1. lab. Phlebotomy is a procedure for which

1. Introduction.
Blood is the kind of sample most regularly dissected in the clinical lab. Phlebotomy is a procedure for which a needle is used to draw blood from a vein; usually, to do laboratory tests. The professional who do this procedure is called Phlebotomist. There sources where you can draw blood from, this source are venipuncture and capillary or peripheral blood.
1.1 The purpose of this laboratory experiment is for student to learn how to obtain an adequate blood for laboratory tests by drawing blood from a vein.

2. Methods and Materials
2.1 Venipuncture.
1. Approach the patient, identify yourself, the department you represent, and the procedure you are about to perform., identify the patient and explain the procedure to the patient.
2. Assemble equipment and supplies.
3. Prepare the vacuum blood collection system by attaching the needle to the hub and positioning a tube in the holder.
4. Apply the tourniquet and examine the arm for palpable veins.
5. Palpate the veins.
6. Release the tourniquet, cleanse the chosen site with a 70% alcohol swab. Begin at the puncture site selected and move the alcohol pad outward, in concentric circles (experienced phlebotomists are so quick that they may not release the tourniquet during site preparation).
7. Allow the site to air dry.
8. Reapply the tourniquet, making sure that the ends do not touch the prepared site.
9. Ask patient to clench fist tightly.
10. Position the holder in the palm of your hand between your thumb and index finger. Your palm should be pointing to the left if you are right-handed, and to the right if you are left-handed.
11. Uncap the needle. Inspect the needle for manufacturer’s defects.
12. Anchor the vein selected, using the thumb and index finger.
13. Position the needle in the same direction as the vein selected. Insert the needle, bevel up, at a 15-degree angle. The needle should be inserted in one smooth motion. Only the index finger and thumb should move forward to guide the needle into the vein.
14. Release the vein and push the evacuated tube onto the back of the needle. Be sure to keep the holder stationary. Once the tube has been pushed onto the needle, take your hand off the tube. If the stopper of the tube has been punctured by the back of the needle, and blood is not entering the tube, pushing on the tube will not cause blood to enter it.
15. Allow the tube to fill, when the vacuum has been exhausted, blood will no longer enter the tube.
16. Keeping the holder still, pull the evacuated tube of the back of the needle and replace it with the second tube (if the first tube contained an additive, gently invert it while waiting for the second tube to fill).
17. Once blood begins to enter the second tube, release the tourniquet within one minute of application.
18. Pull the evacuated tube off the needle. Allow it to rest in the holder.
19. Place a piece of gauze or a cotton ball over the puncture site, do not push down on the gauze.
20. Remove the needle from the patient’s arm and immediately apply pressure with the gauze.
21. Activate the needle safety device and dispose of unit.
22. If the last evacuated tube collected contains an additive, invert gently several times to mix the blood with the additive.
23. Inspect puncture site, apply bandage if needed.
24. Label the tubes collected IMMEDIATELY as follows
25. Discard materials in appropriate waste receptacle and disinfect work area.
26. Remove gloves, wash hands and leave patient courteously.

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2.2 Capillary puncture.

1. Approach the patient, identify yourself, the department you represent, and the procedure you are about to perform. Using two unique patient identifiers, confirm the identity of the patient.
2. Check requisition order to ensure proper collection of samples.
3. Assemble all the necessary equipment’s.
4.Assess the patient and determine whether a finger or a heel would be appropriate for use. Heels are preferred for capillary puncture in infants less than 1 year of age.
5.The site of blood collection must be warm to ensure the free flow of blood.
6.Hold the area to be punctured with the thumb and index finger.
7.Clean the area with 70% alcohol pad and allow to air-dry.
8.Use a disposable sterile lancet to puncture the area.
9.Wipe away first drop of blood.
10.Apply gentle pressure to area to obtain a suitable specimen. When the tip of the collection tube touches this drop, blood will flow into the tube by capillary action into the bottom of the tube.
11.When the necessary amount of blood is obtained, clean gauze is used to apply gentle pressure on the puncture site. Bandage the site.
12. Discard used lancets at the sharps container.
13. Remove gloves and discard into biohazard container
14. Wash hands using proper procedure

1.0 higher speeds of travel attributed to such

1.0 Introduction
Magnetic levitation (maglev) is a highly advanced technology. It is used in the various cases, including clean energy (small and huge wind turbines: at home, office, industry, etc.), building facilities (fan), transportation systems (magnetically levitated train, Personal Rapid Transit (PRT), etc.), weapon (gun, rocketry), nuclear engineering (the centrifuge of nuclear reactor), civil engineering (elevator), advertising (levitating everything considered inside or above various frames can be selected), toys (train, levitating spacemen over the space ship, etc.), stationery (pen) and so on. The common point in all these applications is the lack of contact and thus no wear and friction. This increases efficiency, reduce maintenance costs and increase the useful life of the system. The magnetic levitation technology can be used as a highly advanced and efficient technology in the various industrial. There are already many countries that are attracted to maglev systems.
Among above-cited beneficial usages, the most crucial utilization of magnetic levitation is in operation of magnetically levitated trains. Magnetically levitated trains are certainly the maximum superior motors presently to be had to railway industries. Maglev is the first essential innovation within the area of railroad generation because the invention of the railroad. Magnetically levitated train is a highly modern vehicle. Maglev vehicles use noncontact magnetic levitation, guidance and propulsion systems and have no wheels, axles and transmission. Contrary to traditional railroad vehicles, there is no direct physical contact between maglev vehicle and its guide way. These vehicles move along magnetic fields that are established between the vehicle and its guide way. Conditions of no mechanical contact and no friction provided by such technology makes it feasible to reach higher speeds of travel attributed to such trains. Manned maglev vehicles have recorded speed of travel equal to 581km/hr. The replacement of mechanical components by wear-free electronics overcomes the technical restrictions of wheel-on-rail technology. Application of magnetically levitated trains has attracted numerous transportation industries throughout the world. Magnetically levitated trains are the most recent advancement in railway engineering specifically in transportation industries. Maglev trains can be conveniently considered as a solution for transportation needs of the current time as well as future needs of the world. There is variety of designs for maglev systems and engineers keep revealing new ideas about such systems. Many systems have been proposed in different parts of the worlds, and a number of corridors have been selected and researched.1
Rapid growth of populations and the never ending demand to increase the speed of travel has always been a dilemma for city planners. The future is already here. Rapid transit and high-speed trains have always been thought of and are already in use. This is the way further into the future. Trains with magnetic levitations are part of the game. Conventional railway systems have been modified to make them travel at much higher speeds. Also, variety of technologies including magnetic levitation systems and high-speed railway (HSR) systems has been introduced. Rapid development of transportation industries worldwide, including railroads and the never ending demand to shorten travel time during trade, leisure, etc. have caused planning and implementation of high-speed railroads in many countries. Variety of such systems including maglev has been introduced to the industry. Maglev trains are a necessity for modern time transportation needs and vital for the future needs of railways, worldwide. This has resulted in the development of a variety of maglev systems that are manufactured by different countries. Maglev systems currently in use have comparable differences. The current models are also changing and improving.
Industries have to grow in order to facilitate many aspects of modern day life. This comes with a price to pay for by all members of societies. Industrial developments and widespread use of machineries have also increased risks of financial damages and loss of lives. Safety and needs to physically protect people against machineries may have not been a priority in the past but they are necessities of modern times. Experts of industries have the task of solving safety and protection issues before implementing machineries. This is a step with high priority for all industrial assignments. While being fast, reliable and comfortable, maglev systems have found special places in minds of people. Running at such high speeds, maglev systems have to be safe and need to be renown for safety. This puts much heavier loads on the shoulders of the corresponding experts and managers, compared to some other means of transportation. Safety is knowingly acting with proper functions to provide comfort and reduce dangers, as much as possible. Risk management techniques have a vital role in organizing and implementing proper acts during incidents, accidents or mishaps in maglev systems operations. Effective management has a specific place in such processes. Obviously, such plannings put considerable financial load on the system. Implementation of internationally accepted standards is a fundamental step toward uplifting track safety. It will also serve to improve route quality, increase passenger loads and increase speed of travel. Maglev vehicle is one of the important transportation equipment of the urban track traffic system toward the future.
The ordinary plan for research and development and application of maglev generation ought to be made at the country wide stage. This plan shall consist of the improvement plans as to research and improvement of key maglev era, project imposing generation research and improvement of maglev venture, plans of building maglev passage based totally on visitors demands, investment and financing system for the construction and operation of maglev device, research on imposing plans of high-density operational enterprise and protection of maglev route and so on.
It is very important to be vigilant about economical aspects of any major project during its planning and construction phases. Optimal use of local resources must be all accounted for. Technical and economical evaluation of the projects is a necessity to their success. It is necessary to have prior knowledge for investing into a project and then implementing its goals. Good planning makes it feasible to run the projects with reduced risks and increased return for the investment.2
2.0 History
2.1 First Maglev patent
High-speed transportation patents were granted to various inventors throughout the world. Early United States patents for a linear motor propelled train were awarded to German inventor Alfred Zehden. The inventor was awarded U.S. Patent 782,312(14 February 1905) and U.S. Patent RE12,700 (21 August 1907). In 1907, another early electromagnetic transportation system was developed by F. S. Smith.A series of German patents for magnetic levitation trains propelled by linear motors were awarded to Hermann Kemper between 1937 and 1941. An early maglev train was described in U.S. Patent 3,158,765, “Magnetic system of transportation”, by G. R. Polgreen (25 August 1959). The first use of “maglev” in a United States patent was in “Magnetic levitation guidance system”, by Canadian Patents and Development Limited.3

2.2 New York, United States, 1968
In 1968, even as behind schedule in visitors on the Throgs Neck Bridge, James Powell, a researcher at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), notion of the usage of magnetically levitated transportation. Powell and BNL colleague Gordon Danby labored out a MagLev concept the use of static magnets mounted on a transferring car to set off electro dynamic lifting and stabilizing forces in specially shaped loops, together with figure of eight coils on a manual manner.
2.3 Hamburg, Germany, 1979
Transrapid 05 was the first maglev train with long stator propulsion licensed for passenger transportation. In 1979, a 908 m (2,979 ft) track was opened in Hamburg for the first International Transportation Exhibition (IVA 79). Interest was sufficient that operations were extended three months after the exhibition finished, having carried more than 50,000 passengers. It was reassembled in Kassel in 1980.

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2.4 Birmingham, United Kingdom, 1984–95
The world’s first commercial maglev system was a low-speed maglev shuttle that ran between the airport terminal of Birmingham International Airport and the nearby Birmingham International railway station between 1984 and 1995. Its track length was 600 m (2,000 ft), and trains levitated at an altitude of 15 mm (0.59 in), levitated by electromagnets, and propelled with linear induction motors. It operated for 11 years and was initially very popular with passengers, but obsolescence problems with the electronic systems made it progressively unreliable as years passed, leading to its closure in 1995. One of the original cars is now on display at Rail world in Peterborough, together with the RTV31 hover train vehicle. Another is on display at the National Railway Museum in York.
Several favourable conditions existed when the link was built:
• The British Rail Research vehicle was 3 tonnes and extension to the 8 tonne vehicle was easy.
• Electrical power was available.
• The airport and rail buildings were suitable for terminal platforms.
• Only one crossing over a public road was required and no steep gradients were involved.
• Land was owned by the railway or airport.
• Local industries and councils were supportive.
• Some government finance was provided and because of sharing work, the cost per organization was low.
After the system closed in 1995, the original guide way lay dormant14 until 2003, when a replacement cable-hauled system, the Air Rail Link Cable Liner people mover, was opened.

2.5 Emsland, Germany, 1984–2012
Transrapid, a German maglev company, had a test track in Emsland with a total length of 31.5 km (19.6 mi). The single-track line ran between Dörpen and Lathen with turning loops at each end. The trains regularly ran at up to 420 km/h (260 mph). Paying passengers were carried as part of the testing process. The production of the test facility started in 1980 and finished in 1984. In 2006, the Lathen maglev educate coincidence took place killing 23 human beings, found to were resulting from human mistakes in imposing protection checks. From 2006 no passengers were carried. At the end of 2011 the operation licence expired and changed into no longer renewed, and in early 2012 demolition permission turned into given for its centers, such as the song and manufacturing facility.

2.6 Japan, 1969–present
Japan operates two independently developed maglev trains. One is HSST (and its descendant, the Linimo line) by Japan Airlines and the other, which is more wellknown, is SCMaglev by the Central Japan Railway Company.
The development of the latter started in 1969. Miyazaki test track regularly hit 517 km/h (321 mph) by 1979. After an accident that destroyed the train, a new design was selected. In Okazaki, Japan (1987), the SCMaglev took a test ride at the Okazaki exhibition. Tests through the 1980s continued in Miyazaki before transferring to a far larger test track, 20 km (12 mi) long, in Yamanashi in 1997.
Development of HSST started in 1974. In Tsukuba, Japan (1985), the HSST-03 (Linimo) became popular in spite of its 30 km/h (19 mph) at the Tsukuba World Exposition. In Saitama, Japan (1988), the HSST-04-1 was revealed at the Saitama exhibition performed in Kumagaya. Its fastest recorded speed was 300 km/h (190 mph).

2.7 Vancouver, Canada and Hamburg, Germany, 1986–88
In Vancouver, Canada, the HSST-03 by HSST Development Corporation (Japan Airlines and Sumitomo Corporation) was exhibited at Expo 8619 and ran on a 400-metre (0.25 mi) test track that provided guests with a ride in a single car along a short section of track at the fairgrounds. It was removed after the fair and debut at the Aoi Expo in 1987 and now on static display at Okazaki Minami Park. In Hamburg, Germany, the TR-07 was exhibited at the international traffic exhibition (IVA88) in 1988.

2.8 Berlin, Germany, 1989–91
In West Berlin, the M-Bahn was built in the late 1980s. It was a driverless maglev system with a 1.6 km (0.99 mi) track connecting three stations. Testing with passenger traffic started in August 1989, and regular operation started in July 1991. Although the line largely followed a new elevated alignment, it terminated at Gleisdreieck U-Bahn station, where it took over an unused platform for a line that formerly ran to East Berlin. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, plans were set in motion to reconnect this line (today’s U2). Deconstruction of the M-Bahn line began only two months after regular service began.

2.9 South Korea, 1993–present
In 1993, Korea completed the development of its own maglev train, shown off at the Taejon Expo ’93, which was developed further into a full-fledged maglev capable of travelling up to 110 km/h (68 mph) in 2006. This final model was incorporated in the Incheon Airport Maglev which opened on February 3, 2016, making Korea the world’s fourth country to operate its own self-developed maglev after the United Kingdom’s Birmingham International Airport, Germany’s Berlin M-Bahn, and Japan’s Linimo. It links Incheon International Airport to the Yongyu Station and Leisure Complex on Yeongjong island. It offers a transfer to the Seoul Metropolitan Subway at AREX’s Incheon International Airport Station and is offered free of charge to anyone to ride, operating between 9 am and 6 pm with 15 minute intervals. Operating hours are to be raised in the future.
The maglev system was co-developed by the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM) and Hyundai Rotem. It is 6.1 kilometers (3.8 mi) long, with six stations and a 110 km/h (68 mph) operating speed.4

3.0 Technology
3.1 Basic Idea
A common type of magnet is a dipole. It has North Pole (N) and South Pole (S). Principle of magnetism simply states that like poles repel and opposite poles attract. Maglev uses the same principle to lift the train above the guide way. However, the magnetic field in this case is not entirely coming from permanent magnets, but it is created by electric current that is induced through the train and guide way. It creates temporary magnetic force and temporary magnetic poles. Also, Maglev uses the principle of linear induction and magnetism to propel the train forward or backward. The combination of repulsive and attractive magnetic forces causes the train to levitate and pass ahead. When the contemporary changes route, the poles additionally trade and the repulsive and appealing forces act opposite from whilst the movement commenced. It reasons the teach to move backward. Generally, Maglev will be operated functionally if it goes thru these three tactics; levitation, propulsion and steering.5
3.2 The two notable types of maglev technology are:
3.2.1 Electromagnetic suspension (EMS)
If you’ve ever played with magnets, you know that opposite poles attract and like poles repel each other. This is the basic principle behind electromagnetic propulsion. Electromagnets are similar to other magnets in that they attract metal objects, but the magnetic pull is temporary. As you can read about in How Electromagnets Work, you can easily create a small electromagnet yourself by connecting the ends of a copper wire to the positive and negative ends of an AA, C or D-cell battery. This creates a small magnetic field. If you disconnect either end of the wire from the battery, the magnetic field is taken away.
The magnetic field created in this wire-and-battery experiment is the simple idea behind a maglev train rail system. There are three components to this system:
• A large electrical power source
• Metal coils lining a guideway or track
• Large guidance magnets attached to the underside of the train
The big difference between a maglev train and a conventional train is that maglev trains do not have an engine at least not the kind of engine used to pull typical train cars along steel tracks. The engine for maglev trains is rather inconspicuous. Instead of using fossil fuels, the magnetic field created by the electrified coils in the guideway walls and the track combines to propel the train.
In electromagnetic suspension (EMS) structures, the educate levitates above a steel rail at the same time as electromagnets, attached to the educate, are oriented toward the rail from beneath. The gadget is normally arranged on a series of C-formed palms, with the higher part of the arm attached to the car, and the lower interior side containing the magnets. The rail is situated in the C, between the higher and decrease edges.
Magnetic attraction varies inversely with the cube of distance, so minor changes in distance between the magnets and the rail produce greatly varying forces. These changes in force are dynamically unstable – a slight divergence from the optimum position tends to grow, requiring sophisticated feedback systems to maintain a constant distance from the track, (approximately 15 mm (0.59 in)).
The major advantage to suspended maglev systems is that they work at all speeds, unlike electrodynamic systems, which only work at a minimum speed of about 30 km/h (19 mph). This eliminates the need for a separate low-speed suspension system, and can simplify track layout. On the downside, the dynamic instability demands fine track tolerances, which can offset this advantage. Eric Laithwaite was concerned that to meet required tolerances, the gap between magnets and rail would have to be increased to the point where the magnets would be unreasonably large. In practice, this problem was addressed through improved feedback systems, which support the required tolerances.6 The Maglev Track
The magnetized coil running along the track, called a guideway, repels the large magnets on the train’s undercarriage, allowing the train to levitate between 0.39 and 3.93 inches (1 to 10 cm) above the guideway. Once the train is levitated, power is supplied to the coils within the guideway walls to create a unique system of magnetic fields that pull and push the train along the guideway. The electric current supplied to the coils in the guideway walls is constantly alternating to change the polarity of the magnetized coils. This change in polarity causes the magnetic field in front of the train to pull the vehicle forward, while the magnetic field behind the train adds more forward thrust.
Maglev trains float on a cushion of air, casting off friction. This loss of friction and the trains’ aerodynamic designs allow those trains to reach unheard of ground transportation speeds of extra than 310 mph (500 kph), or two times as rapid as Amtrak’s fastest commuter educate. In evaluation, a Boeing-777 commercial plane used for longrange flights can attain a top pace of approximately 562 mph (905 kph). Developers say that maglev trains will ultimately hyperlink cities that are up to 1,000 miles (1,609 km) aside. At 310 mph, you could travel from Paris to Rome in just over hours.
Germany and Japan are both developing maglev train technology, and both are currently testing prototypes of their trains. (The German company “Transrapid International” also has a train in commercial use — more about that in the next section.) Although based on similar concepts, the German and Japanese trains have distinct differences. In Germany, engineers have developed an electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system, called Transrapid. In this system, the bottom of the train wraps around a steel guideway. Electromagnets attached to the train’s undercarriage are directed up toward the guideway, which levitates the train about 1/3 of an inch (1 cm) above the guideway and keeps the train levitated even when it’s not moving. Other guidance magnets embedded in the train’s body keep it stable during travel. Germany has demonstrated that the Transrapid maglev train can reach 300 mph with people onboard.7

3.2.2 Electrodynamic suspension (EDS)
Japanese engineers are developing a competing version of maglev trains that use an electrodynamic suspension (EDS) system, which is based on the repelling force of magnets. The key difference between Japanese and German maglev trains is that the Japanese trains use super-cooled, superconducting electromagnets. This kind of electromagnet can conduct electricity even after the power supply has been shut off. In the EMS system, which uses standard electromagnets, the coils only conduct electricity when a power supply is present. By chilling the coils at frigid temperatures, Japan’s system saves energy. However, the cryogenic system uses to cool the coils can be expensive.
Another difference between the systems is that the Japanese trains levitate nearly 4 inches (10 cm) above the guideway. One potential drawback in using the EDS system is that maglev trains must roll on rubber tires until they reach a liftoff speed of about 62 mph (100 kph). Japanese engineers say the wheels are an advantage if a power failure caused a shutdown of the system. Germany’s Transrapid train is equipped with an emergency battery power supply. Also, passengers with pacemakers would have to be shielded from the magnetic fields generated by the superconducting electromagnets.
In electrodynamic suspension (EDS), both the guideway and the train exert a magnetic field, and the train is levitated by the repulsive and attractive force between these magnetic fields. In some configurations, the train can be levitated only by repulsive force. In the early stages of maglev development at the Miyazaki test track, a purely repulsive system was used instead of the later repulsive and attractive EDS system. The magnetic field is produced either by superconducting magnets (as in JR–Maglev) or by an array of permanent magnets (as in Inductrack). The repulsive and attractive force in the track is created by an induced magnetic field in wires or other conducting strips in the track. A major advantage of EDS maglev systems is that they are dynamically stable – changes in distance between the track and the magnets creates strong forces to return the system to its original position. In addition, the attractive force varies in the opposite manner, providing the same adjustment effects. No active feedback control is needed.
However, at slow speeds, the modern brought on in those coils and the ensuing magnetic flux isn’t always massive enough to levitate the teach. For this motive, the educate should have wheels or some different shape of touchdown equipment to support the teach till it reaches take-off pace. Since a educate can also prevent at any region, because of equipment troubles as an instance, the whole tune need to be able to help each low- and excessive-velocity operation.
Another downside is that the EDS system naturally creates a field in the track in front and to the rear of the lift magnets, which acts against the magnets and creates magnetic drag. This is generally only a concern at low speeds (This is one of the reasons why JR abandoned a purely repulsive system and adopted the sidewall levitation system.) At higher speeds other modes of drag dominate.
The drag force can be used to the electrodynamic system’s advantage, however, as it creates a varying force in the rails that can be used as a reactionary system to drive the train, without the need for a separate reaction plate, as in most linear motor systems. Laithwaite led development of such “traverse-flux” systems at his Imperial College laboratory. Alternatively, propulsion coils on the guideway are used to exert a force on the magnets in the train and make the train move forward. The propulsion coils that exert a force on the train are effectively a linear motor: an alternating current through the coils generates a continuously varying magnetic field that moves forward along the track. The frequency of the alternating current is synchronized to match the speed of the train. The offset between the field exerted by magnets on the train and the applied field creates a force moving the train forward.8

1. Chinese plan to gain control and

1. Belt and Road Initiative. China’s Belt and Road initiative is one of the most ambitious economic projects in the 21st century. The project was conceived and is being implemented by President Xi Jinping, who has gained a status equivalent to the great Chinese leader Mao Tse Tung in the Chinese history. Though being touted as an economic project many analysts world over view this project with a geo-strategic angle. This may be a part of the Chinese plan to gain control and influence over the economically weaker central Asian countries and the east European countries.

Fig 1: China’s Belt and Road Initiative extent.
2. The Chinese, through this project in future will economically subjugate these countries and gain control of the heartland of the world island as described by Mackinder, the famous geo-political analyst of the 20th century. The other part of the BRI consists of the string of ports that the Chinese have been building in the littoral states of IOR. Both these parts of the BRI give credence to the China’s attempt to gain control of the most geo-strategically important part of the world i.e. the ‘World Island’ as stated in the Mackinder’s world island theory.

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Fig 2: Mackinder’s Heartland.
3. Genesis of CPEC. The China Pakistan Economic Corridor is one of the six laterals that form part of the Belt and Road Initiative. CPEC is a flagship of the BRI project and intends to showcase to the world the benefits of the BRI. CPEC was proposed by the Chinese Premier Li Keqiang in May 2013. The CPEC was proposed as a bridge for China to link with the Islamic world. It was during the visit of the Chinese President Mr Xi Jinping to Pakistan on 21 Apr 2015, that the MoU between the two countries for implementation of CPEC was signed. The four key focus areas for this project that were identified were the Gwadar port, infrastructure development, energy production and industrial co-operation. The project was worth $46 billion and was thought to boost the Pakistan economy in the long term. As per Mr Xi Jinping, the layout of the project was designed to ensure benefit to maximum number of people from both countries.
4. Plan of CPEC. The plan for CPEC involves multiple projects in the identified four key areas apart from other things. The short-term projects will be considered till 2020, the medium-term projects till 2025 and the long-term projects till 2030. The CPEC corridor runs from Kashgar in the Chinese province of Xinjiang to the Gwadar port in Baluchistan in Pakistan. The plan as envisaged by both the governments include the implementation of following projects:
(a) Integrated Transport System. The transportation network is the main component of the CPEC. The plan includes joint planning and development of roads, railway lines, dry ports and aviation and associated infrastructure projects to improve connectivity between China and Pakistan.

(i) Road Network. The main roads planned under this project include the Kashgar-Islamabad, Peshawar-Islamabad-Karachi, Dera Ismail Khan-Sohrab-Gwadar and the Sukkur-Gwadar Port road infrastructure. These roads will enhance the traffic handling capacity and improve speed of transportation.

(ii) Rail Network. The modernization of the existing railway network is planned along with construction of new projects. Capacity expansion of existing railway lines is also planned.

(iii) Gwadar Port. Gwadar port construction and development along with associated transportation network to connect it to other parts of the country is also planned as part of CPEC. The development of Gwadar includes infrastructure development of Gwadar along with implementation of the master plan for the city and construction of a new international airport.
(b) Information Network Infrastructure. The plan is to construct an optical fibre backbone and laying of cross border optical fibre cables between China and Pakistan. Promote and implement China’s digital terrestrial multimedia broadcasting standards in Pakistan and construct a second submarine cable landing station. The aim is to improve Pakistan’s national data centre and develop its IT industry and train Pakistani personnel to strengthen ICT human resources.

Fig 3: Proposed infrastructure projects in CPEC.
(c) Energy Related Sector. Pakistan suffers from chronic power shortages and hence the emphasis on energy production. Most of the funding into CPEC is in the power generation sector with multiple thermal power plants being planned and constructed across Pakistan. The plan also aims to promote construction of major projects to harness hydropower and other renewable modes like wind and solar for power generation. There is a plan to upgrade the electricity grid network and improve transmission and distribution of electricity supply in Pakistan.

(d) Trade and Industrial Parks. The plan includes expansion of the bilateral economic and trade relations between the two countries. Establishment of Special Economic Zones is planned in all provinces and regions of Pakistan and at Kashgar ; Caohu on the Chinese side. Promotion of industrial capacity building in fields like chemical, pharmaceutical, agro, steel, light manufacturing, etc. and coordination in industrial cooperation for export orientated production in mutually benefitting sectors, establishment and promotion of Gwadar free zone for increasing volume of trade etc. are some of other projected features.

(e) Agriculture Development ; Poverty Alleviation. Pakistan is an agrarian state and China, through developmental projects aims to promote best agricultural practices in the fields of drip irrigation, post-harvest handling, fisheries, live-stock breeding, etc. Chinese companies will be given tracts of cultivable land on lease for carrying out research in field of agriculture.

(f) Tourism. The plan is to develop tourist routes along the CPEC routes near the China-Pakistan border and develop coastal tourism along the coast of Pakistan. Both countries aim to develop tourist circuits for promotion of tourism.

(g) Miscellaneous. The regions along CPEC will see implementation of training programs for Pakistani central government officials, political parties and local government officials. Selected outstanding Pakistani students from regions along the CPEC will be sent to Chinese universities such as in Xinjian to receive higher education and enhance cultural exchanges.

Financing Structure of CPEC

5. As per the CPEC long term plan, the governments of Pakistan and China will bear the primary responsibility for investment and financing of public welfare projects. China will provide grants, interest free loans, concessional loans and preferential export buyer’s credit to support strategic priority projects along the CPEC. Pakistani federal government along with provincial governments are to plan part of their budget for investments in CPEC. Both governments would actively take various forms to provide credit enhancement support for major financing projects, effectively reduce the financing costs and protect the rights and interests of creditors. Both countries will welcome direct investment of enterprises for projects along CPEC. The loans from international financial institutions like World Bank, Asian Development Bank, Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank would be welcomed to provide long-term concessional loans to support investment and financing for the projects along the CPEC.
6. Overall, the financing structure of the various projects in CPEC is still marred in opacity and has come under criticism from various domestic and international experts in Pakistan. The CPEC is being funded through a mixture of loans and grants by the Chinese government or Chinese state-owned companies. There has been a cost escalation from $46 billion in 2014 to $62 billion in 2017. The CPEC, a collection of infrastructure projects originally valued at $46 billion in 2014, has seen a cost escalation of nearly 40 per cent. About two-thirds of Chinese CPEC funding is for power projects while the remaining one-third is for infrastructure projects like roads, rail lines and ports. The Chinese soft loans for CPEC infrastructure projects carry an interest rate of just 1.6%, far lower than similar loans offered by the World Bank at rates of 3.8% or higher. Chinese companies investing in Pakistan power sector and the rate of return guaranteed by Pakistan power regulators to the Chinese power companies is about 17% in fixed dollar costs. It is estimated that about $3 billion per year would be the outflow of funds from Pakistan to these Chinese investors starting from the year 2020.
7. Current state of CPEC. The projects in CPEC were divided as the early harvest ones and the long-term projects. Keeping in mind the acute power crisis in Pakistan it was decided that the power projects would be done on priority to address this issue. Accordingly, most of the power projects are in advanced stages of their completion. The power plants at Port Qasim (2×660 MW thermal power), Sahiwal (2×660 MW thermal power), Gharo Thatta (50 MW Wind power), Qaid-E-Azam (3×100 MW Solar power) and Jhimpir Thatta (100 MW+50 MW of Wind power) have been completed and are operational. A total of 13000 MW power generation capability is being planned under the CPEC projects. Some of the roads have being completed but majority are under progress are expected to be completed by 2020.
8. Apart from these, multiple SEZ projects are under consideration by the Chinese side. The work for new Gwadar International Airport has commenced. The project on laying of cross border optical fibre line has been completed. All the other CPEC projects are likely to be completed by 2030. China has sold the remote sensing satellite PRSS-1 to Pakistan and launched it successfully, to monitor the progress of CPEC projects. The CPEC being a strategic project will change the fortunes of Pakistan and is likely to add on projects as years go by and will turn into a mammoth investment by China.
9. Though the progress of the work on most CPEC projects is on time, the real test for the Pakistan economy would be when the repayments for the Chinese investments start from the year 2020. The projects under CPEC are marred by multiple controversies and are likely to cause long term negative impact on the Pakistan economy. The completion of this project is likely to facilitate in increased imports from China and further increase the bilateral import-export balance. Also, the project is likely to increase the already existing economic disparity between the federal provinces and cause internal tensions in the country.

1. analysis by completing an analysis of

1. Introduction:
Whittaker’s is a chocolate manufacturing company. Whittaker’s was started by J.H Whittaker in 1896. Although he first worked as a jeweller, his love for chocolates began when he started working in the cocoa department in Birmingham. Such was his love for chocolates that he decided to come back to New Zealand and setup his own chocolate manufacturing in 1890 at Christchurch. The chocolates were made and sold directly to customers who had a sweet tooth and appreciation for chocolates. In 1911 the business was moved to Wellington and his sons joined him, hence the iconic name J.H Whittaker and Sons. The company’s present headquarters are based in Porirua at 24 Mohuia Cres, Elsdon, Porirua 5022.

It is one of the most loved brands in New Zealand after Cadbury and constitutes for about 38% of chocolate sales.

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The purpose of this assignment is to complete a situational analysis by completing an analysis of the external and internal forces. This assignment would not have been possible without the constant guidance and persuasion of Prof. Alastair Emerson who made us feel confident enough to complete this assignment.

2. External Review:
2.1 Industry Review:
The chocolate industry dates back to 1900BC when the Mesoamericans discovered the chocolate drink. Cocoa bean production is available in Africa, Ghana, South America, Indonesia and the Pacific as per the below pie chart.

As per an article published in The Herald, the world is running out of chocolates. The world is in the midst of the longest streak of consecutive chocolate deficits in more than 50 years. In 2013 the consumption for cocoa was 70,000 metric tons more than the actual production of cocoa. The deficit is expected to rise up to 1 million metric tons by 2020 and 2 million metric tons by 2030. This was one of the reasons for the increase in Cocoa price which have increased by 60% since 2012, because the actual demand was more than the world could supply.The increase was passed on to customers by increasing the chocolate costs.Efforts are still underway to keep the costs down.
New Zealand has a long history with chocolates and is concentrated across 3 eras,

New Zealand is a major manufacturer of chocolates. The countries chocolate exports reached $115 million in 2013. 83% of these chocolate exports went to Australia. Remaining exports to Singapore, Malaysia, Hongkong and South Korea constituting for $5.8million, $1.7million, $815,000 and $793,000 respectively.The chocolate exports increased by 49% since 2004.
Cadbury is a major competitor to Whittaker and exported chocolate crumbs worth $100 million in 2012.
New Zealanders have a variety of chocolates to choose from ranging from Chocolate bars/blocks to artisan chocolates, bars and gift packs. The future of chocolates is good as new chocolate companies/startups are pooping up to satisfy New Zealand’s sweet tooth needs.
This is supported by the graph below which shows a CAGR of 2% over 15 years.

How the Industry works:
The beans are sourced from Ghana and other locations. The cocoa pods are harvested for beans. Each pod has 20-60 beans depending upon the size.
These beans are then fermented and dried and are shipped to the manufacturing location/facility where the real fun begins.
The beans are thene roasted and the nibs are extracted by removing the outer shell using a winnower machine.(Nibs are a combination of cocoa mass and cocoa butter.)
These are ground repeatedly to turn into cocoa liquor.The chocolate is then tempered and the special flavours are added.
Chocolate is poured in moulds where it settles. This is eventually wrapped and shipped for consumption.
Sell the finished product directly to consumers (or) centre the supply through a network of wholesalers and retailers.

2.2 External Factors:
Economic Factors:
As discussed, the chocolate costs are on a constant increase as the cocoa production is less compared to the cocoa consumption. Manufacturers are searching for new ways to keep costs down. This may interfare with the quality of chocolates.

Political Factors:
Fairtrade Chocolate: This agreement by Fairtrade International aims to give the farmers who cultivate cocoa a fairer share of benefits to improve their quality of life. More and more people are becoming aware and opt for these products instead.

Technological Factors:

1.1 them, want to see and the longer

1.1 Background
people always want to communicate with others people they used to visit them, want to see and the longer the distance the harder it was to communicate. The first social networking was established in 1971.it was created in 1994 by the name GeoCities, he was among the first on the internet his intent was to allow users to create their own website, categorizing them into different ‘cities’ based on the site’s content. theglobe.com was launched in 1995 to the public giving them the medium to interact with people who have the same hobbies to create their own content.
A few years later in 1997, AOL instant messenger and six degrees were launched. Instant messaging was created giving users the freedom to chat with their friends and form a profile. Six degrees even though it was the earliest social networking but did not gain the same success. The main idea theory to it was that people are separated by no more than six degrees from one another. It also allowed users to create the profile, make groups, search and invite friends. However, they encouraged members to invite more people to the site and had too many membership drives. Many individuals complained that the membership invitations were spam, filling up their websites with junk. In 2001 it was sold for $125 million and it was completely shut down the year after.
Friendster was the modern social networking sites. The degree of separation a similar concept as Six Degrees but named it ‘Circle of Friends’. it was basically a dating site. Soon Myspace followed suit in 2003, who replicated Friendster. It was launched after only 10 days of coding. It soon became more popular than Friendster. As it gave users more freedom than Friendster when it came to customization; with music, videos, and a trend online environment.
The LinkedIn site was considered success. It was established in 2003 and took a more professional and business approach to social networking. Other sites focused on getting dates, having friends, and reuniting with old classmates, but LinkedIn focused on building business contacts and professionals. Also, it controls what a viewer may see based on whether they have a paid account, sites like myspace allow a user to choose whether they want their profile to be public or only friends. Facebook takes a different approach if they are friends or have mutual friends can view their profiles. Unless a profile owner has decided to reject permission to those in their network. In early 2004 was began as a Harvard only at the beginning if a user wanted to join they had to have their email address. As a Facebook began supporting other schools, they were required to have university email addresses associated with those institutions. Facebook came into the social networking scene a little bit later. And the main focus was to connect US college students. Facebook first started with Mark Zuckerberg’s alma mater Harvard. At first, it was exclusive, over 19,500 Harvard students signed up in its first month after two years later it becomes open to the public it was no longer the campus-only. In 2008, Facebook exceeded Myspace and Friendster as the leading social networking site. It now has over 150 million members around the world.
1.2 Social Networking
Social networking is defined as web-based services that allow people to create a public or semi-public profile within a limited system also articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection and view their list of connections and made by those within the system. It is the practice of expanding the number of one’s business or social contacts by making connections through individuals, often through Facebook, Instagram, twitter, and snap chat. Social networking establishes interconnected online communities that help people make contacts.
A social platform such as Facebook, twitter, and Instagram have attracted billions of users that have integrated these sites into their daily practices. There are hundreds of SNSs, with various technological affordances, supporting a wide range of interests and practices. While their key technological features are fairly consistent, the cultures that emerge around SNSs are varied. Most sites support the maintenance of pre-existing social networks, but others help strangers connect based on shared interests, political views, or activities. Some sites cater to diverse audiences. Sites also vary in the extent to which they incorporate new information and communication tools, such as mobile connectivity, and photo/video-sharing.
1.3 Social Network Addiction
Many researchers on SNS addiction has been done and there is a growing scientific evidence that states excessive SNS use may lead to addictions. These symptoms have been described as temper modification, tolerance, withdrawal, decline, and struggle with concerns to behavioral addictions and have been confirmed in the context of the Internet addiction components model, For a small pressure of individuals, their use of social networking sites may become the single most important activity that they involve in, leading to an obsession with SNS use, using these sites are to reduce mood alterations, pleasurable feelings or a numbing effect (temper modification). Increased amounts of time and energy are required to be put into engaging with SNS actions in order to get the same feelings and state of mind that occurred in the primary stages of usage (tolerance). When SNS use is discontinued, addicted persons will experience negative psychological and sometimes physiological symptoms (withdrawal), often leading to recall the problematic behavior (decline). Problems occur as a result of the engagement in the challenging behavior, as well as interpersonal conflicts such as problems with the immediate social environment including relationship problems as education being compromised and work also leading to conflicts within the individual often including a subjective loss of control. while the current behavioral addiction research tends to be correlational and negative in nature and is often based on population studies rather than scientific samples in which psychological impairments are observed. individuals use it in order to cope with everyday problems and stressors, including loneliness and depression. Moreover, it has been contended that excessive SNS users find it difficult to communicate face-to-face, and social media use offers a variety of immediate rewards, such as self-efficacy and satisfaction, resulting in continued and increased use, with the consequence of exacerbating problems, including neglecting offline relationships, and problems in professional contexts. The resultant depressed moods are then dealt with by continued engagement in SNSs, leading to a hurtful sequence of addiction. Using SNS for two or more hours a day was related to internalizing problems and decreased academic performance and activity.
Social networking addiction mainly a phrase used to refer to someone spending too much time using Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, snap chat and other forms of social media so much so that it interferes with their daily life. On the other hand, the addition of using social networking has become an ethical dilemma some people are using social networking excessively that they even use it everywhere, every time during their work, study and their meal and so on moreover with the mobile application development that increased the portability of social network thus making users using it more frequently. Lack of privacy when using social network can be another issue such as scams and harassment that users often encountered.
Addictive behavior is defined as follows a repetitive habit pattern that increases the risk of disease or associated personal and social problems or the behavior continues to occur despite volitional attempts to abstain or moderate use over the last decade example smoking, eating, gambling and relationship. Other addictive behaviors have become a part of our lives, such as internet addiction, excessive use of the internet. In all social networking sites is the most widely used social media channel and the term social networking sites addiction come to importance. Terms such as “excessive use”, “addiction” have often been used interchangeably to refer to the negative aspects of social networking sites usage. In particular. this is diagnosed as an addiction because it is categorized as cyber-relationship addiction.
1.4 Research Aim
The goal of this paper is to get a deep understanding of what leads people to be addicted to social networking sites. The purpose of this paper is also supported by research methodology as well as quantitative it will be based on questionnaires to be able to answer.
The following is my research;
A) what are the factors contributing to people’s addiction to social networking sites?
In place of where in this 21st century has been more of a technological era and people from different age background have been interacting on social sites constantly throughout the day. This being said the aim of this paper is to find a better and efficient way for people to spend their valuable and precious time.
1.5 Thesis Outline
1.5.1 Structure of the thesis
The paper consists of five chapters. In Chapter One, a general introduction to the study. It
introduces the background of social networking, Addiction of social networking sites, research aim. The following chapter is chapter two, talks about the literature review. It involves a brief introduction, social networking addiction and factors that lead people to be addicted. then the next chapter is Chapter Three, which discuss the methodology, research approach, questionnaire design, data collection method as well as data technique and method. Chapter Four includes the results we got from the questionnaire it consists of validity, correlation, reliability, Descriptive and Regression tables relating to questionnaire’s data. Last but not least chapter five conclusions and recommendations it includes the conclusion and the recommendation of the paper.
Chapter 2 Literature Reviews
2.0 Introduction
This chapter presents the overview of social networking sites, types of SNS, the insignificant usage of SNS, review of relevant literature on social networking sites. The section includes an overview of social networking, social networking addiction as well as the factors leading an individual to become addicted.
2.1 Overview of Social Networking Sites
2.1.1 Types of Social Networking Sites
Facebook helps users to communicate with friends, exchange messages and receive automatic notification when they update their profile. Facebook is an online social networking service. Users have to register before using the site, after that they can create a personal profit, add friends and so on. According to Liou et al states that Facebook as one of the social networking sites that offer people a medium to maintain and secure social connections and presents several functions for users to communicate with each other. In this way, users can increase their knowledge and communication skills through sharing photographs, links, news, and messages with their friends on Facebook and provide direct feedback by either pressing like or be writing a comment on their friend’s posts (2015)
M.Alavia and Leidner stated twitter as an online social networking and microblogging service. Also enables users to spend and read ”tweets”- text messages limited to 140 characters. It allows users who registered to read and post tweets, but for those users, unregistered can only read them. Users can access Twitter through the website interface, SMS as well as mobile device app (M. Alavi & Leidner, 1999; Tehemar, 2014). Twitter speedily expanded worldwide recognition, with 2012 users registered through 500 million, 340 million who posts tweets per day. The facility also handled 1.6 billion search requests per day. Now Twitter is one of the ten most visited websites and has been described as the SMS of the internet.
It was established in 2010, the name was originally from the combination of “instant camera” and “telegram.” Starting with one million monthly users, by July 2011 the photo-sharing app found itself with 100 million uploaded and the same year on September 10 million users. Instagram is knowing as a mobile app that allows users to share, upload with friends and with the world through videos and photos. in many ways, from the start, Instagram’s photo sharing platform has been unique. The users can choose a filter to customize the image and capture the moment perfectly once they take a photo. The main aim of the filters is to transform an average or unprofessional mobile photo into creative and professional looking image.
Instagram is intended to be used in real time, users can share with their friends and followers their experience as they happen. Instagram made it convenient for the users to instantly share a picture on several platforms all from one app, also by sharing a social network. In addition, users can share photos on Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr so on. On the app itself, users can check a homepage of their friends’ recent posts, check a newsfeed for follower activity, comment on and like any public pictures, on top of that, they can tag followers in both comments and photos. In particular, the hashtag trend is widely used in captions and comments among them. Instagram is also accessible on the web, but only with the viewing, commenting and liking functions to upload photos, users must use Instagram’s mobile app.
YouTube allows users to upload, share as well as view videos mostly its uploaded most of the content on YouTube by individuals but for news such as CBS, the BBC and other organizations offer some of their material via YouTube, as part of the partnership program. Users who didn’t register can only watch videos while registered users can upload an unlimited number of videos. According to the consortium in 2007 stated that YouTube as a repository of popular culture in the form of newscasts, television shows, movies or music videos that are of the current interest.
YouTube, in general, represents a forum for online communication that is centered around sharing preference and popular culture. It was created on February 14, 2005, by the three former PayPal employees’ chad Hurley, Steve Chen and jawed Karim.

2.2 The Insignificance of Social Networking Sits Usage
2.2.1 Teenagers
The importance of social networking sites is increasing for outgoing purposes among adults, but teenagers are the most frequent users. Globally, teenagers and college students are spending long hours on social networking sites such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, snap chat and other forms of social networking sites. This has resulted in a leading for addiction and affecting their school or work life. Parents are having less time to spend with their children as they are increasingly busy with jobs outside the home. The ability to play out of doors is virtually non-existent for children. Most of these teenagers spend their time alone watching television or using internet with very limited physical activity. According to McBride stated that College students are considered heavy users of Internet compared to the general population. Use of the Internet has become a part of college students’ daily routine. College Internet users are twice as likely to use instant messaging on any given day compared to the average Internet user (2006). They are passing their time on social networking sites as young people can play online games chat with their friends online and network. Social networking sites such as Twitter, Facebook, WeChat, Instagram are more popular worldwide. Increased internet among teenagers results in less physical, psychological, and emotional outlets for encouragement necessary for development. The misappropriate of social networking sites by teenagers has become one of society’s most insidious threats. It is not only harmful to a teenager but also adversely affects the family unit and society as a whole. When a teenager spends too much time on the Internet and wastes the time, their behavior patterns can be adversely altered as they spend less time on studies and responsibilities and become overcome with the desire to be online. There are many who forsake sleep, meals, and time with family and friends to be connected online. SNS as a time passing activity among teenagers and leading them to be addicted.
Further, teenagers are generally very much influenced by their peer groups. Because of the rapid growth in technology like cell phones, laptops, internet. In this 21st century, they have the access spending much of their time online and enjoy spending their free communicating with their friends. Males are more likely to spend online gaming and chatting, whereas for the females more likely to devote their time by posting pictures, chatting, and social networking on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and so on.
2.2.2 Social Networking Usage in Adolescents’
Usage of social networking addiction among adolescents’ researchers has shown that there are differences between social networking usage between genders. It is stated that male use social networking sites for learning while females for communicating with their friends. According to jelicic et al in 2007 stated the females are more alert not to reveal their personal information on social networking sites compared to males. And in 2016 according to muller et al states that intense social networking users were more related to females while was more associated with addiction among intense social networking user. Whereas kuss and Griffiths in 2011 observed that males overall are riskier to be addicted to social networking games compared to females.
2.1.1 Social Networking Addiction
Addiction of social networking and factors are explained by different authors and often known as psychological disorder around the world. Pamaoukaghion was the first who described social networking as a psychological disorder around the globe in 2010 and internet leading to social networking addiction saying When individual perceive a high level of social presence through their personal interactions on an SNS, they tend to be deeply involved and engaged in the SNSs
Defined by Daniel the term social refers to “interacting with other people by sharing information’s with them and receiving information from them (Daniel nation, 2017) minser describes networking as the process of developing and using your contacts to increase your business enhances your knowledge, expand your sphere of influence or serve your community (Ivan Minser 2012). While social networking sites as “web-based services that allow individuals to construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system; articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection and view and traverse their list of connections made by others within the system (Boyd and Ellison, 2007) Social networking addiction is a phase sometimes used to refer to someone spending too much time using Facebook, twitter, Instagram and other forms of social media so much so that it interferes with another aspect of daily life (Leslie Walker, 2017)Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual Attitude Affect Cognition Behavior and Social and Behavioral Sciences (2016) communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests. They are seen as a ‘global consumer phenomenon’ with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years.
2.2 Social Networking Factors
2.2.1 Enjoyment
(Holbrook, 1994) Enjoyment stems from the appreciation of an experience for its own sake. In our research context, enjoyment is derived from the fun and playfulness of using SNSs. It reflects users’ perception of the potential entertainment value of participating in SNSs. Enjoyment is generally measured on three dimensions: escapism, pleasure, and arousal (Mathwick, Malhotra, & Rigdon, 2001; Menon & Kahn, 2002; Perea Monsuwe, Dellaert, & De Ruyter, 2004; Song, Fiore, & Park, 2007). According to (Wu & Holsapple, 2014) saying escapism comes from engaging in activities that are unpleasant realities, problems, and pressures, absorbing to the point of offering an escape from. It’s said that pleasure is the extent to which a person feels happy, good, or satisfied while doing something according (De Wulf, Schillewaert, Muylle, ; Rangarajan, 2006; Song et al., 2007) while arousal is the degree to which external sensory stimulation makes a person feels active, stimulated, or alerts (Wu ; Holsapple, 2014).
Prior studies have shown enjoyment has significant effects on behavior. scholars have found that online shopping enjoyment leads consumers to browse more and stay longer on shopping websites (Ha ; Lennon, 2010; Kim, Fiore, ; Lee, 2007; Menon ; Kahn, 2002; Perea y; Monsuwe et al., 2004). Choi found that enjoyment of a smartphone based social networking service increased users’ intention to continue. Turel and Serenko stated that enjoyment not only contributed to high engagement it also facilitated the development of bad habits and addiction. The consequences of enjoyment have been addressed, the effects of different dimensions of enjoyment on SNS addiction have rarely been examined in previous studies, good things can turn them into bad things (Turel & Serenko, 2012) therefore, the present study investigates how the different dimensions of enjoyment influence SNS addiction.

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2.2.2 Social Presence
According to (Cheung, chin, and lee 2011). Social presence increased user’s trust in a perception of the usefulness of information. Although great efforts have been devoted to understanding social presence, most studies have focused on its positive effects. Scant research has investigated how social presence can result in negative consequences such as social network addiction. Addiction often derives from the processes of positive reinforcement and neural sensitization. SNSs which create the sense of belonging that fulfils a psychological void in individual’s lives can be addictive. Han et al (2016). Inappropriate and excessive use of SNSs can have effects such as low frustration tolerance, decreased academic performance, depression and low self – esteem (Cheung and Wong, 2011)
Here the term social presence is described as the “degree of salience of the other person in the interaction and the consequent salience of the interpersonal relationships” (Short, Williams, & Christie, 1976). Short, Williams and Christie they didn’t only explained the term social presence but also, they operationalized in terms of how warm, sociable, personal, and sensitive people perceive the mediated communication to be (Animesh, Pinsonneault, Yang, ; Oh, 2011; Short et al., 1976). Social presence captures the feeling of being psychologically involved in an interaction with others in a mediated environment (Durlach ; Slater, 2000; Schroeder, 2006).
(Ogara, chang and prybutok, 2014) states how important construct social presence is in the online environment because it implies direct or indirect human contact. Based on (Gefen ; Straub, 2004). The concept of social presence has been applied to explain individuals’ behavior and emotions in an online atmosphere (Han, Min, & Lee, 2016; Kim & Song, 2016). also, Choi explored the effect of social presence in mobile social network service and found that it contributed to users’ enjoyment and intention to continue in 2016. Later on, in 2010 Shen, Yu, and Khalifa found that social presence was positively related to social identity and knowledge contribution behavior in online virtual communities. It was founded by Han et al in (2016) that social presence increased users’ trust in the company and perception of the usefulness of information. Though the great efforts have been devoted to understanding social presence, most studies have focused on its positive effects. While limited research has investigated how social presence can result in negative consequences example like SNS addiction. In fact, individuals participating in SNS can communicate with others in a style that is similar to traditional communication (Cheung, Chiu, & Lee, 2011). When people perceive a high level of social presence through their personal interactions on an SNS, they tend to be deeply involved and engaged in the SNS which led individuals to become addicted to SNSs. Therefore, it is important to examine the link between social presence and SNS addiction.
2.2.3 Belongingness Theory
According to (Baumeister & Leary, 1995) theory belongingness is regarded as a crucial way to understand the fundamental role of interpersonal relationships in human lives. this theory suggests that individuals have a strong need for belonging and therefore it encourages to make interpersonal contacts and satisfy their need to belong. Also, they state that when individuals fulfilled their sense of belonging can lead to positive emotions.
Hagerty, LynchSauer, Patusky, Bouwsema, and Collier (1992), defined sense of belonging as the experience of personal involvement in an environment that causes the people to feel like an important part of that environment. This feeling is generated by the effect of the external environment on the people, and the behavior of the individual’s in the external environment is the result of this effect (An ; Liu, 2014). A while after that more sense of belonging theories and studies have aroused widely in both physical and online virtual environments (Zhao, Lu, Wang, Chau, ; Zhang, 2012). Based research, sense of belonging can be defined as an involvement in and perception of belonging to SNS communities (Chai ; Kim, 2012). It reflects users’ feelings of attachment to or identification with an SNS (Lin, Fan, & Chau, 2014) and provides a good description of the psychological state experienced by SNS users or their emotional responses to the online environment in the context of human-human interaction (Guo, Liu, & Liu, 2016).
investigation have stressed the major role of sense of belonging in the online environment (Lin, 2008; Lin et al., 2014; Zhao et al., 2012). Chai and Kim (2012) have found that sense of belonging positively influenced individuals’ knowledge sharing behavior on SNSs. Lin in 2008 stated that sense of belonging predicted members’ loyalty in online virtual communities. According to Chou, Lin, and Huang (2016) found that knowledge contribution behavior and online community citizenship behavior were positively impacted my sense of belonging in virtual communities. Lin et al. (2014) found that sense of belonging was a significant indicator of users’ intention to continue using SNSs.
Due to these research, I was capable of to have a better understanding of how the sense of belonging helps to shape peoples’ behavior. However, studies have mainly considered the positive outcomes created by the sense of belonging, with few considering the potential negative consequences. Indeed, when users have a stronger sense of belonging to an SNS, they are more likely to use it frequently, which raises the possibility of becoming addicted. therefore, this study aims to extend other studies by searching the cause of SNS addiction from the perspective of belongingness theory.
2.4 Research Model and Hypothesis
2.4.1 Research Model
The research model shows how social presence creates a sense of belonging for people it is a tool for escapism it helps individuals seek distraction from unpleasant realities it is a source of pleasure and it creates excitement within oneself. All of these emotions combined to create what we call social network sites addiction the more individual tends to feel a sense of belonging because of a certain tool in SNS, the higher becomes the attachment of this individual to that tool thus leading to addiction.


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