1. that customers will pay • As the

1. Price Skimming• A marketer sets a relatively high initial price for a product or service at first –then lowers the price over time• A temporal version of price discrimination or yield management• Allows the firm to recover its sunk costs quickly before competition lowers the market price• Objective is to capture the consumer surplus early in the product life cycle – to exploit a monopolistic position or the low price sensitivity of innovators • A product pricing strategy – a firm charges the highest initial price that customers will pay• As the demand of the first customers is satisfied – then the firm lowers the price to attract another, more price-sensitive segment• Hence the name from skimming successive layers of cream – or customer segments – as prices are lowered over time• Limitations:o It is effective only when the firm is facing an inelastic demand curveo A price skimmer must be careful with the law – Price discrimination is illegal in many jurisdictions – but yield management is noto The inventory turn rate can be very low for skimmed productso Skimming encourages the entry of competitorso Skimming results in a slow rate of stuff diffusion and adaptationo The manufacturer could develop negative publicity – they lower the price too fast without significant product changeso High margins may make the firm inefficient.

• Examples:o Technological markets: The top segment of the market which are willing to pay the highest price first – when the product enters maturity the price is then slowly loweredo New product: Just entered the market – business usually start with a high price and it will lower over time o Luxury car o The book market: a new book is published in hardback at a high price2. Product Bundling• A marketing approach – multiple products or components are packaged together into one bundled solution• Has become increasingly common in the early 21st century – companies try to overcome the costs of acquisition• When effective – bundling offers benefits to business and its customers• As with other business strategies – business may succeed or fail with product bundling• Typically – long-term benefits and better customer relationships development• Business should carefully analyse revenue + profit projections for both unbundled and bundled• If bundled solutions generate lower profits and no customer advantages – no sense• Tracking bundling performance and customer satisfaction helps ensure long-term benefits• Examples 1. Electronics retailers often bundle hardware, software and accessories – such as, buy a computer + get a bundle deal with the printer, monitors, cables and antivirus software2. Banks bundle – banking products to maximize the amount of business from each customer3. Restaurants – commonly bundle food items to create value meals or combinations

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1.1 _self o Axis of rotationaxis of rotation.

1.1 OVERVIEW OF LATHE BED Alathe is aHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_tool t _self o Machine toolmachine toolwhich rotates the work-piece on itsHYPERLINK http//en.

wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_of_rotation t _self o Axis of rotationaxisto perform various operations such asHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cutting t _self o Cuttingcutting,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanding t _self o Sandingsanding,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.

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org/wiki/Knurling t _self o Knurlingknurling, HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drilling t _self o Drillingdrilling, orHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deformation_(engineering) t _self o Deformation (engineering)deformation,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facing_(machining) t _self o Facing (machining)facing,HYPERLINK http//en.

wikipedia.org/wiki/Turning t _self o Turningturning, with tools that are applied to the work-piece to create an object which hasHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotational_symmetry t _self o Rotational symmetrysymmetryabout anHYPERLINK http//en.

wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_of_rotation t _self o Axis of rotationaxis of rotation. -Fig 1.1 Lathe Machine Lathes are used inHYPERLINK http//en.

wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodturning t _self o Woodturningwoodturning,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metalworking t _self o Metalworkingmetalworking,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/Metal_spinning t _self o Metal spinningmetal spinning,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_spraying t _self o Thermal sprayingthermal spraying, parts reclamation, and glass-working.

Lathes can be used to shapeHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pottery t _self o Potterypottery, the best-known design being theHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potter27s_wheel t _self o Potters wheelpotters wheel. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce mostHYPERLINK http//en.

wikipedia.org/wiki/Solid_of_revolution t _self o Solid of revolutionsolids of revolution, plane surfaces and screw threads orHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helix t _self o Helixhelices. Ornamental lathes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. The work-piece is usually held in place by either one or twocentres, at least one of which can typically be moved horizontally to accommodate varying work-piece lengths.

Other work-holding methods include clamping the work about the axis of rotation using a chuck orHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collet t _self o Colletcollet, or to aHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lathe_faceplate t _self o Lathe faceplatefaceplate, using clamps orHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/Dog_(engineering) t _self o Dog (engineering)dogs. Examples of objects that can be produced on a lathe includeHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candlestick t _self o Candlestickcandlestickholders,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gun_barrel t _self o Gun barrelgun barrels,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/Cue_stick t _self o Cue stickcue sticks,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furniture l Table t _self o Furnituretablelegs,HYPERLINK http//en.

wikipedia.org/wiki/Bowl_(vessel) t _self o Bowl (vessel)bowls,HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/Baseball_bat t _self o Baseball batbaseball bats, musical instruments (especiallyHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodwind t _self o Woodwindwoodwind instruments),HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crankshaft t _self o Crankshaftcrankshafts, andHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camshaft t _self o Camshaftcamshafts. 1.

2 DESCRIPTION OF LATHE MACHINE 1.2.1 Parts of lathe machine A lathe may or may not have legs which sit on the floor and elevate the lathe bed to a working height. A lathe may be small and sit on a workbench or table, and not require a stand. Fig 1.

2 Components of Lathe Machine Almost all lathes have a bed, which is (almost always) a horizontal beam (althoughHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CNC t _self o CNCCNClathes commonly have an inclined or vertical beam for a bed to ensure thatHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swarf t _self o Swarfswarf, or chips, falls free of the bed). Woodturning lathes specialized for turning large bowls often have no bed or tail stock, merely a free-standing headstock and a cantilevered tool rest. At one end of the bed (almost always the left, as the operator faces the lathe) is a headstock. The headstock contains high-precision spinning bearings.

Rotating within the bearings is a horizontal axle, with an axis parallel to the bed, called theHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spindle_(tool) t _self o Spindle (tool)spindle. Spindles are often hollow, and have exterior threads and/or an interiorHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/Morse_taper t _self o Morse taperMorse taperon the inboard (i.e., facing to the right / towards the bed) by which work-holding accessories may be mounted to the spindle. Spindles may also have exterior threads and/or an interior taper at their outboard (i.e., facing away from the bed) end, and/or may have a hand-wheel or other accessory mechanism on their outboard end.

Spindles are powered, and impart motion to the work-piece. Fig 1.3a Components on lathe bed Fig 1.3b Components on Lathe Bed Fig 1.3c Components on lathe bed The spindle is driven either by foot power from a treadle and flywheel or by a belt or gear drive to a power source. In most modern lathes this power source is an integral electric motor, often either in the headstock, to the left of the headstock, or beneath the headstock, concealed in the stand. In addition to the spindle and its bearings, the headstock often contains parts to convert the motor speed into variousHYPERLINK http//en.

wikipedia.org/wiki/Speeds_and_feeds l Spindle_speed t _self o Speeds and feedsspindle speeds. Various types of speed-changing mechanism achieve this, from a cone pulley or step pulley, to a cone pulley with back gear (which is essentially a low range, similar in net effect to the two-speed rear of a truck), to an entire gear train similar to that of a manual-shift autoHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_(mechanics) t _self o Transmission (mechanics)transmission.

Some motors have electronic rheostat-type speed controls, which obviates cone pulleys or gears. The counterpoint to the headstock is the tailstock, sometimes referred to as the loose head, as it can be positioned at any convenient point on the bed by undoing a locking nut, sliding it to the required area, and then re-locking it. The tail-stock contains a barrel which does not rotate, but can slide in and out parallel to the axis of the bed, and directly in line with the headstock spindle.

The barrel is hollow, and usually contains a taper to facilitate the gripping of various type of tooling. Its most common uses are to hold a hardened steel centre, which is used to support long thin shafts while turning, or to hold drill bits for drilling axial holes in the work piece. Many other uses are possible.HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lathe l cite_note-2 t _self2 Metalworking lathes have a carriage (comprising a saddle and apron) topped with a cross-slide, which is a flat piece that sits crosswise on the bed, and can be cranked at right angles to the bed.

Sitting atop the cross slide is usually another slide called a compound rest, which provides 2 additional axes of motion, rotary and linear. Atop that sits a tool-post, which holds aHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tool_bit t _self o Tool bitcutting toolwhich removes material from the work-piece. There may or may not be aHYPERLINK http//en.

wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadscrew t _self o Leadscrewlead-screw, which moves the cross-slide along the bed. Woodturning and metal spinning lathes do not have cross-slides, but rather have banjos, which are flat pieces that sit crosswise on the bed.

The position of aHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banjo_(wood_lathe) t _self o Banjo (wood lathe)banjocan be adjusted by hand no gearing is involved. Ascending vertically from theHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banjo_(wood_lathe) t _self o Banjo (wood lathe)banjois a tool-post, at the top of which is a horizontal tool-rest.

In woodturning, hand tools are braced against the tool rest and levered into the work-piece. In metal spinning, the further pin ascends vertically from the tool rest, and serves as a fulcrum against which tools may be levered into the work-piece. The bed of the lathe provides the foundation for the whole machine and holds the headstock, tailstock and carriage in alignment. The surfaces of the bed that are finely machined – and upon which the carriage and tailstock slide – are known as ways.Some beds have a gap near the headstock to allow extra-large diameters to be turned. Sometimes the gap is formed by the machined ways stopping short of the headstock, sometimes by a -piece of bed that can be unbolted, removed–and lost.Some very large lathes have a HYPERLINK http//www.lathes.

co.uk/harringtonsliding bed where the upper part, on which the carriage and tailstock sit, can be slid along a separate lower part – and so make the gap correspondingly larger or smaller. CHAPTER 2 LETERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Overview During literature survey, some important journal papers published at different national and international conferences were reviewed. Static and Dynamic analysis related articles published by different project companies are referred. Some standard books are referred during this phase. Some of the important information, knowledge and conclusions are derived from this literature survey to empower the basic fundamentals to carry out Thesis work.

1)Yang Zeqing, Liu Libing, Wangzuojie, Chen Yingshu, Xiao Quanyang has suggested that the maximum deformation of the slide board occurs in the middle of the slide board where the linear motor is placed. The linear motor feed system control model is established based on analysis of high-speed linear feed system control principle, and the linear motor feed system transfer function is established, and servo dynamic stiffness factors are researched, the control parameters of the servo system and actuating mechanism parameters of feed system on the effect of the linear motor servo dynamic stiffness are analyzed using MATLAB software, which provide the reference for determining the control parameters reasonably. The simulation results show that the position loop proportional gain, speed loop proportional gain and speed loop integral response time are the biggest influence factors on servo dynamic stiffness. The displacement response is reduced under the cutting interference force step inputting, while the position loop proportional gain, speed loop proportional gain and speed loop integral response time are increased, and the servo dynamic stiffness is increased, the number of system oscillation is also reduced, and the system tends to be stable.

2) S. Syath ABUTHAKEER, P.V.

MOHANRAM, G. Mohan KUMAR the results of the FEM analysis conducted through ANSYS software for the conventional lathe bed indicated that the portion of the bed bearing the headstock region suffered the maximum deformation. The bed was then considered for alternate structures and emphases were laid on retaining the existing manufacturing method and hence restrict modifications to only structural redesigning. The static analysis results were once again scrutinized to identify locations where excessive, unnecessary material was present and areas where material mass could be supplanted by rib structures. The presence of such rib structures proved beneficial as they reduced weight. In the above process, twelve different structural combinations were identified and each of them was analyzed under the prevalent conditions. The models along with the results of analyses are presented. From the table 1a and table 1b, it can be observed that two models i.

e. Cross and Horizontal Ribs with bionic, vertical ribs with hollow display optimal characteristics. One of these two models, vertical ribs with hollow was taken up for further material redistribution so that the deformation could be reduced to existing levels while reducing only weight as shown in figure 2. The existing and modified model of machine tool bed was then fabricated using the Rapid Prototyping Process. Fig 2.1 changing of lathe bed structure 2.3.1 FEM SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTS FEM simulation was carried out using ANSYS software to analyze both the conventional and the cross and vertical ribs with hollow bed, in terms of static and dynamic characteristics studies.

The 3-D models were established in a CAD system, Pro/E Wildfire 5.0, and were imported into ANSYS. The models were then modified or simplified to meet the FEM requirements. The material used was gray cast iron and the material specifications are listed in table 1. All DOFs of bottom surface were restricted and external loads were applied to corresponding positions of bed.

Table 1.Material Property MaterialElastic modulusPoisson ratioDensityGray Cast Iron1.1 e50.287200 The modified model has a reduced deformation along with reduction in weight which ultimately increases specific stiffness. Thus the new model proves to be better than the existing model by all means. The maximum displacement of vertical ribs with hollow bed is reduced by about 4.05 with 3.29 mass reduction, leading to the improvement of specific stiffness by 7.

77. 3) Ajay Bhardwaj suggested that gray cast iron is the best suitable material for lathe machine. Generally lathe machine are subjected to regular unwanted vibrations. The lathe machine vibrations are dangerous to machining operations.

it results in degraded quality on the machined parts, shorter tool life, and unpleasant noise, hence are to be neccesarily damped out. The important characteristics of lathe machine bed for metal cutting are high damping and static stiffness. the unwanted vibrations must be arrested in order to ensure higher accuracy along with productivity. 4) B.V. Subrahmanyam, A.

Srinivasa Rao, S.V. Gopala Krishna, CH.

Rama Krishna suggested that the Von-Mises stress is higher in lathe machine. they were done static and dynamic analysis of the machine tool structure 5) G. Vrtanoski and V. Dukovski suggested that Without considerable reduction in static performances a significant improvement in damping and Eugene frequencies has been achieved. The superiority of polymer concrete has been demonstrated in the 50 reduction of the weight. Also, the new product development time and the manufacturing cost have been dramatically reduced due to the simplification of the production process.

6) Adib Bin Rashid , Hasibul Shams , Abdur Rashid Tipu , Mohammad Reyad Arefin conducted the experiments on the variation of signal amplitude with respect to number of layers for different combinations of composites. It is observed that when the numbers of layers are increased, the signal amplitude has decreased. The maximum amplitude is obtained when no composite material was used indicating that the presence of composite material decreases the vibration amplitude and increases counter vibration characteristics of the system. This shows that with increase in the plates the damping can be increased but only to a certain limit. Also by analyzing the surface roughness on Surface profilometer it is observed the same result. Hence optimum level of plates is to be decided to profitably damp out the vibrations. 7) S. SYATH ABUTHAKEER, P.

V. MOHANRAM, G. MOHAN KUMAR developed Micro-Lathe will contribute to Micro-factory education and Micro-machine domestic production for education, and to prototype FMS for education by combining Micro-Lathe, Micro Milling, Micro grinding, Micro cutting, micro-manipulator, micro-machine tool and Micro-Factory system. Typical E-Glass/Epoxy micro lathe bed was designed and fabricated. Experimental setup was designed and developed for testing of beds.

The static deflection characteristics and modal characteristics of beams were found experimentally. The numerical modeling and analysis of beds were done in ANSYS and numerical results were taken and validated against experimental results. Damping and natural frequencies also found for both beds. E-Glass/Epoxy micro lathe bed were found to be best for replacing steel to increase the stiffness of structures. 8) Vitor Antonio Ducatti, Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz, Jos Maria C.

Dos Santos have conducted static and dynamic analysis on different material/composites for lathe bed. cast steal (AF) cast iron (FF) fiber-reinforced mortar (AR1, AR2 and AR3), ferro-cement (AA) polymer mortar (AP) reinforced polymer mortar (APA). Static and dynamic tests were carried out on the beds and the results discussed with the aim to substitute the traditional materials, cast iron and cast steel, for the news ones, cement and polymer mortar. Static tests results in fiber-reinforced mortar beds show that first cracking loads range from 40 to 70 kN according to the load application point and fiber content included in the prototype.

The maximum resulting displacements are lower than 5 mm. By assuming that the rupture happens in the beginning of the cracking, the fiber-reinforced mortar is able to support loads up to 40 KN. A lathe bed under service is not asked for such high loading. Therefore, as a static stiffness and strength of material point of view, the ferro-cement and fiber-reinforced mortar prototypes are able to perform well as a machine tool lathe bed. Rupture loads from prototypes loaded in the span center have no meaningful changes by comparing results from bending static test before and after cyclic loading. Only the AA prototype presents a rupture stress reduction of 14, while in the others this stress was kept unchanged. It reveals that cyclic loading seems to be no meaningful effect to the fiber-reinforced mortar prototypes. However, to the AP and APA prototypes the rupture loads were practically the same and very larger than (25) that once obtained with ARs prototypes after they have been submitted to cycle loading.

From the dynamic behaviour, it is clear the experimental identification of the 6 first vibration modes for almost all prototypes. As expected, the cast steel dominance in terms of higher natural frequencies for all the modes demonstrate that the alternatives materials will be the tendency to reduce them. Modal damping coefficients confirm some literature results related to alternative materials increase global damping when compared to the traditional ones.

Of course, these are preliminary results and more research must be done in order to clarify the contributions to the damping coefficient rise for each mode separately. 9) Venkata Ajay Kumar. G1 V.

Venkatesh suggested that Based on the configuration principles, the existing bed material was replaced by HM CFRP material shows improve in the static characteristics. Simulations results show that the static characteristics of the machine bed have been improved. Generally Composite materials also offer high specific strength and high specific modulus with less weight in machine tool industries. This composite materials offers high accuracy and precession of the component manufactured in such machine tools made of composite materials. By considering all the results, the induced deformation and strain in HM CFRP machine bed is less than conventional cast iron machine beds because specific strength and specific rigidity of HMCFRP machine bed is more than cast iron. The work suggests that HM CFRP material is best suited for CNC milling machine bed.

2.2 Conclusion derived from the Literature Review After reviewing above paper we can concluded that. An extensive study of literature has been carried out in the area of vibrational effect of the lathe bed. From the literature review it is understood that this area require further research to find some feasible solution to control the vibrational effect by changing the material. It is also determine that shape is also important factor for occurring Vibration of lathe bed.

So it required further research for the shape of lathe bed. It is also require further research to find the damping force for vibration. CHAPTER 3 COMPOSITE 3.

1 Introduction Composite materials are naturally occurring materials or synthetically prepared from 2 or more constituent materials with considerably different physical or chemical properties or both which remain isolated and dissimilar at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the completed structure. The elements are assorted in such a way so that they can retain their distinctive physical state and which are not solvable with each other nor a new chemical compound is formed. One element is known as reinforcing state which is embedded in another phase called matrix.

The most visible applications are pavement in roadways in the form of either steel and aggregate reinforced Portland cement or asphalt concrete. Most of the fibres are utilised as the reinforcing state and are even tougher than the matrix and this matrix is utilised in holding the fibres intact. Examples Aluminiums matrix implanted in boron fibres and an epoxy matrix implanted with glass or carbon fibres. These fibres may be long or short, directionally aligned or randomly orientated, or some sort of mixture, depending on the intended use of the material. Commonly utilised materials for the matrix are polymers, metals, ceramics, carbon and fibres are carbon (graphite) fibres, aramid fibres and boron fibres. Fibre-reinforced composite materials are further classified into the following Continuous reinforced fibre Discontinuous reinforced aligned fibre Discontinuous fibre-reinforced random oriented. CHAPTER 4 DAMPING AND FREQUENCY 4.

1Definition of Damping In physics, damping is any effect that tends to reduce the amplitude of oscillations in an oscillatory system, particularly the harmonic oscillator. In mechanics, friction is one such damping effect. In engineering terms, damping may be mathematically modeled as a force synchronous with the velocity of the object but opposite in direction to it. If such force is also proportional to the velocity, as for a simple mechanical viscous damper (dashpot), the force F may be related to the velocity v by F -cv , where c is the viscous damping coefficient, given in units of Newton-seconds per meter. INCLUDEPICTURE http//ctms.engin.umich.edu/CTMS/Content/Introduction/System/Modeling/figures/mass_spring_damper.

png MERGEFORMATINET Fig 4.1 Mass spring damper system An ideal mass-spring-damper system with mass m (kg), spring constant k (N/m) and viscous damper of damping coefficient c (in N-s/ m or kg/s) is subject to an oscillatory force and a damping force, Structural damping (at joints and interfaces) Fluid damping (through fluid-structure interactions) 4.2.

1 Material (Internal) damping Internal damping of materials originates from the energy dissipation associated with microstructure defects, such as grain boundaries and impurities thermoelastic effects caused by local temperature gradients resulting from non uniform stresses, as in vibrating beams eddy current effects in ferromagnetic materials dislocation motion in metals and chain motion in polymers. Several models have been employed to represent energy dissipation caused by internal damping. This variety of models is primarily a result of the vast range of engineering materials no single model can satisfactorily represent the internal damping characteristics of all materials.

3.2.2 Structural damping Rubbing friction or contact among different elements in a mechanical system causes structural damping. Since the dissipation of energy depends on the particular characteristics of the mechanical system, it is very difficult to define a model that represents perfectly structural damping.

The Coulomb-friction model is as a rule used to describe energy dissipation caused by rubbing friction. Regarding structural damping (caused by contact or impacts at joins), energy dissipation is determined by means of the coefficient of restitution of the two components that are in contact. Assuming an ideal Coulomb friction, the damping force at a join can be expressed through the following expression material, as a result the latter is subjected to a drag force. This force causes an energy dissipation that is known as fluid damping. The damping phenomenon can be applied to the machine tool systems in two ways 1.

Passive damping 2. Active damping Passive damping refers to energy dissipation within the structure by add on damping devices such as isolator, by structural joints and supports, or by structural members internal damping. Active damping refers to energy dissipation from the system by external means, such as controlled actuator.

4.3 Damping mechanism in composite materials Damping mechanisms in composite materials differ entirely from those in conventional metals and alloys. The different sources of energy dissipation in fiber-reinforced composites are a) Viscoelastic nature of matrix and/or fiber materials (b) Damping due to interphase (c) Damping due to damage which is of two types (i) Frictional damping due to slip in the unbound regions between fiber and matrix . (ii) Damping due to energy dissipation in the area of matrix cracks, broken fibers etc. (d) Viscoplastic damping (e) Thermo elastic damping 4.

4 frequency Frequency is the number of occurances of a repeating event per unit of time. It is also reffered to temporal frequency, which empasizes the constrast to spetial frequency and angular frequency. The period is the duration of the time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. Common symbols f,v SI unit hz The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the german physicist heinrich hertz. One hertz means that an event repeats once per second.

The previous name for this unit was cycle per second. The SI unit for the period is the second. There are two types of frequency Angular frequency denoted by greek letter omega, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement.angular frequency is commonly measured in radians per second.

Spatial frequency spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axis. CHAPTER 5 OBJECTIVES AND METHEDOLOGY 5.1 Overview Damping capacity is an extent of a materials ability to dissipate elastic-strain energy during mechanical vibration or wave propagation. Complications involving vibration arise in many regions of mechanical, civil and aerospace engineering. The damping of a structural component or element is often a significantly overlooked criterion for good mechanical design. Numerous mechanical failures over a seemingly infinite multitude of structures occurred due to lack of damping in structural elements.

For accounting the damping effects in a structural material, lots of researches and studies have been done in the field to suppress the vibration and to minimize the mechanical failures. Since it was found that damping materials can be utilized in treatment in passive damping technology to mechanical components and structures to increase the damping performance, there had been a commotion on the on-going research and studies over the last few periods to either alter the existing materials and components, or to develop an entirely new type of material to improve the structural dynamics of components for which damping concept could be applied. Composite structures are generally polymers, which give various ranges of different compositions which result in different material properties as well as behavior. Hence, composite damping structures and materials can be developed and tailored quite efficiently for a specific purpose and application.

Problems involving vibration and damping occur in many regions of mechanical, civil and aerospace engineering. Engineering composite structures and materials are generally fabricated using a variety of connections which include bolted, riveted, welded and bonded joints etc. The dynamics of mechanical joints is a topic of special importance due to their strong effect on the performance of the structural material. Moreover, the inclusion of the above mentioned joints play a significant role in the overall system behavior, particularly the damping level of the components and structures.

However, determining damping either by analysis or by experiment is never easy and straightforward keeping in view of the complexity of the dynamic interaction of components. The estimation of damping in beamlike structures using passive damping approach is very essential in problem solving addressed by the present research. 5.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE WORK This thesis provides a final summary of the progress made over the past year on the study of damping of composites for machine tools applied to high stiffness and damping structural members.

Composite materials are materials which dissipate strain energy when deformed in shear. This technology has a wide variety of engineering applications, including bridges, engine mounts, and machine components such as rotating shafts, component vibration isolation, novel spring designs which incorporate damping without the use of traditional dashpots or shock absorbers, and structural supports. The main focus of this dissertation is to study the composite materials to find its natural frequency and damping capacity of material using experimentation and finite element method.

5.3 Detailed Work Plan Task to be AccomplishedJuly 2014Aug 2014Sep 2014Oct 2014Selection of Research topicLiterature Review Internet SurfingStudy of Lathe BedStudy of composites materialsModeling of Lathe Bed in Creo ParamatricNumerical Analysis of Lathe Bed in ANSYS for Different MaterialReport Writing 5.4 Meetings with Experts To accomplish my goals successfully, I meet the following Experts.

Prof. Antriksh Bhatt (internal guide) From his busy schedule, Antriksh Sir gives his valuable time for me. He gave me so many guidelines which are very helpful for me to accomplish my work. He also encouraged me to publish my Research work in a International journal. Prof. Y.

D.VORA I meet Associate Professor Y.D.VORA Sir for the discussion of my Research work and he always shown me the correct path to accomplish my work successfully on the right time. In this thesis, various modal analyses have been done for the previously prepared model which was prepared in Pro-E 5.

0 and then imported to ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5. CHAPTER 6 NUMARICAL ANALYSIS OF LATHE BED Fi Fig Fixed support of lathe bed 7.

1 Numerical analysis of Cast Iron Lathe bed 7.2 Numerical analysis of Epoxy Glass Lathe bed MODECAST IRONEPOXY GLASS1268.27345.522363.43470.263385.6497.434490.


076578.84749.07Table 8.1 Comparison of model frequency of lathe bed Fig 8.

3 Comparison of modal frequency From the above comparision it shown that Natural Frequency of Epoxy Glass lathe bed is greater than Cast Iron lathe bed. CHAPTER 7 REFERENCES PAPERS Yang Zeqing, Liu Libing, Wangzuojie, Chen Yingshu1, Xiao Quanyang , Static and Dynamic Characteristic Simulation of Feed System Driven by Linear Motor in High Speed Computer Numerical Control Lathe TELKOMNIKA, Vol. 11, No. 7, July 2013, pp. 3673 3683.

S.S. Abuthakeer, P.V. Mohanram and G. Mohankumar, Static and Dynamic Performance Improvement of Conventional Computer Numerical Control Machine Tool Bed with Hybrid Welded Steel American Journal of Applied Sciences 8 (6) 610-616, 2011 Adib Bin Rashid1 , Hasibul Shams1 , Abdur Rashid Tipu2 , Mohammad Reyad Arefin, Investigation of the Effect of Composite Bed on Milling Machine to Reduce Chatter, International Conference on Mechanical, Industrial and Materials Engineering 2013 (ICMIME2013).


MOHAN KUMAR , DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ANALYSIS OF MICRO LATHE BED,AFEHIJE,2011. Ajay Bhardwaj, Grey Cast Iron the best suitable material for lathe machine bed, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication, volume 2, issue 8. Adib Bin Rashid1 , Hasibul Shams1 , Abdur Rashid Tipu2 , Mohammad Reyad Arefin, Investigation of the Effect of Composite Bed on Milling Machine to Reduce Chatter International Conference on Mechanical, Industrial and Materials Engineering 2013 (ICMIME2013). G. Vrtanoski and V. Dukovski, Design of polimer concrete main spindle housing for cnc lathe AMME 13th International scientific conference on achievements in mechanical and materials engineering 16th to 18th may2005. BOOKS Machine Tool Design, N.K.

Mehta1, Person Publication. WEBSITES Lathe Machine Description http//www.americanmachinetools.com http//www.scientific.

net http//www.springer.com http//www.ieee.in http//thescipub.com/journals/ajas Obc9pCZ_JeGw)ZCK 8a3wRJ4qbxb0WI8QDJ_GT06 4(4ZIErw.zh((qrH4TnRF4iKl1LJORRaRqZ2yhLTz2iqiT ( 7ntGNTbcTapiDGE -Gj9Z_lGINRR,eSJYe85R-J(UQERJJWTQTRRUJs7gssqW/UJTQ9g3ynGmxJeTQ9r/ys5,([email protected]_m/Xen9c__YCG-Gs)[email protected]/qbDJIv5ovGj./G4nm4Ozl7ycV1wyCnvvi.

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1.1 them, want to see and the longer

1.1 Background people always want to communicate with others people they used to visit them, want to see and the longer the distance the harder it was to communicate. The first social networking was established in 1971.it was created in 1994 by the name GeoCities, he was among the first on the internet his intent was to allow users to create their own website, categorizing them into different ‘cities’ based on the site’s content. theglobe.com was launched in 1995 to the public giving them the medium to interact with people who have the same hobbies to create their own content.A few years later in 1997, AOL instant messenger and six degrees were launched. Instant messaging was created giving users the freedom to chat with their friends and form a profile.

Six degrees even though it was the earliest social networking but did not gain the same success. The main idea theory to it was that people are separated by no more than six degrees from one another. It also allowed users to create the profile, make groups, search and invite friends. However, they encouraged members to invite more people to the site and had too many membership drives. Many individuals complained that the membership invitations were spam, filling up their websites with junk. In 2001 it was sold for $125 million and it was completely shut down the year after.Friendster was the modern social networking sites.

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The degree of separation a similar concept as Six Degrees but named it ‘Circle of Friends’. it was basically a dating site. Soon Myspace followed suit in 2003, who replicated Friendster. It was launched after only 10 days of coding. It soon became more popular than Friendster. As it gave users more freedom than Friendster when it came to customization; with music, videos, and a trend online environment.The LinkedIn site was considered success.

It was established in 2003 and took a more professional and business approach to social networking. Other sites focused on getting dates, having friends, and reuniting with old classmates, but LinkedIn focused on building business contacts and professionals. Also, it controls what a viewer may see based on whether they have a paid account, sites like myspace allow a user to choose whether they want their profile to be public or only friends. Facebook takes a different approach if they are friends or have mutual friends can view their profiles. Unless a profile owner has decided to reject permission to those in their network. In early 2004 was began as a Harvard only at the beginning if a user wanted to join they had to have their email address. As a Facebook began supporting other schools, they were required to have university email addresses associated with those institutions.

Facebook came into the social networking scene a little bit later. And the main focus was to connect US college students. Facebook first started with Mark Zuckerberg’s alma mater Harvard. At first, it was exclusive, over 19,500 Harvard students signed up in its first month after two years later it becomes open to the public it was no longer the campus-only. In 2008, Facebook exceeded Myspace and Friendster as the leading social networking site. It now has over 150 million members around the world.1.2 Social Networking Social networking is defined as web-based services that allow people to create a public or semi-public profile within a limited system also articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection and view their list of connections and made by those within the system.

It is the practice of expanding the number of one’s business or social contacts by making connections through individuals, often through Facebook, Instagram, twitter, and snap chat. Social networking establishes interconnected online communities that help people make contacts. A social platform such as Facebook, twitter, and Instagram have attracted billions of users that have integrated these sites into their daily practices. There are hundreds of SNSs, with various technological affordances, supporting a wide range of interests and practices. While their key technological features are fairly consistent, the cultures that emerge around SNSs are varied. Most sites support the maintenance of pre-existing social networks, but others help strangers connect based on shared interests, political views, or activities. Some sites cater to diverse audiences.

Sites also vary in the extent to which they incorporate new information and communication tools, such as mobile connectivity, and photo/video-sharing.1.3 Social Network Addiction Many researchers on SNS addiction has been done and there is a growing scientific evidence that states excessive SNS use may lead to addictions.

These symptoms have been described as temper modification, tolerance, withdrawal, decline, and struggle with concerns to behavioral addictions and have been confirmed in the context of the Internet addiction components model, For a small pressure of individuals, their use of social networking sites may become the single most important activity that they involve in, leading to an obsession with SNS use, using these sites are to reduce mood alterations, pleasurable feelings or a numbing effect (temper modification). Increased amounts of time and energy are required to be put into engaging with SNS actions in order to get the same feelings and state of mind that occurred in the primary stages of usage (tolerance). When SNS use is discontinued, addicted persons will experience negative psychological and sometimes physiological symptoms (withdrawal), often leading to recall the problematic behavior (decline). Problems occur as a result of the engagement in the challenging behavior, as well as interpersonal conflicts such as problems with the immediate social environment including relationship problems as education being compromised and work also leading to conflicts within the individual often including a subjective loss of control. while the current behavioral addiction research tends to be correlational and negative in nature and is often based on population studies rather than scientific samples in which psychological impairments are observed. individuals use it in order to cope with everyday problems and stressors, including loneliness and depression. Moreover, it has been contended that excessive SNS users find it difficult to communicate face-to-face, and social media use offers a variety of immediate rewards, such as self-efficacy and satisfaction, resulting in continued and increased use, with the consequence of exacerbating problems, including neglecting offline relationships, and problems in professional contexts.

The resultant depressed moods are then dealt with by continued engagement in SNSs, leading to a hurtful sequence of addiction. Using SNS for two or more hours a day was related to internalizing problems and decreased academic performance and activity. Social networking addiction mainly a phrase used to refer to someone spending too much time using Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, snap chat and other forms of social media so much so that it interferes with their daily life.

On the other hand, the addition of using social networking has become an ethical dilemma some people are using social networking excessively that they even use it everywhere, every time during their work, study and their meal and so on moreover with the mobile application development that increased the portability of social network thus making users using it more frequently. Lack of privacy when using social network can be another issue such as scams and harassment that users often encountered.Addictive behavior is defined as follows a repetitive habit pattern that increases the risk of disease or associated personal and social problems or the behavior continues to occur despite volitional attempts to abstain or moderate use over the last decade example smoking, eating, gambling and relationship. Other addictive behaviors have become a part of our lives, such as internet addiction, excessive use of the internet. In all social networking sites is the most widely used social media channel and the term social networking sites addiction come to importance. Terms such as “excessive use”, “addiction” have often been used interchangeably to refer to the negative aspects of social networking sites usage. In particular.

this is diagnosed as an addiction because it is categorized as cyber-relationship addiction.1.4 Research AimThe goal of this paper is to get a deep understanding of what leads people to be addicted to social networking sites. The purpose of this paper is also supported by research methodology as well as quantitative it will be based on questionnaires to be able to answer. The following is my research;A) what are the factors contributing to people’s addiction to social networking sites?In place of where in this 21st century has been more of a technological era and people from different age background have been interacting on social sites constantly throughout the day. This being said the aim of this paper is to find a better and efficient way for people to spend their valuable and precious time.1.5 Thesis Outline1.

5.1 Structure of the thesisThe paper consists of five chapters. In Chapter One, a general introduction to the study. Itintroduces the background of social networking, Addiction of social networking sites, research aim. The following chapter is chapter two, talks about the literature review.

It involves a brief introduction, social networking addiction and factors that lead people to be addicted. then the next chapter is Chapter Three, which discuss the methodology, research approach, questionnaire design, data collection method as well as data technique and method. Chapter Four includes the results we got from the questionnaire it consists of validity, correlation, reliability, Descriptive and Regression tables relating to questionnaire’s data. Last but not least chapter five conclusions and recommendations it includes the conclusion and the recommendation of the paper.Chapter 2 Literature Reviews2.

0 Introduction This chapter presents the overview of social networking sites, types of SNS, the insignificant usage of SNS, review of relevant literature on social networking sites. The section includes an overview of social networking, social networking addiction as well as the factors leading an individual to become addicted.2.1 Overview of Social Networking Sites2.1.1 Types of Social Networking SitesFacebookFacebook helps users to communicate with friends, exchange messages and receive automatic notification when they update their profile. Facebook is an online social networking service.

Users have to register before using the site, after that they can create a personal profit, add friends and so on. According to Liou et al states that Facebook as one of the social networking sites that offer people a medium to maintain and secure social connections and presents several functions for users to communicate with each other. In this way, users can increase their knowledge and communication skills through sharing photographs, links, news, and messages with their friends on Facebook and provide direct feedback by either pressing like or be writing a comment on their friend’s posts (2015)Twitter M.Alavia and Leidner stated twitter as an online social networking and microblogging service.

Also enables users to spend and read ”tweets”- text messages limited to 140 characters. It allows users who registered to read and post tweets, but for those users, unregistered can only read them. Users can access Twitter through the website interface, SMS as well as mobile device app (M. Alavi & Leidner, 1999; Tehemar, 2014). Twitter speedily expanded worldwide recognition, with 2012 users registered through 500 million, 340 million who posts tweets per day. The facility also handled 1.6 billion search requests per day. Now Twitter is one of the ten most visited websites and has been described as the SMS of the internet.

Instagram It was established in 2010, the name was originally from the combination of “instant camera” and “telegram.” Starting with one million monthly users, by July 2011 the photo-sharing app found itself with 100 million uploaded and the same year on September 10 million users. Instagram is knowing as a mobile app that allows users to share, upload with friends and with the world through videos and photos. in many ways, from the start, Instagram’s photo sharing platform has been unique.

The users can choose a filter to customize the image and capture the moment perfectly once they take a photo. The main aim of the filters is to transform an average or unprofessional mobile photo into creative and professional looking image.Instagram is intended to be used in real time, users can share with their friends and followers their experience as they happen.

Instagram made it convenient for the users to instantly share a picture on several platforms all from one app, also by sharing a social network. In addition, users can share photos on Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr so on. On the app itself, users can check a homepage of their friends’ recent posts, check a newsfeed for follower activity, comment on and like any public pictures, on top of that, they can tag followers in both comments and photos. In particular, the hashtag trend is widely used in captions and comments among them. Instagram is also accessible on the web, but only with the viewing, commenting and liking functions to upload photos, users must use Instagram’s mobile app.YouTubeYouTube allows users to upload, share as well as view videos mostly its uploaded most of the content on YouTube by individuals but for news such as CBS, the BBC and other organizations offer some of their material via YouTube, as part of the partnership program.

Users who didn’t register can only watch videos while registered users can upload an unlimited number of videos. According to the consortium in 2007 stated that YouTube as a repository of popular culture in the form of newscasts, television shows, movies or music videos that are of the current interest. YouTube, in general, represents a forum for online communication that is centered around sharing preference and popular culture.

It was created on February 14, 2005, by the three former PayPal employees’ chad Hurley, Steve Chen and jawed Karim. 2.2 The Insignificance of Social Networking Sits Usage2.2.1 Teenagers The importance of social networking sites is increasing for outgoing purposes among adults, but teenagers are the most frequent users. Globally, teenagers and college students are spending long hours on social networking sites such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, snap chat and other forms of social networking sites.

This has resulted in a leading for addiction and affecting their school or work life. Parents are having less time to spend with their children as they are increasingly busy with jobs outside the home. The ability to play out of doors is virtually non-existent for children. Most of these teenagers spend their time alone watching television or using internet with very limited physical activity. According to McBride stated that College students are considered heavy users of Internet compared to the general population. Use of the Internet has become a part of college students’ daily routine.

College Internet users are twice as likely to use instant messaging on any given day compared to the average Internet user (2006). They are passing their time on social networking sites as young people can play online games chat with their friends online and network. Social networking sites such as Twitter, Facebook, WeChat, Instagram are more popular worldwide. Increased internet among teenagers results in less physical, psychological, and emotional outlets for encouragement necessary for development. The misappropriate of social networking sites by teenagers has become one of society’s most insidious threats. It is not only harmful to a teenager but also adversely affects the family unit and society as a whole. When a teenager spends too much time on the Internet and wastes the time, their behavior patterns can be adversely altered as they spend less time on studies and responsibilities and become overcome with the desire to be online.

There are many who forsake sleep, meals, and time with family and friends to be connected online. SNS as a time passing activity among teenagers and leading them to be addicted.Further, teenagers are generally very much influenced by their peer groups.

Because of the rapid growth in technology like cell phones, laptops, internet. In this 21st century, they have the access spending much of their time online and enjoy spending their free communicating with their friends. Males are more likely to spend online gaming and chatting, whereas for the females more likely to devote their time by posting pictures, chatting, and social networking on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and so on. 2.2.2 Social Networking Usage in Adolescents’ Usage of social networking addiction among adolescents’ researchers has shown that there are differences between social networking usage between genders. It is stated that male use social networking sites for learning while females for communicating with their friends.

According to jelicic et al in 2007 stated the females are more alert not to reveal their personal information on social networking sites compared to males. And in 2016 according to muller et al states that intense social networking users were more related to females while was more associated with addiction among intense social networking user. Whereas kuss and Griffiths in 2011 observed that males overall are riskier to be addicted to social networking games compared to females.2.

1.1 Social Networking Addiction Addiction of social networking and factors are explained by different authors and often known as psychological disorder around the world. Pamaoukaghion was the first who described social networking as a psychological disorder around the globe in 2010 and internet leading to social networking addiction saying When individual perceive a high level of social presence through their personal interactions on an SNS, they tend to be deeply involved and engaged in the SNSs Defined by Daniel the term social refers to “interacting with other people by sharing information’s with them and receiving information from them (Daniel nation, 2017) minser describes networking as the process of developing and using your contacts to increase your business enhances your knowledge, expand your sphere of influence or serve your community (Ivan Minser 2012). While social networking sites as “web-based services that allow individuals to construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system; articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection and view and traverse their list of connections made by others within the system (Boyd and Ellison, 2007) Social networking addiction is a phase sometimes used to refer to someone spending too much time using Facebook, twitter, Instagram and other forms of social media so much so that it interferes with another aspect of daily life (Leslie Walker, 2017)Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual Attitude Affect Cognition Behavior and Social and Behavioral Sciences (2016) communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests.

They are seen as a ‘global consumer phenomenon’ with an exponential rise in usage within the last few years. 2.2 Social Networking Factors2.2.1 Enjoyment (Holbrook, 1994) Enjoyment stems from the appreciation of an experience for its own sake. In our research context, enjoyment is derived from the fun and playfulness of using SNSs.

It reflects users’ perception of the potential entertainment value of participating in SNSs. Enjoyment is generally measured on three dimensions: escapism, pleasure, and arousal (Mathwick, Malhotra, & Rigdon, 2001; Menon & Kahn, 2002; Perea Monsuwe, Dellaert, & De Ruyter, 2004; Song, Fiore, & Park, 2007). According to (Wu & Holsapple, 2014) saying escapism comes from engaging in activities that are unpleasant realities, problems, and pressures, absorbing to the point of offering an escape from. It’s said that pleasure is the extent to which a person feels happy, good, or satisfied while doing something according (De Wulf, Schillewaert, Muylle, ; Rangarajan, 2006; Song et al., 2007) while arousal is the degree to which external sensory stimulation makes a person feels active, stimulated, or alerts (Wu ; Holsapple, 2014).

Prior studies have shown enjoyment has significant effects on behavior. scholars have found that online shopping enjoyment leads consumers to browse more and stay longer on shopping websites (Ha ; Lennon, 2010; Kim, Fiore, ; Lee, 2007; Menon ; Kahn, 2002; Perea y; Monsuwe et al., 2004). Choi found that enjoyment of a smartphone based social networking service increased users’ intention to continue.

Turel and Serenko stated that enjoyment not only contributed to high engagement it also facilitated the development of bad habits and addiction. The consequences of enjoyment have been addressed, the effects of different dimensions of enjoyment on SNS addiction have rarely been examined in previous studies, good things can turn them into bad things (Turel & Serenko, 2012) therefore, the present study investigates how the different dimensions of enjoyment influence SNS addiction.2.2.2 Social Presence According to (Cheung, chin, and lee 2011).

Social presence increased user’s trust in a perception of the usefulness of information. Although great efforts have been devoted to understanding social presence, most studies have focused on its positive effects. Scant research has investigated how social presence can result in negative consequences such as social network addiction. Addiction often derives from the processes of positive reinforcement and neural sensitization. SNSs which create the sense of belonging that fulfils a psychological void in individual’s lives can be addictive. Han et al (2016). Inappropriate and excessive use of SNSs can have effects such as low frustration tolerance, decreased academic performance, depression and low self – esteem (Cheung and Wong, 2011)Here the term social presence is described as the “degree of salience of the other person in the interaction and the consequent salience of the interpersonal relationships” (Short, Williams, & Christie, 1976). Short, Williams and Christie they didn’t only explained the term social presence but also, they operationalized in terms of how warm, sociable, personal, and sensitive people perceive the mediated communication to be (Animesh, Pinsonneault, Yang, ; Oh, 2011; Short et al.

, 1976). Social presence captures the feeling of being psychologically involved in an interaction with others in a mediated environment (Durlach ; Slater, 2000; Schroeder, 2006).(Ogara, chang and prybutok, 2014) states how important construct social presence is in the online environment because it implies direct or indirect human contact. Based on (Gefen ; Straub, 2004). The concept of social presence has been applied to explain individuals’ behavior and emotions in an online atmosphere (Han, Min, & Lee, 2016; Kim & Song, 2016).

also, Choi explored the effect of social presence in mobile social network service and found that it contributed to users’ enjoyment and intention to continue in 2016. Later on, in 2010 Shen, Yu, and Khalifa found that social presence was positively related to social identity and knowledge contribution behavior in online virtual communities. It was founded by Han et al in (2016) that social presence increased users’ trust in the company and perception of the usefulness of information. Though the great efforts have been devoted to understanding social presence, most studies have focused on its positive effects.

While limited research has investigated how social presence can result in negative consequences example like SNS addiction. In fact, individuals participating in SNS can communicate with others in a style that is similar to traditional communication (Cheung, Chiu, & Lee, 2011). When people perceive a high level of social presence through their personal interactions on an SNS, they tend to be deeply involved and engaged in the SNS which led individuals to become addicted to SNSs. Therefore, it is important to examine the link between social presence and SNS addiction.2.

2.3 Belongingness Theory According to (Baumeister & Leary, 1995) theory belongingness is regarded as a crucial way to understand the fundamental role of interpersonal relationships in human lives. this theory suggests that individuals have a strong need for belonging and therefore it encourages to make interpersonal contacts and satisfy their need to belong. Also, they state that when individuals fulfilled their sense of belonging can lead to positive emotions. Hagerty, LynchSauer, Patusky, Bouwsema, and Collier (1992), defined sense of belonging as the experience of personal involvement in an environment that causes the people to feel like an important part of that environment.

This feeling is generated by the effect of the external environment on the people, and the behavior of the individual’s in the external environment is the result of this effect (An ; Liu, 2014). A while after that more sense of belonging theories and studies have aroused widely in both physical and online virtual environments (Zhao, Lu, Wang, Chau, ; Zhang, 2012). Based research, sense of belonging can be defined as an involvement in and perception of belonging to SNS communities (Chai ; Kim, 2012). It reflects users’ feelings of attachment to or identification with an SNS (Lin, Fan, & Chau, 2014) and provides a good description of the psychological state experienced by SNS users or their emotional responses to the online environment in the context of human-human interaction (Guo, Liu, & Liu, 2016).investigation have stressed the major role of sense of belonging in the online environment (Lin, 2008; Lin et al., 2014; Zhao et al.

, 2012). Chai and Kim (2012) have found that sense of belonging positively influenced individuals’ knowledge sharing behavior on SNSs. Lin in 2008 stated that sense of belonging predicted members’ loyalty in online virtual communities. According to Chou, Lin, and Huang (2016) found that knowledge contribution behavior and online community citizenship behavior were positively impacted my sense of belonging in virtual communities. Lin et al.

(2014) found that sense of belonging was a significant indicator of users’ intention to continue using SNSs.Due to these research, I was capable of to have a better understanding of how the sense of belonging helps to shape peoples’ behavior. However, studies have mainly considered the positive outcomes created by the sense of belonging, with few considering the potential negative consequences.

Indeed, when users have a stronger sense of belonging to an SNS, they are more likely to use it frequently, which raises the possibility of becoming addicted. therefore, this study aims to extend other studies by searching the cause of SNS addiction from the perspective of belongingness theory. 2.4 Research Model and Hypothesis 2.4.1 Research Model The research model shows how social presence creates a sense of belonging for people it is a tool for escapism it helps individuals seek distraction from unpleasant realities it is a source of pleasure and it creates excitement within oneself.

All of these emotions combined to create what we call social network sites addiction the more individual tends to feel a sense of belonging because of a certain tool in SNS, the higher becomes the attachment of this individual to that tool thus leading to addiction.

1.4 a product. This survey is concentrate on

1.4 Significance of studyA through understanding of customer choice, taste and preference will lead to successful marketing of a product. This survey is concentrate on the factors that affect purchase intention towards mobile phone among Sunway University students. This survey is focused on the following grounds: The results of this study will help to explore factors influence the purchasing intention towards mobile phones among Sunway University students.

It will give information on customer intention on brand image, price, product attributes, social influence and marketing communication when purchasing a certain brand over all other other brand in the market. It will also show the customer loyalty towards their prefered brands. Moreover, it will show the appearance prefered by the students which are the size, weight, shape and colour of the mobile phones. This study also will be be a great assistance to future researchers and mobile phone firms to understand the factors that influence purchase intention among students and at the same time help to increase their sales and demand. A profound understanding of purchasing intention of customers can help mobile phone firms to design a mobile phone that will concentrate on customers.

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