those circumstances where deprivation of liberty appears to be unavoidable, in the person’s best interest.3.3. Identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuseThere is a report about Michael Gilbert who was held captive by members of the Watt family in Luton for 10 years and was regularly beaten, stabbed, tortured, treated like a slave and had his benefits money stolen. Until in may 2009, when his headless, dismembered body was found in the Blue Lagoon at Arlesey in Bedfordshire.

Mr Gilbert had been murdered four months earlier by the Watt family. Mr Gilbert was no stranger to the authorities, spending his youth ‘in care’ jumping between care, foster homes and hostels, coming into frequent contact with the police, social workers and medical professionals.In 1997, Michael Gilbert was 15 and ‘in care.’ He remained under the guidance of the Luton Leaving Care Team until his 21st birthday. At the time of his death Mr Gilbert was not deemed to be eligible for Adult Social Care services.

In 1998, Mr Gilbert met James Watt in a children’s home where they became close and Mr Gilbert felt almost adopted into the Watt family. Had the care staff been doing there jobs efficiently then Mr Gilbert should have been discouraged from having interactions with Mr Watt as Mr Gilbert himself had expressed desire to be kept away from Mr Watt it is not known whether the help was given. As Mr Watt had a very long list of offenses even then where he had exhibited violent behaviour, some of a sexually abusive nature, where he had assaulted his family members on various occasions and later even assaulted a police officer. Mr Gilbert’s own delinquent behaviour increased from the proximity of Mr Watt. Mr Gilbert was considered to be vulnerable and naïve man who was easily exploited.

Mr Gilbert’s avoidance of the police (he believed that they would not do anything); his rejection of assistance for injuries; and difficulties with money management (he had rent arrears). Although Mr Gilbert’s support needs were urgent and complex, the professional interventions he experienced were unpromising in terms of nurturing his entrance into responsible adulthood. In 2002, the police were informed by Mr Gilbert and his mother that Mr Gilbert had been kidnapped by the Watt Family. On two occasions Mr Gilbert’s mother had previously reported that her son had been assaulted by James Watt. It is significant that when Mr Gilbert told his mother about the abduction and assault and his fear of Mr Watt and his family he was too scared to report it to the police.

It is unclear whether this was because Mr Gilbert was scared of the police and/ or the consequences for him and his family. Mr Gilbert’s wish to be accompanied by his mother, as an appropriate adult, suggests apprehension on Mr Gilbert’s part. But wasn’t the only incidence with the police where by Mr Gilbert requested to have an appropriate adult with him, suggesting that Mr Gilbert felt apprehensive making reports and later declined to give a full statement as it would be ‘worse for him in the long run’. This shows us that Mr Gilbert maybe lack the capacity to make the correct decisions for his health and the care system essentially failed him as he wasn’t able to deal with the adult world in the correct manner more support should have been given to Mr Gilbert earlier on as they would have then been able to spot Mr Gilbert declining mental health. Mr Gilbert had reported to a doctor that he had been hearing voices for over two years, this information should have been passed onto the correct channels as it would have meant that he could have more support which he evidentially needed to make informed decisions about his welfare.

On several occasions in interviews with police Mr Gilbert requested to leave through a side door as he was terrified for his wellbeing from getting attacked by Mr Watt, Mr Gilbert again chose not to make a statement for fear of his own safety. Surely there was something that the police could have done then to stop this individual from receiving further harm from Mr Watt but the police chose to leave it as Mr Gilbert did not want to make a statement and simply let him slip out of the building from a side door.There were several circumstances whereby Mr Gilbert’s life could have been changed had the correct information been passed in the correct channels, had the individual had more support or more continued support from the correct channels Mr Gilbert could potentially be alive today. There were repeated failings in the system and a complete lack of information sharing that caused this man’s death. Which is why it is incredibly important to keep clear logs and all relevant information up to date.


pdfhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_Michael_Gilbert https://www.disabilitynewsservice.

com/murder-reviews-tell-familiar-story-of-multi-agency-failures/ 3.4. Identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuseThere are many ways to access information on safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse such as having regular up to date training, supervisions and team meetings, where you can access information from your management team. National policies and procedures and your care settings personal policies and procedures should be kept in paper copy within your care setting, so it can be referred to at any time, these will also be in line with national policies and procedures.

You can also refer to GSCC codes of practise as they are the national standards of professional conduct and practise required of social care workers as they go about their daily work.Further sources of information of where to seek advice: A Guide to the Police – Available from Voice UK. Telephone 08451228695 www.voiceuk.

org.uk A leaflet to explain to people with learning disabilities the role of the police and how they support vulnerable adults and witnesses.Abuse in Care? – A practical guide to protecting people with learning disabilities from abuse in residential services.Blowing the Whistle – on abuse of adults with learning disabilities. Reports on research findings about whistle blowing, and offers information about the experiences of whistle blowers and suggestions with regard to the development of whistle blowing policies.Facing the Possibility – supporting managers in preventing handling abuse allegations against staff. Information for service managers about appropriate responses when staff members are alleged to have carried out abuse.4.

Understand ways to reduce the likelihood of abuse4.1. Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by:• working with person centred values – To work in a person-centred approach you must work in partnership with the service user, respecting their rights and unique circumstances. You must make any reasonable adjustments to maintain a service user’s independence and provide support to help them understand and make informed decisions about their care and treatment options, including the extent to which they may wish to manage these options themselves. You must make sure that you take into account people’s capacity and ability to consent, and that either the service user, or a person lawfully acting on their behalf, must be involved in the planning, management and review of their care and treatment. In doing this, you pay attention to a person’s right for independence, choice and to be included and valued. You must also respect a service user’s dignity by covering the individual and making sure that curtains are drawn during personal care and that all information that the service user shares with you remains private. If you are working in this person-centred approach then the likely hood of any individuals receiving abuse within you care setting is reduced incredibly, as institutional abuse stems from and individual not being able to do want they want, and having to do what the staff want because it’s convenient for them.

In this circumstance an individual’s feelings are not considered. This also reduces the risk of physiological abuse from staff members as individuals can make their own choices and can’t be bullied into doing things by staff members if they do not wish to. • encouraging active participation – When you encourage individuals to actively participate you build up an individual’s confidence. It will help the individual to create a network of friends whom the individual will feel supported by. Then the individual can gain trust in others so that they have the confidence to speak up about any abuse they have experienced or are experiencing and other individuals have the ability to report this information onwards and stop the abuse all together. • promoting choice and rights – When you promote peoples right and choices you are discouraging all forms of abuse (apart from self-neglect) as in general all individuals want to make choices to help themselves and by promoting these rights and choices no abuse should happen to these individuals as no one chooses to be abused in any manner.

When person’s choices are heard, people know that they can share anything and that the information will be taken seriously, this will reduce the likelihood of abuse taking place.4.2. Explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuseHaving a simple and easy to follow complaints procedure, is a good way to encourage individuals to raise their concerns so that the circumstance can be rectified. Our complaints forms are kept in reception on the wall so that they are clearly visible and anyone can get access to them. It’s a great way to do things as people don’t feel afraid to put their input in and they also feel that our organisation will respond quickly to concerns. A good complaints procedure is vital to stop abuse from occurring, because if it’s too difficult to complain the abuse will likely not be dealt with.

5. Know how to recognise and report unsafe practices 5.1.

Describe unsafe practices that may affect the well-being of individualsThere are many unsafe practises that could affect the wellbeing of individuals within care settings. This could be lack of training, where unexperienced individuals take on a senior role without the correct training, or entering a care setting without any prior knowledge or training to do the role. It could also be down to lack of staff, whereby the staff are so tired from overdoing their work they start to miss things out, or the staff will cut corners, affecting individual’s rights, due to time constraints, or agency staff coming into a care setting and not knowing the individual’s correct needs. It could also be because there isn’t any PPE available, or other equipment is unavailable, such as hoists and baths.

5.2. Explain the actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified All unsafe practices need to be reported to my immediate supervisor/manager/nurse so the person can be retrained or perhaps have disciplinary or the condition must be remedied to prevent further damage.

5.3. Describe the action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in responseAfter I have reported the incident I still have a duty of care to my patient. If I feel my line manager is not taking appropriate action, or I suspect my line manager of abusing a patient then most company policies would state that I would need to contact the Care Quality Commission or there is a whistle blowing number situated in our staff room to call, as part of the process for reporting abuse is to contact the local care standards inspectorate, the person you reported this abuse to should have done this and if they have not, this in itself may be considered abuse (neglect) if it should be the case that abuse or dangerous practice is being carried out.

1.0 The most important features of the

1.0 IntroductionReverse innovation is an innovation which is first adopted in the developed countries. To be specify, what actually makes an innovation a reverse innovation essentially have nothing related with the innovators and also companies.

It only has to do with where the customers are “The term was coined by Dartmouth professors Vijay Govindarajan and Chris Trimble and GE’s Jeffrey R. Immelt. According to these three authors, reverse innovation consists of developing ideas in the emerging markets, then start to introduce it in the developed countries market.

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Just to say that, its “towing in against current” (Ostraszewska ; Tylec, 2015). The most important features of the reverse innovation which is basically not only focusing on the price of the products but as will its quality. 3.0 Benefits of reverse innovationsPredominantly, reverse Innovation could lead to the further boom in the industrialization. As more MNC’s started to adopt and produce or invent new products in their local country or in the western markets, customers are getting better products with variety of options for them to choose in an affordable price. I have analysed and explained below on how these three enterprises has invented a product by using the reverse innovation strategy which has benefited the consumers in many ways. 3.

1 Tata NanoThe company which has truly signifies the ideology of reverse innovation in the market are Tata Motors. In 2009, the company has manufacture a car which is known as “Tata Nano” the world’s cheapest cars which only costs approximately US$2,500. This low cost car were a result in which new designs were created, frugal engineering as well advanced supply chain enterprises. Tata Motors have planned in introducing the “Tata Nano” which is not only in the other emerging markets such as the Africa but also now planning in bringing the car into the Europe as well in the USA.Basically, for a person to own a car, it’s like a dream for them. This is because of their disposable income might not be sufficient enough in applying for a bank loan. But now they could purchase the “Tata Nano” car at the price of US$2,500 only. This looks upon as capability of fulfilling each individual dreams of owning their own personal car with an affordable price.

The power of the technological innovations of “Tata Nano” has met the aspirations of each people at the “bottom of the pyramid” (Prahalad, 2004) have been appreciated well, by both of the acknowledged management in experts and also renowned scientists (Mashelkar, 2009). By doing it, Tata has already unlocked an enormous untapped market. 3.2 GE Healthcare”India produces 30million newborns baby annually but then most of the births actually happens in a manner which is unsupervised, lack of affordable equipment and also the hospitals always deal with an erratic electricity situation” says GE Healthcare’s Manoj Menon (Kellner, 2012). In results, India is one of the highest mother and also infant mortality rates. Therefore, GE Healthcare has attacked the problem and created the Lullaby baby-warmer, which has help to save many lives in a country that have a rate which is high pre-term of baby deaths globally. The device which GE has developed in Bangalore in 2009, costs only $3000 in India. It termed as a low cost invention and have save almost 22,000 premature and low birth-weight infant lives.

The products are not being sold but is being donated in order to impoverish the community’s needs (Kannan, 2013). The breakthrough point for GE, when they realized that the preferences of the consumers are very different from the developed countries consumers. As in the domestic market it was very successful, now GE has started to sell the warmer across more than 80 countries. Now every woman and their baby has a chance of having a healthy life style. 3.3 Grameen bankLooking at the history, banks have been always focusing on the “rich” by addressing their needs and wants. In Bangladesh, the Grameen bank have reverse the conventional banking practices by eliminating the collateral system and have created a system in which it is based on accountability, mutual trust, creativity and also participation (Grameen Bank, 2018). The brainchild behind this innovation is Professor Muhammad Yunus, a noble prize winner in Bangladesh for pursuing this microfinance revolution.

Grameen bank are now borrowing micro-loans in the range of $27 to $500 to the poor people, so that they could start up or expand their business in order to allow them to come out of poverty (Hays, 2013). Moreover, Grameen Bank have received a global attention, as they are providing loans to the ultra-poor women’s in starting up a “micro-enterprises. The microcredit programs of the Grameen bank has created opportunities for the women’s in beneficiaries which has helped them in improving their standard of living (Ara & Seddiky, 2015). Now women’s can also start up their own business and become an entrepreneur by utilizing the opportunity that has been given.

Internationally, most of the banks which are well-known and successful failed in considering the opportunity in lending smaller amount of money to the poor and for small business purposes. Grameen bank has use this opportunity and now has helped millions of people in Bangladesh in stepping out from the poverty situation to a better living.

1. Circumstances where Tally’s exact location is. 18.

1. 300 years into the future, plastic surgery operations was a norm. 2. Once you turn 16 years old, you receive a “pretty” operation. It transforms you into a ‘normal’ citizen.

3. After the operation, you basically start a new life.4. People who lived before this catastrophe are called “Rusties.”5. Tally is 15.

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6. Her best friend, Peris, has already had the operation and, Tally decides to sneaks across the river to New Pretty Town.7. On her way, she meets Shay, another Ugly. 8. They become friends and Tally is taught how to ride a hoverboard from Shay. 9.

Shay then brings up rebelling against the operation. 10. Tally, at first ignores her comment, but takes it seriously when Shay runs away.11. On the day of Tally’s operation, she is taken to Special Circumstances.

12. She meets Dr. Cable, a woman who is described as “a cruel pretty”, is the head of Special Circumstances. 13. She gives Tally a choice to either help locate Shay and the Smoke, or never become a pretty.

14. Tally chooses and ends up cooperating with Dr. Cable. 15. Dr. Cable provides her with the materials/supplies needed for her to survive in the wild.

16. Tally is also given a heart locket that contains a tracker to track her moves. 17.

The heart notifies Special Circumstances where Tally’s exact location is.18. Tally finds Shay and David, including other runaways just like them.

19. Tally is reluctant based on her decisions, which assures David that he loves her. 20. David takes her to meet his parents, Maddy and Az, who are the original runaways from the city. 21.

Tally and David explain how the operations really work and is.22. It also causes lesions in the brain to make the people placid, or “pretty-minded.” Horrified, Tally decides to throw the locket away burning I the fire and keep the secret of the runaways. 23.

However, the flames’ heat causes the tracker to activate, giving away the Smoke’s location.24. The next day, Special Circumstances arrives at the camp and Tally tries to escape. 25. She wasn’t successful and gets caught, taken to a rabbit pen, where other caught Smokies are kept as well. 26.

Eye scans are taken from the Smokies, identifying from which city they fled. 27. Tally is then taken to Dr. Cable, who explains how they found the Smoke. Dr. Cable thinks Tally activated the pendant on purpose. 28. After being ordered to give the pendant, Tally manages to escape on a hoverboard.

29. After a chase, she hides in a cave where tracking her heat signature doesn’t work. 30. There she finds David, hiding too, and they begin to work out a rescue plan.

31. Tally and David go back to his house, where they find out that Special Circumstances took Maddy and Az.32. David leads Tally to a secret place where survival equipment is and the found everything they need, and load them onto the four hoverboards stashed there. 33. As Tally and David travel back to the city, they fall in love.

Arriving at the Special Circumstances place, they find out that Shay has already been turned into a Pretty.34. After meeting Dr.

Cable, David knocks her out and takes her device. 35. Tally and David free all the Smokies that were captured and help in the complex. Maddy then tells David that Az is dead.36. Once everyone is safe, Maddy begins working on a cure.37. Since Tally feels responsible, she decides to become a Pretty and take the cure as a “willing subject.

“38. While David with Az’s death, Maddy suggests that Tally should go back with Shay before her mind changes, just in case. 39. When she gets there, Tally announces to a Middle Pretty, “I’m Tally Youngblood. Make me pretty.” 6. SYMBOLSHeart Shaped Pendant The heart shaped pendant is a tracker and which Tally was supposed to activate as soon as she got to the Smoke.

This pendant is not just a symbol of Tally’s treachery, but also a symbol of her internal struggle. White Tiger OrchidsThe white tiger orchids symbolizes an excessive good that has turned evil because there is too much of it. The orchids can be compared to the Pretties.

HoverboardsHoverboards are a symbol of maturity, mostly for Tally. Scarred HandsScarred hands symbolize friendship, mostly for Tally. The scar itself was created when Peris and she cut their palms and swore to be best friends forever. 7. THEMEPower of AppearanceIt is demonstrated that prettiness and ugliness are both relative terms.

When Tally was an ugly, she waited for the surgery. However, when she learned that things are not the way they appear to be, she quickly coiled away. The ugly truth under all that prettiness is that undergoing the surgery would mean having brain lesions and part of her former identity erased; most Pretties are gorgeous but have flaws such as vainness. Also, in Tally’s society, appearances are emphasized. As Uglies, they are encouraged to be nicknamed by their imperfections. By comparison, in a world with perfect faces, average faces would be considered ugly.

But among Pretties, because there is no comparison, they are constantly unsatisfied and often change their looks on a weekly basis by surgery. It thus implied that in a world where perfection is so easily attainable, people would still soon be unsatisfied and seek for more.

1: It can also caused by unmoving,

1: Introduction of overgrazingOvergrazing takes place when plants are unprotected to thorough grazing for total period of time or without enough recovery periods.

It is caused by when livestock is poorly managed the agriculture application like Game reserve or nature reserve. It can also caused by unmoving, travel limited population of native or non native wild animals.ExamplesCows are the important things that cause the overgrazing and overgrazing. Overgrazing is based on the equilibrium theory (Laduke, Winona 1999).Fig 1.

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1 overgrazing 2: Causes of overgrazingThere are many causes of overgrazing some are man- made and other are not able to avoid. Man –made overgrazing occur when owner become irresponsible. They do not care their land they allow the wild animals to travel freely in their land. There are some causes are discuss below.2.1: Improper animal managementThis is the important cause of overgrazing. Overgrazing occur when farmer have lager amount of animals and they graze over the piece of land without any control on grazing activity. Animals are graze over the same piece of land these cause the overgrazing.

They have improper management of animals feeding habits, the animals feed on small plant and seeds they decrease their growth and survival rate. The improper management of animals damage soil nutrients.2.2: DroughtDrought is the common cause of the overgrazing in over the world.

Framer can’t control the rain and total drought repeatedly indicates that the domestic animals are grazing on vegetation that would not be regained. When plants and grass will die and they leave few choices for domestic animals in area. Framers animals feed on the plants that exist but the rain can’t fall for the regain of crops and any kind of plants or grass and animals can’t be regain. The danger of overgrazing is increase in some areas where to control the feed.Example Adjacent to desert like northern China, Pakistan, India, Patagonia, the dry region of southern and northern Africa, and prairies of northern America.Fig 1.2 Droughts 2.

3: Improper land useLand is used to analyze the yield of the land and the abundance of the soil. Improper use of land includes the logging, slash, and burn farming process and land pollution all land procurable for vegetation. These processes destroy the availability of plants and food and destroy their growth mechanisms also. They decrease the growth of plant and increase the chances of overgrazing.

2.4: OverstockingWhen farmer have livestock for grazing area. The large population of animals destroys the vegetation in area before it can regain.

Animals destroy the area and there are no plants for feeding thy lead to cause the overgrazing. Plants require time for their regrow after animals feed on them and too many animals are present on the small land that causes the overgrazing.2.5: Poor irrigation method in arid and semi-arid areas They increase the addition of salt in the soil. The edible plants are found because of different soil and mineral composition. The rich amount of salt in soil stops the development of plant and decrease the food source.

Good land of vegetation is more used and creating room for over grazing.ExamplesThey are common in poorer and ASAL region (C.Michael Hogan .2009).

3: Indicators of overgrazingOne indicator is that the animal runs in the small area of grass. Continuous overgrazing takes place in some region of United States, overgrazed pastures are prevailed by short grass species for example bluegrass and will be under 2-3 inches tall in the grass area, in other part of the world overgrazed field is regularly tall than maintainable grass field, the grass height is normally 1 meter and dominated by inedible species of plants, for example Aristida or Imperta. And some are edible tall grass for example orchard grass does not exist. In some cases of the overgrazing soil may be visible between plants and in the stands they allow the erosion to occur but in some cases overgrazed field covered the surface of the ground that contain the grass and grass root than maintainable grass field.

3.1: Rotational grazingThe overgrazed plant has not sufficient time to attain their normal height between grazing events. The animals restart grazing before the plant restored carbohydrates retain and its growing roots lost after the defoliation. The result is similar to the continuous grazing in the United State the tall-growing species die and short-growing species is more able to lack the injury majority in the grazing land and in the other part of the world the tall and lack tolerant inedible species of the plant for example Imperata or Aristida. 3.1.1: North AmericaOther indicator of overgrazing found in the North America is the domestic animals move in the field and animals need to feed in this region for its survival and its climate rule is different from the United State.

Overgrazing is also verified in the animals act and its condition. Cows have insufficient field directly following their calf’s weaning have poor body conditions in following seasons. This may decrease the health and strength of cows and calves at calving or birthing. When cows in poor body conditions don’t cycle as not long after giving the birth to the baby cow that cause the slow breeding. And its result in long calving season. The good genetic material, nutrition, and ideal seasons and controlled breeding 55% – 75% of calves should come in 21 first days of calving seasons. The poor weaning weight of the baby cow can be occur by low area of field.

When the cow give less milk the baby cow maintain their weight by feed on the grass field (Garrett Hardin, December 13, 1968).4: Ecological impactsThere are many ecological impacts that cause the overgrazing. These are given below one by one.4.1: Soil erosionThis is the 1st and important effect of overgrazing on the environment.

Animals continuously feed on the vegetation and they exposed the soil surface and no plants are left that protect the soil. Soil faces the harsh environmental conditions. For example heavy rain and direct sunlight. The regular trampling related with cultivating animals that rapidly cause the loose of vegetation. When the small plants grow and the animals feeds on these small plants and exposed the soil. Without giving any chance to the newly developed plants the animals feed on them.Fig 1.

3 Soil erosion 4.2: Land degradation Unbelievable land degradation is caused by soil erosion. The large amount of the grass field area is destroyed and they cause the desertification. But in some regions overgrazing cause the complete desertification. Natural environment is distributed by the overpopulation of animals and cause the overgrazing. The shortage source of water, water pollution, degeneration of the coral reefs and eutrophication are all related with overgrazing.

The pollution is caused by using of chemicals and waste of animals. The continuously grazing disturbed the water cycle and decrease refill ability of ground water resources as large amount of water is used for feeding. In South China Sea overgrazing is related to nitrogen and phosphorous contamination. Because this water contains high concentration of nitrogen and phosphorous.Fig 1.4 Land degradation4.3: Loss of valuable species The natural population of plants and is regain capacity is affected by the overgrazing. The original field of crops is consists of high value field and herbs with great nutritional value.

The animals continuously feed on the valuable species and they even eat the roots (roots contain the stored food) of that species and their region ability is completely lost and we loss the important species of plants due to overgrazing. For example weeds and inedible plants take their place. Some species of the secondary plants contain the low nutritional value and they are highly adaptive to the native species cause of valuable plant species.

4.4: Food shortage / famineThis is the low-level case of overgrazing. Food shortage is the primary contributor to desertification they change the grass filed into the infertile land.

And this type of soil is not fit for growing food because this land lost the entire essential nutrient that is required for the plant growth. When the ability of soil is lost and the land is not able to grow the food. If the population growth is increase they cause the overgrazing.

The increasing population needs more foods and need more space for its survival. Overpopulation, overgrazing and urbanization, related with one another and harm the environment. We don’t have enough space to grow our food and overgrazing destroys the space that we have left.

4.5: Death of people and livestockThe long effect of the overgrazing reduced the food supply and there is no food for the cattle and the people and this kind of situation cause the death of both due to hunger. When the improper supply of the nutrient in the field the animals do not able to maintain their weight at production stage and decrease the chance of survival rate. When the population of the human is high the rate of food consumption is also high and supply of the food is decrease. Shortage of the food supply causes the death of plants and animals (Duval, April 13, 2015).Fig 1.5 Death of people and livestock 5: Preventing overgrazing5.1: Preventing man-made overgrazingAccept able grassland manufacturing is based on the grass and grassland management, land management animal management and animal selling.

Grazing management was acceptable with agriculture and agroecology perform is the organization of grassland based animal productivity affect the both plants and animals health and its production. There are some new models have developed to managed or decrease the overgrazing. For example Holistic management and permaculture.5.2: Responsible livestock managementThe farmer did not care about the irresponsible behavior of the overpopulated animals. Many animals present in small part of the land and they feed on the plants that present in small parts and cause the overgrazing and also cause the desertification. Avoiding of overstocking is relatively easy process. Small Responsible livestock management have small difficulty, because the face the small problem about its learning and apply process they did not know the exacting area where the management is applied.

There are different methods is used to recycle the livestock. If you take good steps for the plant development and they develop throughout the year and decrease the overgrazing. Nature will take care the land for you.5.3: Farming responsiblyThere are many environmental factors that contribute to the overgrazing, but some are man-made. Some farmer has many animals and these animals feed on the small region and they have no idea they destroy the all cultivation from this region and this process is called the overgrazing. One of the Farming methods is responsible for overgrazing.

We can’t ignore the droughts and dry spells and we can’t control the overpopulation of the animals and many other factors cause the overgrazing.5.4: Proper land assessmentAssessing condition of land is one of the necessary ways we can ignore and store the effect of overgrazing. Developers need to analyze the environmental factors of the area before making the house.

We work together to make sure that we find particular area where is no more plants is present is the large amount of plants is present we destroyed these plants for our benefits. We only need the space or area for live and we do not need we go the green field area and destroy it for making the house (Holistic land Management, 20 December 2012).

1. heated nozzles melt the filaments and forces

1. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) In this method a thermoplastic filament is used to create 3D print of materials. The filament is heated to its melting point and then extruded, layer by layer from the bottom up using filaments to create 3D object.

First, the computer aided design(CAD) files must be converted into .STL file format for FDM printer to understand the architecture of the design. FDM printers use two materials, one as the modelling material and other one to support the material while it is being printed. Both the materials take the form of either filaments or plastic threads during the printing process, which are unrolled from a coil and fed through extrusion nozzles. The heated nozzles melt the filaments and forces them out onto a base or a platform according to the design assigned. Base and the two nozzles are controlled by computer, the nozzles are moved on the building platform(base), according to the design of the object both in horizontal and vertical directions and the base is set to follow them during printing process.

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The melted plastic sticks and solidifies onto the beneath layer easily and base is lowered after each layer is formed to make the room for the next layers to process. Once the object is printed, the supporting layer is then removed by either soaking in water and detergent solution or just separated using hands if it is thermoplastic. Time required to process each printing depends on the size and complexity of the object. FDM is a low-cost process, faster and simple but it also has drawbacks such as weak mechanical properties of the printed parts, limited amount of thermoplastic materials for the fabrication, poor surface quality etc.

Thermoplastic materials can withstand heat, chemicals and mechanical stress which makes them an ideal material for FDM, some of them are acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polycarbonate (PC) or polyetherimide (PEI) and support materials used are water-soluble wax thermoplastics such as polyphenylsulfone (PPSF). FDM serves different industries (automotive to consumer goods manufacturing) starting from the product development, prototyping and manufacturing processes.


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