1. these results? The crew size with


Which crew size had the highest productivity per worker? Which crew size had the lowest productivity per worker? What are some possible explanations for these results?The crew size with two members had the highest productivity, because they seem to work better in pairs, and hold each other accountable. While the crew size of three had the lowest productivity, because you have a crew of two working together, while the third is trying to figure out what they are supposed to be doing. Furthermore, the crew size with four members, could become more distracted and lose track of the task especially if it’s a smaller job. 2. After a recent storm, a customer called in a panic, saying that she had planned a garden party for the upcoming weekend and her garden was in shambles.

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The owner decided to send a crew of four workers, even though a two-worker crew would have a higher productivity. Explain the rationale for this decision.The owner decided to send a crew of four workers, because those workers can break into a group of two and be more productive and spend less time on the job. 3. What is a possible qualitative issue that may very well influence productivity levels that the productivity ratios fail to take into consideration?Perhaps it’s not the size of the team that may be the focus of productivity, it’s the organization of the team and how well they work together.

This area isn’t taken into consideration with productivity ratios.

1.2 preferable way of practicing the use of

1.2 Statement of the problem “The objective of the teaching of writing in foreign language is to become learners to obtain the abilities the need to produce written text like to those an educated person would be expected to be able to produce in their own language” (Ur, 1991.p.162).

Ur point out learners should engage in activities to learn writing skill. As teaching writing through dictogloss engaged learners in activities it is a preferable way of practicing the use of grammar, punctuation spelling, and vocabulary in writing (Wajnryb, 1990; Jacobs and Small, 2003). Additionally, using dictogloss technique to teach writing help the learner to internalize the content of passage remember few phrases and lexical items as a key word to reconstruct a text in their own words (Brown, 2004).Likewise, the reconstruction stage of dictogloss technique facilitates the students to be able to reconstruct a dictated-text by using their own language (Ratnaningsih, 2016). Thus, dictogloss is an integrated skills technique for language learning in which students work together to create a reconstructed version of a text read to them by their teacher. This technique of teaching writing also provides the content words to the students and has some stages that facilitate the pupils to learn writing skill.

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Furthermore, Nunan (1991, p.28) assessed that dictogloss technique provides to the learner a useful bridge between bottom-up and top-down understanding of the learner. In the first instance, learners are primarily concerned with identifying individual elements in the text a bottom-up strategy in the small group discussion use top down strategies. Hence, this technique helps the learners to integrate background knowledge and the clues given during the dictation in EFL class in reconstruction of the text. Besides, Brown (2003) stated dictogloss is intensive types of writing that goes beyond the fundamental of imitate writing and the learners internalize the content of the passage and remember a few phrase and lexical items and recreate the story using their own words.

It is generally believed that using dictogloss technique in EFL class writing lesson engaged the learners in tasks. Hence, in dictogloss technique, which is different from dictation technique, learners work together and engaged in task to create a reconstructed version of a text read to them by their teacher using their own words. Concerning this Qin (2008) Jin (2013), Romario (2016) & Retnowaty,(2011 who made a research on dictogloss technique concluded that EFL learners improve their sentence writing in skill.

Result of the researchers showed that the EFL learner significantly benefited from the lesson in writing skill in general and in sentences writing level. Thus, dictogloss technique is a powerful technique for learning the mechanics of writing and sentences constructions in general.Furthermore, Haregewein (2008, p.66) dictogloss technique of language teaching represents a change from traditional dictation method of language teaching to integrated way.

It is also an instrumental to integrate grammar with writing skills. Likewise, Mesret (2012, p.251) also stated dictogloss is task based technique that combines opportunities of student interaction to generate ideas for writing.

Despite this, in practice dictogloss in writing class room has not yet received enough attention. As far as the experience of the researcher concerned and as an English teacher in the study area witnessed that most grade nine students could not meaningfully write paragraph. Although a number of scholars suggested that the use of dictogloss is considered as an essential technique to improve students’ writing skills but, using dictogloss in writing lesson has not yet received enough attention in EFL class in Ethiopian context in general and in the study area in.

Besides, as far as the researcher knowledge there are no studies that have been conducted on the effectiveness of using dictoglos technique to enhance paragraph writing in Ethiopian context. Although much has been written in the literature about the effectiveness of dictogloss to teach writing there is still no agreement on scholars whether dictogloss technique improves students’ writing skill or not. Regarding to this, Setiana (2012) conduct research on effect of dictogloss on writing and the finding indicated that dictogloss did not improve students’ writing ability significantly. The result of hypothesis testing showed the experimental group did not get better score than the controlled class students and Setiana conclude dictogloss did not improve students writing skill. Because of above stated ideas the researcher conducted an experimental study to examine the effects of the using dictogloss on improving students’ writing skill in terms of paragraph writing, and assessed their attitude towards dictogloss on improving their writing skill in terms of paragraph writing at Addishehu secondary School in the case of grade nine.

By and large scholars assure us that dictogloss technique make EFL learners to be active and reflective during the learning process &learning is effective when dictogloss is implemented in the teaching of writing. The researcher assumed that the benefits of using dictogloss technique in writing classrooms had not received enough attention in teaching English as a foreign language in Ethiopian context similarly in the present study area. Besides, researcher findings like Setiana (2012) shown that dictogloss technique was not effective technique to enhance writing skill.

Hence, the researcher raised the following questions:

1. as e-Business transforms the market for works,


The rise of the Internet and the World Wide Web boom in early 90’s created the first electronic markets (e-Markets) resulting in change in global community rapidly. The continuous improvement of information and communication technology affects the world market. Gone are the days of pushing papers in the world of procurement for both the public and private sector, as e-Business transforms the market for works, services and supplies globally. This has resulted in increasing the country’s productivity and removal of domestic barriers to international, thus re-defining the ways governments and companies used to manage their supply chains.2.

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Continuous change and progressive development are very common phenomenon in the organizations today. Although, different types of change related projects are frequently launched, the change actually requires a lot of effort, resources and management from the organization, especially in order to truly succeed in the change process. Nowadays, it is common that organizations are digitizing their supply chain management related processes. Digitization and the ever-developing information technologies and systems enable organizations to communicate as well as trade both with their customers and their suppliers in a faster, efficient and at a larger scale pan across the entire globe. Businesses of today tend to focus in amassing their purchase power and reducing expenses with external suppliers to increase both profits and stock value. In order to get more detailed information about the different expense categories, creating efficient and standardized purchasing processes and have cohesive contract and supply base management in place, many businesses have adopted different types of electronic systems to better understand and analyze expense related processes and thus to make the tendering processes cohesive. A variety of electronic tools are available in market to enhance the productivity and contribute to value creation of the procurement professionals. The primary strategic objectives of adoption of ibid electronic tools is to overall manage and integrate the entire supply chain, price pressure and cost reduction, knowledge development and learning, information flow control, management of global suppliers, development of cohesive procurement practices and lead time management.

3. Sourcing is an intellectually complex, and conventionally, highly manual process. Organisations have always practiced some level of ‘Sourcing’. At its most basic, it is the process of analyzing expense process of an organisation, understanding the opportunities to reduce expense based on an understanding of the external market versus internal requirements, develop a strategy to manage the expense, conduct RFIs and RFPs, negotiate contracts, implement contracts and measure supplier performance. 4. Recent developments in internet technology connectivity provide an excellent opportunity to make sourcing for works, services and supplies more transparent and efficient. Integration of public procurement with information technology can be an appropriate means to achieve the primary objective of healthy competition, such as access to information, level playing field for all participants in the market.

5. This paper attempts to study the best practices of electronic sourcing (e-Sourcing) application implementation in world markets to show that e-Sourcing, particularly in the public domain has evolved as an effective tool to establish the fundamentals of market’s economy and hence increases organisations productivity, remove domestic barriers to international trade and improve efficiency. Definition 6. e-Sourcing is the process enabled with appropriate web-enabled, collaborative technology to facilitate the full life-cycle of the procurement process for both buyers and suppliers. The benefits of e-Sourcing include streamlining the sourcing process, reduction of cost by maximizing supplier competition, and creating a repository for sourcing information. 7.

Presently, the companies are investing heavily in digital technologies with purpose of reducing the procurement cycle resulting in increased transparency and make the process more efficient. Organizations are now investing more in procurement technologies such as expenditure visibility, e-Sourcing, contract management and requisition to pay. Majority of ibid technologies emerged in the 1990s have now improved substantially and become more user friendly making them easier to adopt, use and get benefitted. The growth of e-Sourcing usage over past two decades is caused by several internal and external forces including the ability for buyers and suppliers to communicate economically in real-time and worldwide through use of easily available robust, user-friendly and Internet-based software systems. There are multiple options available in today’s world market of electronic applications that can be utilized in the field of supply chain management. The technologies are used by manufacturers, suppliers and retailers alike and range from simple automation of long standing business practices to complex real-time linkages enabled through internet. However, e-Sourcing is seen as one of the types of digital business, which is a critical element in building and maintaining competitiveness amongst the manufacturers as well as service providers. 8.

e-Sourcing application enables streamlining of procurement processes such as non-value adding clerical tasks, bureaucratic authorization processes and excessive documentation that can be minimized and replaced by capturing of source data, integration of transactions in real-time and document management. e-Sourcing processes supports networking to make the process more efficient by helping the sourcing professionals in making comparisons between suppliers about costs and past performance accurately in real time while simultaneously leaving an audit trail for future references and thus support the decision making of the sourcing managers to understand and analyze which sourcing options are the most effective to the instant requirement. If used correctly, different types of electronic tools enable the sourcing managers to focus more on important tasks such as supplier relationship management, sourcing strategy development and negotiations, which require much more time and effort, and are seen as value adding activities. 9.

Even though, some forms of e-Sourcing and procurement systems have existed in market for almost two decades, many organizations are still hesitant in adopting different electronic tools for lack of awareness or resistance to change being human nature. However, gradually the industry has realized the power of e-Sourcing tools and thus many organizations are now open to use of e-Sourcing systems. The digital era is one of the fundamental reasons behind the need for companies to evolve continuously to its sustenance in the market. Despite the wide range of e-Sourcing tools available in market, success of adoption of ibid electronic tools has its own share of success or failure aspects depending on how well the change management has been undertaken. Most of the times electronic systems and tools are implemented in the organizations, but in many cases the usage and naturally the benefits gained fall short from the expected due to poor planning in implementation stage and employees’ resistance to change which have not been managed in proper ways.10. In order to succeed in the adoption of e-Sourcing, preparations for its successful implementation needs to be carried out in detailed manner. It is important to understand and analyze the most important factors that influence the process of electronic procurement adoption within an organization.

In addition to carefully deciding on the correct e-Sourcing system itself and understanding the factors influencing the implementation success, thorough change management is required by understanding the lessons learnt from the forerunners of other digital business implementers. By applying best practices and minimizing risk factors, it is possible to successfully and proactively manage the change and implement the e-Sourcing system in the most successful way.

1.0. performance in the country. Hence, some


0. Introduction This chapter of the concept paper presents the background of the study, problem statement, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, scope of the study, significance of the study and the conceptual framework 1.1. Background to the studyEducation is a gadget used to effect countrywide progress.

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Educational aims stand fixed out in the National Plan on Education in relations of their application to the requirements of the individual and society. The National Strategy is established with aims and objectives, to facilitate educational growth in the country. These goals and intents invite the school head to provide vital roles include enhancing real administrative skills and styles to manage colleges, improve job performance among teachers so students’ academic performance is boosted (Fika, I. Ibi, M. and Aji, B., 2015).

It is not astonishing that there is massive demand for operative administration of secondary schools. A good number of school heads haven’t considered the different administrative techniques which determine students’ academic performance in the country. Hence, some of them seem to find it tremendously problematic to successfully lead their schools (Akinnibagbe , 2002).

With the fast changing world, it is impossible for people of preferred managerial technique or type to embrace all knowledge, awareness or power to realise success (Muthondu G.W., 2007).

These longstanding forms of management provide power and are a heading to one or few individuals involved in administrative positions. Leadership being gender requires that prospective leaders be trained to adapt to the fluctuating society and make an effort to teach and model different management techniques which will most effectually lead various institutions to achieve set goals. Students’ performance in examinations is because of different factors; which include provision of physical facilities, classroom size, effective school discipline policies, administrative support and effective leadership. As several studies in Botswana, Nigeria, and Papua New Guinea concur to this (Muli, M.M , 2005). Good administration brings about necessary guidance in the school, clarity of direction and rewards to ensure effective performance of students.

1.2. Problem statementAdministration at work in educational institutions is a dynamic process where an individual is not only accountable for the group’s errands, but also actively seeks the cooperation and assurance of all the group members in achieving group goals in a particular perspective (Aji, B.M, 2014). Administration ensures that students perform to the maximum, since it ensures that tasks are accomplished and the responsible parties assigned for greater strengthening of the institution with emphasis put on recognition, service provision and motivation (Balunywa, W.S. , 2000). However, of all the above contributions of school administration towards academic performance, performance tends to be alarming and wanting in schools as a result of managerial techniques used which influences the organisational culture.

Such managerial techniques are made of a set of attitudes, traits, and skills in the principals formed based on four factors: values, trusting employees, leadership orientation, and a sense of security shaped in important situations 1.3. Purpose of the studyThe purpose of the study is to examine the effect of school administration on students’ academic performance in Isingiro District.

1.4. Objective of the studyi. To establish the different factors that affect students’ academic performance.ii. To investigate the contribution of school administrators towards students’ academic performanceiii.

To determine the possible measures to the challenges faced by students in Isingiro District. 1.5.

Research questionsi. What are the different factors that affect students’ academic performance?ii. What is the contribution of school administrators towards students’ academic performance?iii. What are the possible measures to the challenges faced by students in Isingiro District?1.6. Scope of the studyThe study will focus on effect of school administrators on students’ academic performance The study is limited to school administrators as the independent variable and students’ academic performance as the dependent variable. The study will be carried out in Isingiro District.

This so because of the limited finances and with government aided schools in place within the district whose academic performance tends to fluctuate each and every year.1.7. Significance of the study The results of this study will be valuable to researchers and scholars, as it would form a basis for further research. Scholars will use this study as a basis for discussions on school administration and students’ academic performance as it will provide the scholars with empirical studies that they will use in their studies. The study will also add to the body of knowledge in the education discipline by bridging the existing gap. This study will make several contributions to both knowledge building and practice improvement with several policies recommendation put forward1.

8. Conceptual frameworkIndependent Variable Dependent VariableMediating/intervening variable Source: Researcher 2018?2.0. Literature reviewPrincipalship is a critical management skill involving the ability to encourage group of people towards common goal. Leadership focuses on the development of followers and their needs.

Managers exercising transformational administrative style focusing on the development of value system of employees, their motivational level and moralities with the development of their skills, (Sashkin, M. ;Sashkin, M. , 2003).

Different administrative styles of a school principal which include initiative, consideration and participatory structure of management (Omolayo B., 2009)Initiative structure of administration is the extent to which a principal defines managers and group member roles, initiates actions, organizes group activities and defines how task are to be accomplished by the group. A leader in this structure defines his goals and facilitates group movement toward them. This administrative style decides everything and tries to manipulate the followers into approving his ideas on how the school should function. A leader in this group does not give trust to any member of the group. Lee (1995) reported that, the Initiative structure of management leadership style results in the group members reacting aggressively and apathetically in the work environment. This often results in unending industrial disputes in an organization hence affecting the overall achievement of the organizational goals and objectives. Mwalala, (2008) observed that Initiative structure and harsh climate leads to poor performance of students.

Initiative structure of management, also known as autocratic leaders, provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done. There is also a clear division between the leader and the followers.In their study, Lewin and Caillords (2001) found that participative administrator, also known as democratic leadership, is generally the most effective administrative style.

Participatory structure leadership not only offers guidance to group members, but they are allowed to participate in the group and allow input from other group members. Hence, children in this group were less productive than the members of the Initiative structure group, but their contributions were of a much higher quality. Participative administrator encourages group members to participate, but retain the final say over the decision-making process. Group members feel engaged in the process and are more motivated and creative who in turn improve their performance as well as the performance of the organization.

3.0. Methodology The researcher will adopt a descriptive research survey for this study it is suitable for the study as it gives the researcher the opportunity of obtaining respondents’ opinion from the entire population sampled. The total population of the study is made up of 5 Secondary Schools in Isingiro district during the 2015/2017 academic session. The population is chosen for investigation due to the researcher’s interest.

Simple Random Sampling method will be used. The Schools in the Zone are grouped according the three divisions in the district. Simple Random Sampling method will be used to select the Schools under study. The sample size will comprise of 60 teachers from the secondary schools being studied which will constitute the number of questionnaires obtained after distribution.

A Structured Questionnaire will be used for data collection process. The questionnaire items will be validated to ascertain its suitability for use in data collection. The whole content of the questionnaire and its structure will critically be examined and corrections made where required and its reliability determined using a test –retest method. Data collected will be edited upon the receipt of the questionnaires to ensure accuracy and consistency of the information given by the respondents.

Data will be entered in the computer using a SPSS version 20, descriptive, principal component, correlation and regression analysis will be used to establish the relationship between the study variables. Responses from the questionnaire will be analysed using the descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentage, and inferential statistics and descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages will also be used in analysing demographic variables and research questions.For data analysis and presentation, the data collected will be edited and checked to ensure uniformity, accuracy, consistency and comprehensiveness. The structured questionnaires will be coded, questions grouped, tabulated and frequencies run according to the objectives of the study, the data will be analysed and the information presented using statistical frequency tables, graphs and pie – charts.?4.0. References Aji, B.

M. (2014). Leadership styles of head of department and academic staff performance: Unpublished Master Dissertation, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Akinnibagbe . (2002). The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader: The mediating effects of empowerment and trust in the leader. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 28,(1), 4-19. Balunywa, W.S. . (2000).

A hand Book of Business Management. Kampala: Ugandan Press. . Fika, I. Ibi, M. and Aji, B. (2015).

Leadership styles of head of department and academic staff performance in the University of Maiduguri: Maiduguri Journal of Education Studies, 8(1) 83-94. Lee D. (1995). Leadership theory, application and skill development: USA: South- West College Publishing.

Lewin, K ; Caillords, f. (2001). Financing secondary education in development: strategic for sustainable growth: Paris International Institute for Education Planning. UNESCO. Muli, M.M . (2005).

Effects of Head Teachers Management Styles on Performance in Physics at K.S.C.E. Examination in Mutomo Division, Kitui District: Unpublished M.

ed. Project, University of Nairobi. Muthondu G.W. (2007).

“Teachers’ Perception of Female Head Teachers’ Leadership Styles in Public Secondary School in Nairobi Province: Unpublished Master Dissertation, University of Nairobi. . Mwalala D.B. .

(2008). Influences of Head Teachers’ Leadership Styles on K.C.S.E Performance in Public Secondary School in Taita District: Unpublished Master Dissertation, University of Nairobi. . Okumbe, J.

A. (1998). Educational Management: Theory and Practice. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press. Omolayo B. (2009).

Effects of leadership styles on job related tension and psychological sense of community in work organization: case study of four organization in Lagos State, Nigeria: Bangladesh. E.J Social. 4,(2)133-157. Sashkin, M.

&Sashkin, M. . (2003).

Leadership That Matters. San Francisco: BarrettKoehler Publishers Inc.

1. The total area of Africa is around

1. After Asia, Africa is the second largest continent, and it covers the area of about 22% of the entire land area of the planet.

2. The total area of Africa is around 30 million kilometers square. 3.

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Africa is second driest continent in the world.4. Africa is the hottest continent in the world.

5. There are 54 total countries in Africa. 6.

Sudan is the largest country in Africa and the smallest country is Seychelles.7. Africa’s most populated city is Cairo, capital of Egypt.

8. Africa is world’s largest diamond producer, approximately more than 50 %of world production.9. Africa has the largest hot desert in the world called, Sahara desert.10. The Sahara desert covers as many as 10 countries of Africa.11. The richest country in Africa is Equatorial Guinea.

12. At the starting of 20th century almost entire territory of Africa was colonized but Ethiopia and Liberia were independent.13. During second Congo War, more than 5.4 million people died- second highest causalities after World War II. 14.

Between 15th and 19th centuries, around 7-12 millions of Africans were kidnapped and sold to slavery in America.15. Many countries of Africa are in the list of top 25 poorest and underdeveloped countries in the world. 16. The people of Africa follow Islamic or Christianity religion.

17. Nigeria is the fourth largest oil exporter in the world and the largest oil producer in Africa.18.

Africa has more than 30% of total earth’s mineral resources. 19. The world’s longest river, Nile flows in Africa.20. The biggest African island is Madagascar.21.

Victoria Lake is the largest lake in Africa and second largest freshwater lake in the world.22. Africa population is more than 1 billion and is second most populated continent.23. According to researches the human civilization started in Africa.

24. The total population of Africa is about 16% of total earth’s population. 25. In African countries half of the population has not reached the age of 25 years.

26. There are over 25 million HIV positive people in Africa and more than 17 million people have already died from it.27. About 90% malaria cases occur in Africa and about 3,000 children die from it every day.28. Approximately 40% of population of Africa lacks secondary education.

29. The people of continent speak approximately 2000 languages.30. Arabic is the most spoken language, other languages like English, Swahili, French and Hausa are second most popular languages.31. Africa has the lowest life expectancy rate, men- 50 years and female- 48 years. 32.

There are many rare species of plants and animals found in Africa like, hippos, giraffes and many others.33. Hydnora africana, insectivorous plant grows only in Africa. The local people consume fruits of this plant. 34. More than 25% of bird species are in Africa.35.

The world’s largest land animal – an African elephant lives in Africa. It can weigh from 6 to 7 tons.36. Lake Malawi, located in East Africa, contains the largest number of species of fish.37. The world’s fastest animal, cheetah lives in Africa.38.

Some African tribes hunt hippos and serve it as food.39. Africa is crossed by equator and Prime Meridian, so it is most centrally located continent in the world. 40. Africa and Europe are separated by only 8.9 miles of ocean.

41. The sand dunes of Sahara Desert can be as high as Eiffel Tower.42. More than 90% of African soil is not suitable for agriculture. 43.

Around 240 million of Africans suffers from malnutrition.44. The highest mountain in Africa – Kilimanjaro, it is a volcano.

45. Africa’s most deadly animal is hippopotamus. 46. A country of Africa, Tanzania has the highest albinism rates. Albino children are attacked by the witchdoctors and cut their body parts to make tonics that they believe can heal diseases. 47. Africa’s most famous tourist destination is Egypt.

48. Africa’s most popular sports are soccer and cricket.49. Females of African tribe, Mursi wears plates on their lips.50. Africa has the world’s oldest university; University of Karaouine, it is in Morocco.

51. Around 40% of population of Africa is illiterate. 52. There is tribe in Africa called “Kalenjins”; most of the fast runners come from there. 53. Wangari Maathai was the first African woman who was rewarded Noble Prize for peace.54. Sudan has the highest number of pyramids in the world.

55. Experts say that there are at least 3,000 distinct ethnic groups in Africa.56.

There are more than 1 million Chinese citizens in Africa.57. South Africa is the second largest fruit export in the world.

58. 40% of African children between the ages of 5 and 14 are forced to work.59. People have to walk on an average 4 kilometers daily to get water.60.

Everyday around 96 elephants are killed on the continent.


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