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1. Lead with the culture. Lou Gerstner, who as chief executive of IBM led one of the most successful business transformations in history, said the most important lesson he learned from the experience was that “culture is everything.” Businesspeople today understand this. In the Katzenbach Center survey, 84 percent said that the organization’s culture was critical to the success of change management, and 64 percent saw it as more critical than strategy or operating model. Yet change leaders often fail to address culture—in terms of either overcoming cultural resistance or making the most of cultural support. Among respondents whose companies were unable to sustain change over time, a startling 76 percent reported that executives failed to take account of the existing culture when designing the transformation effort.
Skilled change managers make the most of their company’s existing culture.
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Why would this be true, given the widespread recognition of culture’s importance? Perhaps it’s because change management designers view their company’s culture as the legacy of a past from which they want to move on. Or they get so focused on structural details—reporting lines, decision rights, and formal processes—that they forget that human beings with strong emotional connections to the culture will be enacting these changes. Or they assume that culture, because it is “soft” and informal, will be malleable enough to adapt without requiring explicit attention.
Yet skilled change managers, conscious of organizational change management best practices, always make the most of their company’s existing culture. Instead of trying to change the culture itself, they draw emotional energy from it. They tap into the way people already think, behave, work, and feel to provide a boost to the change initiative. To use this emotional energy, leaders must look for the elements of the culture that are aligned to the change, bring them to the foreground, and attract the attention of the people who will be affected by the change.
In two healthcare companies undergoing a merger, culture led the post-deal integration. Using a culture-related diagnostic questionnaire, the change management team asked people to describe each company’s operating style—and mapped the responses from the two legacy companies to get a sense of their combined strengths and challenges. It quickly became clear that where one company had a culture attuned to bottom-line results, the other tended to focus on process. Optimally, the new company would need to skillfully use processes to deliver clear results. By first taking the time to recognize and acknowledge each company’s underlying culture, leaders of the merged firm harnessed deeply ingrained strengths to energize the change and avoided the incoherence that could have resulted from a less intentional and sensitive redesign.

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1. 5-8% of our body’s weight is of blood.
2. To suck all the blood from an adult, you need 1,120,000 mosquitoes.
3. The first blood bank was opened in 1937, in Chicago.
4. A human contains approximately 4.7 to 5.5 liters of blood.
5. Most often, heart attacks occur on Mondays – 21% of cases and 2nd place takes Friday.
6. To maintain the transparency, cornea have no blood vessel.it get nutrients from aqueous humor and from tear fluid.
7. There are 4 types of blood groups- A, B, AB and O.
8. Each blood group can be Rhesus+ or Rhesus-.
9. negative is the universal donor and AB is the universal recipient.
10. The blood has several components- RBC, WBC, Platelets, Plasma and many others.
11. Red blood cells transport oxygen to all the part of the body.
12. The function of blood includes providing nutrients to the cells and collect wastes from the cells and of course oxygen transportation.
13. White Blood Cells in blood have defense mechanism.
14. Platelets have clotting function, it prevents the blood loss.
15. Every blood cell has a certain life span, for example, RBC circulates in the system for 120 days.
16. Approximately 100 billion RBC are produced every hour to replace the dead RBCs.
17. Plasma makes 55% of total body’s blood volume.
18. A healthy human has 20-30 trillion RBCs at any time.
19. The detoxification of blood is performed by liver.
20. All types of blood cells are produced in our bone marrow.
21. The blood plasma can be stored for 1 year in frozen sate.
22. One pint of blood you donate can save 3 lives.
23. AB- is the rarest blood type O+ is the most common blood type, but it may change according to countries.
24. Baby is born with about a cup of blood.
25. The blood is filtered by kidneys. Everyday, our kidney can filter 400 gallons of blood.
26. For 42 days hospital can store donated RBCs.
27. Platelets cannot be stored for more than 5 days.
28. An adult human has 60,000 miles of blood vessels spread in the body.
29. People who donate blood don’t get paid, they are volunteers.
30. There is a huge blood market, the blood is sold in millions to the patients.
31. You can live with artificial heart, but there is no replacement for blood.
32. The heart of a healthy adult person is able to pump up to 12 liters daily.
33. Every heart beat contributes to the release of an average of 130 ml.
34. Donated blood is tested for Hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis.
35. 1.3 million pints of blood is wasted every year because its expired.
36. A special diet for blood groups is a myth.
37. The first ever successful blood transfusion was performed in 1600s on dogs.
38. With the loss of one quarter of the blood develops a condition that threatens human life.
39. It is a popular myth that blood donation is not good thing and it makes you weak.
40. The anemic patients are transfused with blood to increase the level of plasma and RBCs.
41. In order to circulate the blood around the body, the heart creates such a pressure that it can release a blood stream 9 meters high.
42. James Harrison have rare blood group type, he had saved about 2 million of babies till now.
43. The blood is 90% water and 10% is other proteins, electrolytes, hormones, enzymes etc.
44. In a relaxed state, 25% of the blood moves through the muscle tissues and kidneys.
45. The red color of blood is due to presence of hemoglobin.
46. Japanese scientists have identified some relationship between the blood type of a person and their character.
47. Lungs performs the oxygenation of blood.
48. In the body of a pregnant woman, by the 20th week, 50% more blood is produced than the blood formed before fertilization.
49. There are studies suggesting that coconut water is identical to the blood plasma.
50. A Russian scientist tried to attain mortality by transfusing the blood but he died when he accidentally transfused the blood with malaria.
51. About 0.5 mg of gold is distributed in the human body through blood.
52. In Japan, a whole industry of individual products for each blood group like food, cosmetics, personal care products.
53. In late 90s, Saddam Hussein ordered to write the Quran with his blood. But now Muslim leaders don’t know what to do with this Quran.
54. Ireland has a tradition- in returned to the half a liter of donated blood, half a liter of Guinness beer is offered.
55. In the car of US president there is always supply of blood in case of emergency.
56. The famous soccer player, Cristiano Rolando have no tattoo on his body so that he can donate blood.
57. The ancient Egyptians did not drink wine because of the color resemblance of wine with blood.
58. Blood donors in Sweden receive thank you message after donating blood and they also receive message when their blood is used for someone.
59. The blood performs the thermoregulatory function.
60. Fish that inhabit the waters of the Antarctic have colorless blood. It lacks hemoglobin and erythrocytes.

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1. Accident or injury – We have to assess the area or the situation if it’s safe to stay on or to approach to by persons or children. We have to check the building damage, live electrical wires, water or gas leaks, fire, and other things that require caution to by standers. If there are injuries the responsible adults should stay at the scene and provide help or first aid, notify the parents of the child or kids who got injured and fill out the report for the incident happened, as required by the school policy. Call 911 if it’s a life threatening emergency.
In school setting there are policies and procedure to consider when it comes to injury or child’s illnesses:

SOME EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FOR INJURY OR ILLNESS (School set up)

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1. Accident or injury – We have to assess the area or the situation if it’s safe to stay on or to approach to by persons or children. We have to check the building damage, live electrical wires, water or gas leaks, fire, and other things that require caution to by standers. If there are injuries the responsible adults should stay at the scene and provide help or first aid, notify the parents of the child or kids who got injured and fill out the report for the incident happened, as required by the school policy. Call 911 if it’s a life threatening emergency.

2. Sick Child – Do not give medications unless the parents or guardian is told, a responsible individual should stay with the ill child and in case of life threatening emergency: call 911 and the parent and responsible school authority should be notified immediately. Same with the procedure of accident, a responsible individual will fill out the report stating the incident as required by the school policy. First aid should be given if it’s needed. The parents should also be informed to pick up the child and take it to doctor or to the hospital.

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1. INTRODUCTION
Lincoln Electric is a company which sells electric motors in the early stage of their business, which was in the year of 1895. The company’s headquarters is located at Cleveland, U.S. The founder of the company is John C. Lincoln. In 1907, James (John’s brothers) joined Lincoln Electric as a senior manager and introduced different types of HR policies and management practices (Jordon Siegel, 2008). In the year 1909, the company ventured their business into welding equipment and it became their main business. Starting with a capital investment of only $200 in 1895, Lincoln Electric is now a US$2.9 billion multinational enterprise dominating global markets. Lincoln Electric has many award winning engineers; they were responsible for technological leadership in welding and the company spent 2% of their sales on research and development (R&D) (Jordon Siegel, 2008).
Their main source of business is welding. Welding is a method for combining pieces of metal by fusion through the application of concentrated heat (Jordon Siegel, 2008). Lincoln Electric has expanded their business throughout the world such as countries like Italy, Indonesia, Japan, China, Canada, Australia, Mexico, Germany, France, UK and others countries as well. All these countries differ in the terms of level of economic development, economic performance and economic potential. Lincoln’s distribution in Japan was limited; however the welding consumables were sold to a small group of customers. The main 5 competitors of Lincoln are EASB, Illinois Tool Works (ITW), Air Liquide, Kobelco and Thermadyne Holding Corp. By reading the case study, Lincoln Electric’s strategic position is very well planned and futuristic. Micheal Porter (1996) has defined strategy as “competitive strategy is about being different. It means deliberately choosing a different set of activities to deliver a unique mix of value”. Lincoln Electric has showed several differences in HR and incentive system compared to other organisations. For an example, they believed that capitalism, which will not lead to any classes (Jordon Siegel, 2008).
So Lincoln was one of the first companies to implement human resource innovations. In the innovations includes incentive bonuses, employee stock ownership, employee suggestion system and other types of benefits. This would be the strategy used by Lincoln Electric to maintain a healthy relationship with their employees.
This essay will determine and give suggestions to Lincoln Electric, what is the possible and successful ways to venture welding market in India. To understand the India market, a study should be done through PESTEL analysis externally; by using this analysis Lincoln could identify the threats and the opportunities.

2.0 ANALYSIS OF BUSINESS EXPANSION
2.1 Expansion to India market
PESTEL analysis is consisting of political, economical, social, technology, environmental and legal. By doing a research through this analysis in India, Lincoln Electric could find out whether is going to generate opportunity or threats. India is one of the fastest growing countries in their economical and has a very attractive market in Asia. India’s welding market was also the third – largest in Asia by 2006, whereby the annual sales was around $500 million (Jordon Siegel, 2008).
When we study the political view of India, the corruption activities is actually very high in India between the government and people. A major area of concern in India is corruption. Corruption increases the cost of business operations and often affects foreign direct investment (Rahman, 2018). India also has a well-developed tax structure with a three-tier federal structure, comprising the Union Government, the State Governments and the Urban ; Rural Local Bodies (Ashish Suman, 2005).
India’s economic situation is very promising because of the fast growth and allows investors to consider setting a business over there. They also have a lot of skill employees and these employees are fast learners (Piri, 2017). Another reason that can bring opportunity is India has inexpensive labour force compared to other Asian countries. Every investor would like to look for a place that has reasonable labour cost and they are willing to learn. India’s gross domestic product grew 7.2% in the third quarter, surpassing expectations and wresting back the mantle of fastest growing economy from China (ET Bureau, 2018).
India’s culture and business idea is totally different from other countries. According to Hoftsede’s culture theory, India is high in power distance with a score of 77. This means the hierarchy of the organization is top to down and communication is only one way. Lincoln Electric should try to adopt this culture and understand what the employee wants. LE shouldn’t have any problem in the language spoken in India because English is the second language spoken there. LE can easily communicate with the local and government employees.
Through the technological analysis, R&D is focused in India for long term development.

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1: Introduction of overgrazing
Overgrazing takes place when plants are unprotected to thorough grazing for total period of time or without enough recovery periods. It is caused by when livestock is poorly managed the agriculture application like Game reserve or nature reserve. It can also caused by unmoving, travel limited population of native or non native wild animals.
Examples
Cows are the important things that cause the overgrazing and overgrazing. Overgrazing is based on the equilibrium theory (Laduke, Winona 1999).
Fig 1.1 overgrazing

2: Causes of overgrazing
There are many causes of overgrazing some are man- made and other are not able to avoid. Man –made overgrazing occur when owner become irresponsible. They do not care their land they allow the wild animals to travel freely in their land. There are some causes are discuss below.
2.1: Improper animal management
This is the important cause of overgrazing. Overgrazing occur when farmer have lager amount of animals and they graze over the piece of land without any control on grazing activity. Animals are graze over the same piece of land these cause the overgrazing. They have improper management of animals feeding habits, the animals feed on small plant and seeds they decrease their growth and survival rate. The improper management of animals damage soil nutrients.
2.2: Drought
Drought is the common cause of the overgrazing in over the world. Framer can’t control the rain and total drought repeatedly indicates that the domestic animals are grazing on vegetation that would not be regained. When plants and grass will die and they leave few choices for domestic animals in area. Framers animals feed on the plants that exist but the rain can’t fall for the regain of crops and any kind of plants or grass and animals can’t be regain. The danger of overgrazing is increase in some areas where to control the feed.
Example
Adjacent to desert like northern China, Pakistan, India, Patagonia, the dry region of southern and northern Africa, and prairies of northern America.
Fig 1.2 Droughts

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2.3: Improper land use
Land is used to analyze the yield of the land and the abundance of the soil. Improper use of land includes the logging, slash, and burn farming process and land pollution all land procurable for vegetation. These processes destroy the availability of plants and food and destroy their growth mechanisms also. They decrease the growth of plant and increase the chances of overgrazing.
2.4: Overstocking
When farmer have livestock for grazing area. The large population of animals destroys the vegetation in area before it can regain. Animals destroy the area and there are no plants for feeding thy lead to cause the overgrazing. Plants require time for their regrow after animals feed on them and too many animals are present on the small land that causes the overgrazing.
2.5: Poor irrigation method in arid and semi-arid areas
They increase the addition of salt in the soil. The edible plants are found because of different soil and mineral composition. The rich amount of salt in soil stops the development of plant and decrease the food source. Good land of vegetation is more used and creating room for over grazing.
Examples
They are common in poorer and ASAL region (C.Michael Hogan .2009).
3: Indicators of overgrazing
One indicator is that the animal runs in the small area of grass. Continuous overgrazing takes place in some region of United States, overgrazed pastures are prevailed by short grass species for example bluegrass and will be under 2-3 inches tall in the grass area, in other part of the world overgrazed field is regularly tall than maintainable grass field, the grass height is normally 1 meter and dominated by inedible species of plants, for example Aristida or Imperta. And some are edible tall grass for example orchard grass does not exist. In some cases of the overgrazing soil may be visible between plants and in the stands they allow the erosion to occur but in some cases overgrazed field covered the surface of the ground that contain the grass and grass root than maintainable grass field.
3.1: Rotational grazing
The overgrazed plant has not sufficient time to attain their normal height between grazing events. The animals restart grazing before the plant restored carbohydrates retain and its growing roots lost after the defoliation. The result is similar to the continuous grazing in the United State the tall-growing species die and short-growing species is more able to lack the injury majority in the grazing land and in the other part of the world the tall and lack tolerant inedible species of the plant for example Imperata or Aristida.
3.1.1: North America
Other indicator of overgrazing found in the North America is the domestic animals move in the field and animals need to feed in this region for its survival and its climate rule is different from the United State.
Overgrazing is also verified in the animals act and its condition. Cows have insufficient field directly following their calf’s weaning have poor body conditions in following seasons. This may decrease the health and strength of cows and calves at calving or birthing. When cows in poor body conditions don’t cycle as not long after giving the birth to the baby cow that cause the slow breeding. And its result in long calving season. The good genetic material, nutrition, and ideal seasons and controlled breeding 55% – 75% of calves should come in 21 first days of calving seasons. The poor weaning weight of the baby cow can be occur by low area of field. When the cow give less milk the baby cow maintain their weight by feed on the grass field (Garrett Hardin, December 13, 1968).
4: Ecological impacts
There are many ecological impacts that cause the overgrazing. These are given below one by one.

4.1: Soil erosion
This is the 1st and important effect of overgrazing on the environment. Animals continuously feed on the vegetation and they exposed the soil surface and no plants are left that protect the soil. Soil faces the harsh environmental conditions. For example heavy rain and direct sunlight. The regular trampling related with cultivating animals that rapidly cause the loose of vegetation. When the small plants grow and the animals feeds on these small plants and exposed the soil. Without giving any chance to the newly developed plants the animals feed on them.
Fig 1.3 Soil erosion

4.2: Land degradation
Unbelievable land degradation is caused by soil erosion. The large amount of the grass field area is destroyed and they cause the desertification. But in some regions overgrazing cause the complete desertification. Natural environment is distributed by the overpopulation of animals and cause the overgrazing. The shortage source of water, water pollution, degeneration of the coral reefs and eutrophication are all related with overgrazing. The pollution is caused by using of chemicals and waste of animals. The continuously grazing disturbed the water cycle and decrease refill ability of ground water resources as large amount of water is used for feeding. In South China Sea overgrazing is related to nitrogen and phosphorous contamination. Because this water contains high concentration of nitrogen and phosphorous.

Fig 1.4 Land degradation

4.3: Loss of valuable species
The natural population of plants and is regain capacity is affected by the overgrazing. The original field of crops is consists of high value field and herbs with great nutritional value. The animals continuously feed on the valuable species and they even eat the roots (roots contain the stored food) of that species and their region ability is completely lost and we loss the important species of plants due to overgrazing. For example weeds and inedible plants take their place. Some species of the secondary plants contain the low nutritional value and they are highly adaptive to the native species cause of valuable plant species.
4.4: Food shortage / famine
This is the low-level case of overgrazing. Food shortage is the primary contributor to desertification they change the grass filed into the infertile land. And this type of soil is not fit for growing food because this land lost the entire essential nutrient that is required for the plant growth. When the ability of soil is lost and the land is not able to grow the food. If the population growth is increase they cause the overgrazing.
The increasing population needs more foods and need more space for its survival. Overpopulation, overgrazing and urbanization, related with one another and harm the environment. We don’t have enough space to grow our food and overgrazing destroys the space that we have left.
4.5: Death of people and livestock
The long effect of the overgrazing reduced the food supply and there is no food for the cattle and the people and this kind of situation cause the death of both due to hunger. When the improper supply of the nutrient in the field the animals do not able to maintain their weight at production stage and decrease the chance of survival rate. When the population of the human is high the rate of food consumption is also high and supply of the food is decrease. Shortage of the food supply causes the death of plants and animals (Duval, April 13, 2015).
Fig 1.5 Death of people and livestock

5: Preventing overgrazing
5.1: Preventing man-made overgrazing
Accept able grassland manufacturing is based on the grass and grassland management, land management animal management and animal selling. Grazing management was acceptable with agriculture and agroecology perform is the organization of grassland based animal productivity affect the both plants and animals health and its production. There are some new models have developed to managed or decrease the overgrazing. For example Holistic management and permaculture.
5.2: Responsible livestock management
The farmer did not care about the irresponsible behavior of the overpopulated animals. Many animals present in small part of the land and they feed on the plants that present in small parts and cause the overgrazing and also cause the desertification. Avoiding of overstocking is relatively easy process. Small Responsible livestock management have small difficulty, because the face the small problem about its learning and apply process they did not know the exacting area where the management is applied. There are different methods is used to recycle the livestock. If you take good steps for the plant development and they develop throughout the year and decrease the overgrazing. Nature will take care the land for you.
5.3: Farming responsibly
There are many environmental factors that contribute to the overgrazing, but some are man-made. Some farmer has many animals and these animals feed on the small region and they have no idea they destroy the all cultivation from this region and this process is called the overgrazing. One of the Farming methods is responsible for overgrazing. We can’t ignore the droughts and dry spells and we can’t control the overpopulation of the animals and many other factors cause the overgrazing.
5.4: Proper land assessment
Assessing condition of land is one of the necessary ways we can ignore and store the effect of overgrazing. Developers need to analyze the environmental factors of the area before making the house. We work together to make sure that we find particular area where is no more plants is present is the large amount of plants is present we destroyed these plants for our benefits. We only need the space or area for live and we do not need we go the green field area and destroy it for making the house (Holistic land Management, 20 December 2012).

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