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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
The separation of ownership from control produces a condition where the interests of owners and ultimate managers may, and often do diverge, and where many checks which formerly operated to limit the use of power disappear.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the corporate world has witnessed series of failures (Enron, WorldCom, RBS, Arthur Anderson; Oceanic bank, Intercontinental Bank; in Bangladesh the Hall Mark Scandal, NRB Bank Loan Scandal), which brought about a heightened public awareness to corporate governance issues. The global economic crunch which began in 2007 added further strands to corporate governance practices and policies. These developments witnessed in the corporate sector have intensified investors’ involvements. And with that trend, have come more and more demand for high corporate governance standards, to ensure the efficient and effective use of capital, which provides good returns on investments in a manner responsible for society’s interest; and is protected from malfeasance and misappropriation. Corporate governance is about the procedures and processes according to which an organization is directed and controlled. Corporate governance tends to encourage the efficient use of scarce resources as well as ensure accountability for the stewardship of those resources.

Good corporate governance is an indication for the success of any organization. Its relevance was further stressed in a 2002. Mckinsey survey which stated that ‘corporate governance is at the heart of investment decisions’. And investors tend to put corporate governance at par with financial indicators when evaluating investment decisions. Corporate governance is not an end in itself but a means to an end. As such, there are different factors that may lead to the accomplishment of its objectives.
Effective Corporate Governance practices are essential to achieving and maintaining public trust and confidence in the banking system, which are critical to the proper functioning of the banking sector and economy as a whole. As we know banking sector has been performing an essential role in strengthening any economy. Poor Corporate Governance may contribute to bank failures, which can pose significant public costs and consequences due to their potential impact on any applicable deposit insurance systems and the possibility of broader macroeconomic implications, such as contagion risk and impact on payment systems. In addition, poor Corporate Governance can lead markets to lose confidence in the ability of a bank to properly manage its assets and liabilities, including deposits, which could in turn trigger a bank run or liquidity crisis.

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1.2 Scope of This Study
The scope of the study is the operating private commercial banks in Bangladesh and their publications.

1.3 Literature Review
Kar, Sarker (2014) showed corporate governance practice in private banks of Khulna city of Bangladesh considering 10 local banks.

Mahmud, Ara(2015) pointed corporate governance practice of banking industry of Bangladesh considering public and private banks.

Ahmed, Jannat (2017) discovered corporate governance practice in banking industry of Bangladesh and their impact.

Hoque, Mohammad Ziaul and Islam, Rabiul Md. and Ahmed, Hasnan, (2013) The results indicated that a good number of companies does not comply the mandatory requirements for board size, appointment of independent directors in the board, and holding audit committee meetings set forth by the central bank and the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) implying remarkable shortfall in corporate governance practice in Bangladeshi banking sector.

Muttakin, Mohammad Badrul and Shahid Ullah, Md., (2012) The study investigated the relationship between the corporate governance structure and performance of listed banks in Bangladesh. We find that board independence and board size have a significant positive impact of performance.

Kamruzzaman, Mr. Md., (2012) This article was intended to understand the banks sustainability, its increasing importance, and new developments contemplation.

Mamun, Syed and Muniruzaman, Mohammad, Board Attributes and Performance of Non-Banking Financial Institutions in Bangladesh: An Empirical Study (April 19, 2015). paper examined the relationship between board of directors, an important corporate governance instrument, and performance of non-bank financial institutions in Bangladesh
Haque, Jalil, Naz (2017) showed state of corporate governance in Bangladesh: considering public limited companies–financial, nonfinancial institutions and state owned enterprises.

Deepty, Ahmed (2011) The study was examined the level of corporate governance (CG) disclosures of the general insurance companies (GICs) of Bangladesh (BD). Additionally, it has developed a multi-index model to identify impact of corporate attributes on corporate governance disclosures.

Mahmood, Rezwan & Moshin Islam, Md. (2015) study found that top management influence as well as political pressure exist in banking sector which affect the lending decision. Corrupted bankers and dishonest officials of Bangladesh Bank were found associated with several scams.

Gramling, Maletta and Schneider (2004) revealed the relationship between internal audit and corporate governance. The most important finding of their study was the catalytic role of internal auditing in the effective corporate governance.

Kamal, Yousuf and Pervin, Tahura and Alam, Samsul, (2007) studied with the concept and evolution of corporate governance in this sector and argued the importance of a broader view of corporate governance, which encapsulates both shareholders and depositors. Then examined the corporate governance of banks in Bangladesh in the context of ongoing banking reforms. Ultimately provided a set of measures for both micro and macro level to strengthen corporate governance in this sector.

Khan (2010) the purpose of paper was to investigate the corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting information of Bangladeshi listed commercial banks and explores the potential effects of corporate governance (CG) elements on CSR disclosures.

Ahmed, Zannat, Ahmed (2017) study showed a positive relation between corporate governance and performances of banks, the statistical insignificance of the relation raises concern regarding various issues of corporate governance in the financial sector of Bangladesh.

Rahman, Arifuzzaman, Alam (2013) particularly put light on the extent of CG in the country and attempts to evaluate actual governance practices in the banks of Bangladesh.

Huq (2014) focused on the state of Corporate Governance (CG) in two categories of the banking industries: Conventional Banks and Islamic Banks
Ahmed, Samiul and Jannat, Rahatul and Ahmed, Uddin, (2017) creates values not only to those banks but also to the other stakeholders who are related to this. Investors and creditors decision can be influenced by this study.

Islam, Haque (2015) aimed to find the extent of Disclosure of Corporate Governance Compliance of State Owned Commercial Banks (SOCBs) in recent years in Bangladesh.

Ibrahim (2011) stated the nature and characteristics of internal audit function in Egyptian listed firms and assessed its ability to fulfill its role in corporate governance. The study was carried out through a questionnaire survey. The results showed that internal audit function in Egyptian listed firms, in its current status, faces many difficulties that affect negatively its effectiveness in corporate governance. Therefore, extensive efforts should be made to enhancing the internal audit profession in Egypt.
Mutave, Martin Everlyn (2012) study found out that that risk management had the greatest effect on corporate governance within deposit taking microfinance institutions in Kenya followed by internal controls while compliance and consulting and audit committee had the least effect respectively.

1.4 Objective of The Study
Primary Objective to evaluate the practices of Corporate Governance by the Private Commercial Banks of Bangladesh.
Secondary Objective Assessing the accountability of private banks of Bangladesh to the stakeholders. Evaluating in what extent the current practice of corporate governance passes the test of fairness in case of private commercial banks. To know whether corporate commercial governance system in Bangladesh is transparent for all stakeholders of private banks.

2. METHODOLOGY
2.1 Assumption
An assumption has been made to test the probability that 70% or more of the commercial banks in Bangladesh are satisfying with 90% or more issues of the corporate governance codes. Compliance of corporate governance codes for each issue is determined when 70% or more banks have satisfied with that assumption. The probability has been taken based on subjective probability technique. (Douglas A. Lind, William G. Marchal, “Statistical Techniques in Business and Economics”, Fourteenth Edition, pp. 146-147)
2.2 Research Methodology
The study adopted qualitative research methodology. Qualitative, quantitative and secondary data were gathered via websites and publications in order to achieve the research objectives and provide answers to the research questions.
2.3 Population of the Study
All 48 private commercial banks have considered the total population for this study purpose.

2.4 Sample Size of the Study
Among the large number of private banks, only 20 commercial private banks were randomly selected as the sample of this study purpose.

Among 48 banks it was considered Bank Asia Ltd, AB Bank Ltd, AIBL, Eastern Bank Ltd, Mercantile Bank Ltd, MTB Ltd, NRB Bank Ltd, One Bank Ltd, Premier Bank Ltd, South East Bank Ltd Midland Bank Ltd, Meghna Bank Ltd, IFIC Ltd, DBL Ltd, City Bank Ltd, BRAC Bank Ltd, BCBL, Trust Bank Ltd, UCB Ltd, Uttara Bank Ltd.

2.5 Sources of Secondary Data
The secondary data were collected through related bank annual report, books, official statistics, published brochures, and bank websites.

2.6 Data Entry and Analysis
Major issues of corporate governance have been tabulated and analyzed. For some analysis here, percentage system has been used. It has been presented in terms of tables, figures, and graphs as well as written scripts. For the processing and analyzing numerical data, means, standard deviations and z tests have been used in the study.

2.7 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis will be test to fulfill the research objectives:
Hypothesis-1
H0: The state of Shareholder Rights and Disclosure of Information is being met the corporate governance codes by the private banks.
HA: The state of Shareholder Rights and Disclosure of Information isn’t being met the corporate governance codes by the private banks.
Hypothesis-2
H0: The condition of condition for Disclosure and Transparency is being met the CG corporate governance codes by the private banks.
HA: The condition of condition for Disclosure and Transparency isn’t being met the corporate governance codes by the private banks.
Hypothesis-3
H0: The situation of Board of Directors issues is being met the corporate governance codes by the private banks.
HA: The situation of Board of Directors issues isn’t being met the corporate governance codes by the private banks.
Hypothesis-4
H0: The situation of Financial Reporting is being met the corporate governance codes by the private banks.
HA: The situation of Financial Reporting isn’t being met the corporate governance codes by the private banks.
Hypothesis-5
H0: The situation of Audit practices by the private banks is meeting the corporate governance codes.
HA: The situation of Audit practices by the private banks isn’t meeting the corporate governance codes.
Hypothesis-6
H0: The situation of HRM approaches embraced by the banks is meeting the corporate governance codes.
HA: The situation of HRM approaches embraced by the banks isn’t meeting the corporate governance codes.
Hypothesis-7
H0: The situation of CSR arrangements embraced by the banks are meeting the corporate governance codes.
HA: The situation of CSR arrangements embraced by the banks are not meeting the corporate governance codes.

2.8 Limitations of the Study
Due to time and resource constraint the researcher was bound to use only secondary data.

3. BANGLADESH BANK- CORPORATE GOVERNANCE GUIDELINE
3.1 Corporate governance Practice Scenario in Bangladesh
Most companies and organizations of Bangladesh don’t follow good corporate governance guideline because most of the organizations’ governing bodies are family oriented. Also the director doesn’t feel the necessity to disclose information positively. Another reason there is little judgement or penalty consequences.
3.2 Bangladesh Bank Guideline for Corporate governance
Formation of Board of Directors:
The newly amended Section 15 of the Bank Company Act, 1991 (Amended up to 2013) includes provisions for prior approval of Bangladesh Bank before the appointment of new bank directors, as well as dismissal, termination or removal of any director from the post; director’s fit & proper criteria; maximum number of directors; appointment of independent directors; appointment of maximum 2(two) members from a family as director; etc.
1.1. Appointment of New directors:
Under section 15(4) of the Bank Company Act, 1991 (amended up to 2013), every banking company, other than specialized banks, at the time of taking prior approval from Bangladesh Bank for appointing/reappointing directors should furnish the following documents along with the application:
3. Information regarding Directors: Banks are advised to take the following steps regarding director information:
a) Every bank should keep an updated list of bank directors,
b) Banks should send a directors’ list to other banks or financial institutions immediately after the appointment or release of director.
c) Banks should display a list of directors in the website and update it on a regular basis.

4. Responsibilities of the Board of Directors:
To ensure good governance in the bank management it is essential to have specific demarcation of responsibilities and authorities among controlling bodies over bank affairs. In the Bank Company Act, 1991 (amended upto 2013) the newly included Section 15(kha) ; (ga) give responsibility to the board of directors for establishing policies for the bank company, for risk management, internal controls, internal audit and compliance and for ensuring their implementation.

a) Personal information of the nominated person (Appendix-ka); b) Nominated person’s declaration(Appendix-kha); c) ‘Declaration for confidentiality’ by the nominated person(Appendix-ga);
d) In case of Independent director, the approval letter from Security and Exchange commission; e) In case of Independent director, a declaration of the directors concerns as Appendix-gha (he will also submit declaration under Appendix-ka, kha & ga); f) CIB report of the nominated person; g) Updated list of the directors.

4.1. Responsibilities and Authorities of the Board of Directors:
Credit and risk management:
i. The policies, strategies, procedures etc. in respect of appraisal of loan/investment proposal, sanction, disbursement, recovery, reschedule and write-off thereof shall be made with the board’s approval under the purview of the existing laws, rules and regulations. The board shall specifically distribute the power of sanction of loan/investment and such distribution should desirably be made among the CEO and his subordinate executives as much as possible. No director, however, shall interfere, direct or indirect, into the process of loan approval.
ii. The board shall frame policies for risk management and get them complied with and shall monitor the compliance at quarterly rests and review the concerned report of the risk management team and shall compile in the minutes of the board meeting. The board shall monitor the compliance of the guidelines of Bangladesh Bank regarding key risk management.
c) Internal control management:
The board shall be vigilant on the internal control system of the bank in order to attain and maintain satisfactory qualitative standard of its loan/investment portfolio. The board will establish such an internal control system so that the internal audit process can be conducted independently from the management. It shall review the reports submitted by its audit committee at quarterly rests regarding compliance of recommendations made in internal and external audit reports and the Bangladesh Bank inspection reports.
d) Human resources management and development:
i. Policies relating to recruitment, promotion, transfer, disciplinary and punitive measures, human resources development etc. and service rules shall be framed and approved by the board. The chairman or the directors shall in no way involve themselves or interfere into or influence over any administrative affairs including recruitment, promotion, transfer and disciplinary measures as executed under the set service rules. No member of the board of directors shall be included in the selection committees for recruitment and promotion to different levels. Recruitment, promotion, transfer ; punishment of the officers immediate two tiers below the CEO shall, however, rest upon the board. Such recruitment and promotion shall have to be carried out complying with the service rules i.e., policies for recruitment and promotion.
ii. The board shall focus its special attention to the development of skills of bank’s staff in different fields of its business activities including prudent appraisal of loan/investment proposals, and to the adoption of modern electronic and information technologies and the introduction of effective Management Information System (MIS). The board shall get these programs incorporated in its annual work plan.
iii. The board will compose Code of Ethics for every tier and they will follow it properly. The board will promote healthy of conducts for developing a compliance culture.

4.3. Responsibilities of the Chairman of the Board of Directors:
a) As the chairman of the board of directors or chairman of any committee formed by the board or any director does not personally possess the jurisdiction to apply policy making or executive authority, he/she shall not participate in or interfere into the administrative or operational and routine affairs of the bank.
b) The chairman may conduct on-site inspection of any bank-branch or financing activities under the purview of the oversight responsibilities of the board. He may call for any information relating to bank’s operation or ask for investigation into any such affairs; he may submit such information or investigation report to the meeting of the board or the executive committee and if deemed necessary, with the approval of the board, he shall effect necessary action thereon in accordance with the set rules through the CEO. However, any complaint against the CEO shall have to be apprised to Bangladesh Bank through the board along with the statement of the CEO.
c) The chairman may be offered an office-room, a personal secretary/assistant, one peon/MLSS, one telephone at the office, one mobile phone to use inside the country and a vehicle in the business-interest of the bank subject to the approval of the board.
5. Formation of committees from the Board of Directors:
Each bank company can form 1(one) executive committee, 1(one) audit committee and 1(one) risk management committee with the directors. Board can’t form any other permanent, temporary or sub- committee except the above mentioned three committees.
5.2. Audit Committee:
The board will approve the objectives, strategies and overall business plans of the bank and the audit committee will assist the board in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities. The committee will review the financial reporting process, the system of internal control and management of financial risks, the audit process, and the bank’s process for monitoring compliance with laws and regulations and its own code of business conduct.

Financial Reporting:
1. Audit committee will check whether the financial statements reflect the complete and concrete information and determine whether the statements are prepared according to existing rules ; regulations and standards enforced in the country and as per relevant prescribed accounting standards set by Bangladesh Bank;
2. Discuss with management and the external auditors to review the financial statements before its finalization.
(iii) Internal Audit:
1. Audit committee will monitor whether internal audit working independently from the management.
2. Review the activities of the internal audit and the organizational structure and ensure that no unjustified restriction or limitation hinders the internal audit process;
3. Examine the efficiency and effectiveness of internal audit function;
4. Examine whether the findings and recommendations made by the internal auditors are duly considered by the management or not.
(iv) External Audit
1. Review the performance of the external auditors and their audit reports;
2. Examine whether the findings and recommendations made by the external auditors are duly considered by the management or not.
3. Make recommendations to the board regarding the appointment of the external auditors.
(v) Compliance with existing laws and Regulations:
Review whether the laws and regulations framed by the regulatory authorities (central bank and other bodies) and internal regulations approved by the board are being complied with.

Risk Management Committee:
To play an effective role in mitigating impending risks arising out from strategies and policies formulated by the Board and to carry out the responsibilities efficiently, a risk management committee will be formed. After identifying and assessing several risk factors like credit risks, foreign exchange risks, internal control and compliance risks, money laundering risks, information and communication risks, management risks, interest risks, liquidity risks etc.; the risk management committee will scrutinize whether appropriate risk management measures are being put in place and applied and whether adequate capital and provision is being maintained against the risks identified.

Corporate Social Responsibility Practice:
It was instructed by the GBCSRD circular no-7 (22 December, 2014) that every scheduled banks and financial institutions how they will cost the CSR fund willingly. Through that circular it was advised to incurred 30% for education, 20% for health, 10% for climate risk fund.
Training for the Directors:
The directors shall make themselves fully aware of the banking laws and other related rules and regulations for performing his duties properly.

4. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Shareholders’ Rights and Disclosure of Information
The following graph shows the data with compliance and non-compliance level

Graph 1. Shareholders’ Rights and Disclosure of Information
Hypothesis Test-1
H0: The state of Shareholder Rights and Disclosure of Information is being met the corporate governance codes by the private banks.
HA: The state of Shareholder Rights and Disclosure of Information isn’t being met the corporate governance codes by the private banks.
Here,
Total attributes, n = 5
Total conformed attributes, x = 2
Compliance probability in the population, p = 0. 90
Non Compliance probability in the population, q = 0.10
Thus attributes’ population mean (µ) = n × p = np = 5 × 0.90 = 4.5
Standard deviation, (?) = npq = ?4.5×.10= 0.67
Calculated z value z= x-np? = 2-4.5.67 = – 3.73

Significance level = 5%
A two tailed test ?2= .052 = 0.025
Table value of z = ±1.96. It is the corresponding value of 0.475 = (0.5 ? .025)
Here, Reject H0, So, it can be concluded that the corporate governance on Shareholders’ Rights and Disclosure of Information are not maintained properly by the 70% or more private commercial banks of Bangladesh.

4.2 Disclosure and Transparency Practice
Disclosure is an important issue for the shareholder. On the basis of the disclosed issue they take decision whether they will sell, purchase or retain the share. So transparency is highly required in disclosing issue.

The resulting data with compliance and non-compliance level on this issue is given in the following graph.
Graph 2. Disclosure and Transparency
Hypothesis Test-2
H0: The condition of condition for Disclosure and Transparency is being met the CG corporate governance codes by the private banks.
HA: The condition of condition for Disclosure and Transparency isn’t being met the corporate governance codes by the private banks.
Here,
Total attributes, n = 10
Total satisfying attributes, x = 7
Compliance probability in the population, p = 0. 90
Non-compliance probability in the population, q = 0.10
Thus attributes’ population mean (µ) = n × p = np =10 × 0.90 = 9
Standard deviation, (?) = npq = ?9×.10= 0.95
Calculated value z = x-np?= 7-9.95= – 2.10

Significance level = 5%
A two tailed test ?2= .052 =0.025
Table value of z = ±1.96. It is the corresponding value of 0.475 = (0.5 ?.025)
Here, do not reject H0. So, it can be concluded that the corporate governance guideline of disclosure and transparency are maintained by the 70% or more private commercial banks of Bangladesh.

4.3 Board Issues
Information relating to board of director gives a confidence level that shareholders’ invested amount will be maintained properly, not misused.

The board issues are summarized in the following graph.

Graph 3. Board Issues
Hypothesis Test-3
H0: The situation of Board of Directors issues is being met the corporate governance codes by the private banks.
HA: The situation of Board of Directors issues isn’t being met the corporate governance codes by the private banks.
Here,
Total attributes, n = 15
Total conformed attributes, x = 9
Compliance probability in the population, p = 0. 90
Non-compliance probability in the population, q = 0.10
So, attributes’ populations mean(µ)= n × p=np =15×0.90=13.5 Standard deviation, (?) = npq = ?13.5×.10= 1.16
Calculated value z= 9-13.51.16 = – 3.88

Significance level = 5%
A two tailed test ?2= .052 =0.025
Table value of z = ±1.96. It is the corresponding value of 0.475 = (0.5 ? .025).

Here, Reject, H0. So, it can be concluded that the corporate governance on board issues are not practiced as we were expecting by the 70% or more private commercial banks of Bangladesh.

4.4 Financial Reporting
It shows that most of the private commercial banks of Bangladesh follow either Bangladesh Accounting Standards (BAS) or International Accounting Standards. Most of the banks try to ensure that their report shows fair picture to ensure that they employ experienced CFO.

Summary of financial reporting data in the following graph.

Graph 4. Financial Reporting
Hypothesis Test-4
H0: The situation of Financial Reporting is being met the corporate governance codes by the private banks.
HA: The situation of Financial Reporting isn’t being met the corporate governance codes by the private banks.
Here,
Total attributes, n = 7
Total conformed attributes, x = 6
Compliance probability in the population, p = 0. 90
Non-compliance probability in the population, q = 0.10
Thus attributes’ populations mean (µ) = n × p = np =7 × 0.90 = 6.3
Standard deviation (?) = npq = ?6.3×.10= .79
Calculated value z = 6-6.3.79 = – .38

Significance level = 5%
A two tailed test ?2= .052 =0.025
Table value of z = ±1.96. It is the corresponding value of 0.475 = (0.5 ? .025)
Here, do not reject H0. So, it can be concluded that all the corporate governance on financial reporting are maintained by the 70% or more private commercial banks of Bangladesh.

4.5 Audit Practices
Commercial banks audit their accounts by internal and external audit team and they employ experienced auditor and ensure fair review but in selection process the shareholders have little access.

The following graph shows the present condition of audit practice

Graph 5. Audit Practice
Hypothesis Test-5
H0: The situation of Audit drilled by the private banks is meeting the corporate governance codes.
HA: The situation of Audit honed by the private banks isn’t meeting the corporate governance codes.
Here,
Total attributes, n = 6
Total conformed attributes, x = 4
Compliance probability in the population, p = 0. 90
Non-compliance probability in the population, q = 0.10
Thus attributes’ populations mean (µ) = n × p = np =6 × 0.90 = 5.4
Standard deviation, (?) = npq = ?5.4 × 0.10 = 0.73
Calculated value z = 4-5.4.73 = – 1.92

Significance level = 5%
A two tailed test ?2= .052 =0.025
Table value of z = ±1.96. It is the corresponding value of 0.475 = (0.5 ? .025)
Here, reject H0. So, it can be concluded that the corporate governance on audit practice are not practiced by the 70% or more private banks of Bangladesh.
4.6 Human Resources Management
The HRM practice by the private commercial banks of Bangladesh is not up to that mark.

Summary of HRM Practice

Graph 6. Human Resource Management
Hypothesis Test-6
H0: The situation of HRM approaches embraced by the banks is meeting the corporate governance codes.
HA: The situation of HRM arrangements embraced by the banks isn’t meeting the corporate governance codes.
Here,
Total attributes, n = 6
Total conformed attributes, x = 1
Compliance probability in the population, p= 0.90
Non-compliance probability in the population, q = 0.10
Thus attributes’ populations mean (µ) = n × p = np = 6 × 0.90 = 5.4
Standard deviation, (?) = npq = ?5.4 × 0.10 = 0.73
Calculated value z= 1-5.4.73 = – 6.02

Significance level = 5%
A two tailed test ?2= .052 = 0.025
Table value of z = ±1.96. It is the corresponding value of 0.475 = (0.5 ? .025)
Here, Reject H0. So, it can be concluded that the corporate governance on human resource management are not practiced according to the expectation by the 70% or more private banks of Bangladesh.
4.7 Corporate Social Responsibility Practice
In Bangladesh most commercial banks spend their CSR budget in education, health and climate risk fund. It has found that most banks spend in climate risk fund but supposed to be in education sector.

This graph shows summary of CSR Practice
Graph 7. Corporate Social Responsibility
Hypothesis Test-7
H0: The situation of CSR arrangements embraced by the banks are meeting the corporate governance codes.
HA: The situation of CSR arrangements embraced by the banks are not meeting the corporate governance codes.

Here,
Total attributes, n = 3
Total conformed attributes, x = 0
Compliance probability in the population, p= 0.90
Non-compliance probability in the population, q = 0.10
Thus attributes’ populations mean (µ) = n × p = np = 3 × 0.90 = 2.7
Standard deviation, (?) = npq = ?2.7 × 0.10 = .52
Calculated value z= 0-2.7.52 = – 5.19

Significance level = 5%
A two tailed test ?2= .052 = 0.025
Table value of z = ±1.96. It is the corresponding value of 0.475 = (0.5 ? .025)
Here, Reject H0. So, it can be concluded that the corporate governance on corporate social responsibility are not maintaining according to the expectation by the 70% or more private banks of Bangladesh.

5. FINDINGS
5.1 Shareholders’ Rights and Disclosure of Information
The corporate governance codes on Shareholders’ Rights and Disclosure of Information are practiced by only 40% private commercial banks and complied level is 70% where 90% was expected. This is one of the major issues to ensure good governance in banking sector.

5.2 Disclosure and Transparency
The hypothesis result shows that the corporate governance guideline of disclosure and transparency are maintained by 70% commercial banks and compliance level is 76% where 90% was assumed. In this issue it has been found that the directors’ information is not disclosed properly.

5.3 Board Issues
One of the important issues of the corporate governance codes, is board issue that has not been practiced according to the assumption. Only 70.33% of the board issues are compiled by 60% or more private banks.

5.4 Financial Reporting
From the analysis it is clear that 80% issues of financial reporting are compiled by the 85.71% or more banks. That is very essential for ensuring good governance.

5.5 Audit Practice
From the analysis part it can be inferred that the corporate governance codes of audit practice issues are practiced by only 67% or more private banks and complied level is 77% where 90% was expected.

5.6 Human Resource Management
In this important issue the scenario is not satisfactory level. Only 34.17% of the HRM guidelines are practiced by the 17% or more private banks accordance to guideline.

5.7 Corporate social responsibility
From analysis part it is discovered that most of the commercial banks don’t follow Bangladesh Bank guideline. Only 33.33% costs are incurred by 33.33% banks according to Bangladesh Bank guideline.

6. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1 Conclusion
The research study has achieved its objectives by showing the current practice of corporate governance in private banking sector of Bangladesh. The data collected was analyzed with percentage and using z test and presented through descriptive analysis, it is an evident that maintaining corporate governance in a bank is a symbol of good corporate cultured bank. A few number of the private commercial banks indeed do practice good corporate governance as a result of less effective application of the Bangladesh Bank guidelines. This study concluded that practicing corporate governance in the major area like shareholders’ rights and disclosure of information are complying with only 50% by only 40% banks, disclosure and transparency are 76%, board issues are 70.33%, financial reporting conformances are 80%, 67% private banks’ audit practices are conformed by 76.66%, respectively 17% and 33.33% private commercial banks’ human resources management and corporate social responsibility practices match only 34.16% and 33.33% respectively. Also concluded that complying with Bangladesh Bank guideline can bring a bank on a standard position in banking industry.

6.2 Recommendation
The researcher would like to recommend the followings to improve the corporate governance practice of private banking sector in Bangladesh.

For the disclosure compliance adequate time should be given for placing questions and issues on AGM
Annual report should disclose the major shareholders’ information and remuneration of directors.

Mission statement should be clearly identified with achieving process.

Board’s performances need to evaluated regularly with the mission of BOD.

There must be adequate guideline against unethical behavior.

Shareholder should provide access to nominate external auditor.

In the audit team there must be experienced audit member.

Banks should maintain more self-directed teams.

There must be job rotation and cross training facility to improve the human resources’ skills.

Bank should expense more on education, health and climate risk fund respectively as a part of CSR practice.

APPENDIX
Analysis Table
Source: Annual Report of Bank Asia Ltd, AB Bank Ltd, AIBL, Eastern Bank Ltd, Mercantile Bank Ltd, MTB Ltd, NRB Ltd, One Bank Ltd, Premier Bank Ltd, South East Bank Ltd, Midland Bank Ltd, Meghna Bank Ltd, IFIC Ltd, DBL, City Bank Ltd, BRAC Bank Ltd, BCBL, Trust Bank Ltd, UCB Ltd, Uttara Bank Ltd
Table 1
Shareholders Right and Disclosure of Information
  Compliance with CG codes   Non-compliance with CG codes  
  Yes % No %
         
Practice of Voting in AGM 18 90 2 10
Adequate Information on Agenda 15 75 5 25
Adequate time for Questions & Placing Issues 9 45 11 55
Major Shareholders’ Information 5 25 15 75
Disclosing Candidates Before Meeting 3 15 17 85
    250   250
  Total compliance with CG codes 50 Total Non-compliance with CG codes 50
Table 2
Disclosure and Transparency
  Compliance with CG codes   Non-compliance with CG codes  
  Yes % No %
         
Resume of Directors 11 55 9 45
Remuneration of Directors 10 50 10 50
Fees Paid to External Auditors 14 70 6 30
Policies on Risk Management 19 95 1 5
Significant Changes in Ownership 19 95 1 5
Governance structures and police 19 95 1 5
Disclosing Semi Annual Report 4 20 16 80
Audited financial statement 18 90 2 10
Website in English 19 95 1 5
Informative Website 19 95 1 5
    760   240
  Total compliance with CG codes 76 Total Non-compliance with CG codes 24
Table 3
Board Issues
  Compliance with CG codes   Non- compliance with CG codes  
  Yes % No %
         
Written mission of BOD 17 85 3 15
Evaluation of mission statement 3 15 17 85
Written responsibilities of board 18 90 2 10
Directors’ training 9 45 11 55
Compliance officer 19 95 1 5
Evaluation of board’s performance 9 45 11 55
Remuneration of directors 13 65 7 35
Presence of independent directors 15 75 5 25
Board audit committee 16 80 4 20
Board compensation committee 9 45 11 55
Board nomination committee 8 40 12 60
Accounting/Finance expert in audit committee 19 95 1 5
Written minutes of audit committee 19 95 1 5
Written rules of audit function 19 95 1 5
Size of BOD (7 to 15) 18 90 2 10
    1055   445
  Total compliance with CG codes 70.33 Total Non-compliance with CG codes 29.66
Table 4
Financial Reporting
  Compliance with CG codes   Non-compliance with CG codes  
  Yes % No %
         
Accounting system 19 95 1 5
Qualification of CFO 19 95 1 5
Experience of CFO 19 95 1 5
Accounts reflect a fair picture 17 85 3 15
Maintaining BAS 16 80 4 20
Safeguard against unethical behavior 4 20 16 80
Effective internal audit 18 90 2 10
    560   140
  Total compliance with CG codes 80 Total Non-compliance with CG codes 20
Table 5
Audit Practices
  Compliance with CG codes   Non-compliance with CG codes  
  Yes % No %
         
Audit by external audit team 19 95 1 5
Shareholders nominate external auditor 3 15 17 85
Experienced external auditors 13 65 7 35
Rotation of external auditors 17 85 3 15
Internal audit department 20 100 0 0
Independent internal audit team 20 100 0 0
    460   140
  Total compliance with CG codes 76.67 Total Non-compliance with CG codes 23.33
Table 6
Human Resources Management
  Compliance with CG codes   Non-compliance with CG codes  
  Yes % No %
         
Self-directed teams 12 60 8 40
Problem solving groups 20 100 0 0
Job rotation and cross training 3 15 17 85
Employee stock ownership plans 1 5 19 95
Profit sharing 5 25 15 75
Existence of trade union 0 0 20 100
    205   395
  Total compliance with CG codes 34.67 Total Non-compliance with CG codes 65.83
Table 7
CSR Practice
  Compliance with CG codes   Non-compliance with CG codes  
  Yes % No %
         
Education (30%) 1 5 19 95
Health (20%) 2 10 18 90
Climate risk fund (10%) 17 85 3 15
    100   200
  Total compliance with CG codes 33.33 Total Non-compliance with CG codes 66.67
Abbreviation
CG: Corporate governance
AGM: Annual General Meeting
HRM: Human Resource Management
CSR: Corporate Social Responsibility
SEC: Securities and Exchange Commission
BB: Bangladesh Bank
CEO: Chief Executive officer
MBA: Master of Business Administration
BAS: Bangladesh Accounting Standard
REFERENCES
Ahmed, Samiul and Jannat, Rahatul and Ahmed, Sarwar Uddin, Corporate Governance Practices in the Banking Sector of Bangladesh: Do They Really Matter? (March24,2017). http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2984104Bangladesh Bank (https://www.bb.org.bd)
Berle, Adolf Augustus ; Means, Gardiner Coit, 1896- ; Columbia University. Council for research in the Social Sciences (1993). The Modern Corporation and Private Poperty. Macmillan Co, New York.
Deepty, Ahmed, Corporate Governance Disclosure and Contribution of Corporate Attributes: An Empirical Study on Listed General Insurance Companies of Bangladesh. Journal of Banking ; Financial Services. Volume 5, Number 1, July 2011
Douglas A. Lind, William G. Marchal, “Statistical Techniques in Business and Economics”, Fourteenth Edition)
Haque, Jalil, Naz (2017) state of corporate governance in Bangladesh: analysis of public limited companies–financial, nonfinancial institutions and state owned enterprises. Working Paper Series: September 2007
Hoque, Mohammad Ziaul and Islam, Rabiul Md. and Ahmed, Hasnan, Corporate Governance and Bank Performance: The Case of Bangladesh (January 29, 2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2208903 Ibrahim El?Sayed Ebaid, (2011) Corporate governance practices and auditor’s client acceptance decision: empirical evidence from Egypt, Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, Vol. 11 Issue: 2, pp.171-183, https://doi.org/10.1108/14720701111121047Islam, Haque (2015), Disclosure of Corporate Governance Compliance of State Owned Commercial Banks in Bangladesh and Stakeholders’ Expectation. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting. www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-2847 (Online) Vol.6, No.20,2015
Kamal, Yousuf and Pervin, Tahura and Alam, Samsul, Corporate Governance in the Banking Sector of Bangladesh (December 1, 2007). The Bangladesh Accountant, Vol. 57, No. 30, pp. 73-81, 2007. https://ssrn.com/abstract=1944521Kamruzzaman, Mr. Md., Corporate Sustainability in the Bangladeshi Banking Sector: An Overview (October 21, 2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2174058 Mahmood, Rezwan ; Moshin Islam, Md. (2015). Practices of Corporate Governance in the Banking Sector of Bangladesh. International Journal of Managing Value and Supply Chains. 6. 17-29. 10.5121/ijmvsc.2015.6302.

Mahmud, Ara (2015) corporate governance practices in Bangladesh an overview of its present scenario in banking industry. Vol. III, Issue 12, December 2015 http://ijecm.co.uk/
Mamun, Syed and Muniruzaman, Mohammad, Board Attributes and Performance of Non-Banking Financial Institutions in Bangladesh: An Empirical Study (April 19, 2015). Mamun, S. A. A., and Moniruzzaman, M., (2014). Board Attributes and Performance of Non-Banking Financial Institutions in Bangladesh: An Empirical Study. Dhaka University Journal of business faculty, Vol. 35(2). https://ssrn.com/abstract=2596338Mckinsey, Company (2002) Global investor Opinion Survey: key findings.
Md. Habib?Uz?Zaman Khan, (2010) “The effect of corporate governance elements on corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting: Empirical evidence from private commercial banks of Bangladesh”, International Journal of Law and Management, Vol. 52 Issue: 2, pp.82-109, https://doi.org/10.1108/17542431011029406Moudud-Ul Huq, S. Corporate Governance Practices in Bangladesh: A comparative Analysis between Conventional Banks and Islamic banks. International Journal of management and Business Research, 2015; 5(1): 53-60
Mutave, Everlyn (2012) the relationship between internal audit function and the corporate governance of deposit taking microfinance institutions in Kenya. http://hdl.handle.net/11295/75513Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2001) OECD Principles of Corporate Governance. 2
Rahman, Arifuzzaman and Alam (2013), An Evaluation of Corporate Governance Practices in The Banking Sector of Bangladesh. SIU Journal of Management, Vol.3, No.1 (June, 2013). ISSN: 2229-0044
Rahman, Bashir, Choudhury, Rabby, Disclosure of Corporate Governance in Banking Sector of Bangladesh. European Journal of Business and Management. www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.6, No.6, 2014
Samiul Parvez Ahmed, Rahatul Zannat and Sarwar Uddin Ahmed (2017). Corporate governance Practices in The Banking Sector of Bangladesh: Do They Really matter? Banks and Bank Systems, 12(1), 27-35. doi:10.21511/bbs.12(1).2017.03Shanta Kar, Mithun sarker. Corporate Governance Practices in Private Commercial Banks-A Study on Khulna City. International Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2014, pp. 37-48. doi:10.11648/j.ijebo.20140203.12

1

1.0 CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Climate change is one of the challenges facing mankind today. Several definitions of climate change have been put forward by a number of scientific bodies. One such definition by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) refers to climate change as, ‘a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods’.
There is growing evidence that global climate is changing. According to International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC,2001a), global mean temperatures have risen 0.3-0.6oc since the late 19th century and global sea levels have risen between 10 and 25cm (McCarthy et al.,2001) noted that global temperatures will continue to rise by between 1.4 and 5.8oc by 2100 relative to 1990 due to the emissions of greenhouse gases. As the warming process continues, it will bring about numerous environmental problems, among which the most severe will relate to water resources (Loaiciga et al., 1996; Milly et al.,2005; Holman,2006; IPCC,2007).
Temperature increase also affect the hydrological cycle by directly increasing evaporation of available surface water and vegetation transpiration. Consequently these changes can influence precipitation amount, timing and intensity rates and indirectly impact the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs (i.e. lakes, soil moisture, groundwater)(Toews,2003).
Water is one of earth’s most precious resources that is indispensably and intricately connected to life. Good drinking water is not a luxury; it is one of the most essential amenities of life. Safe drinking water is a priority for all.

This is the reason for which water must be given the necessary attention at all times. Although water is essential for human survival, many do not have sufficient potable drinking water supply and sufficient water to maintain basic hygiene. Globally, 748 million people lack access to improved drinking water and it is estimated that 1.8 billion people use a source of drinking water that is feacally contaminated (WHO/UNICEF, 2004).
Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking and irrigation in low rainfall arid and semi arid areas where are no significant surface waters sources. This is because groundwater is slow to respond to changes in precipitation regime and thus acts as more resilient buffer during dry spells. In fact worldwide, more than 2million people depend on groundwater for their daily support (Kemper, 2004). Furthermore groundwater forms the largest proportion (? 97%) of the world’s freshwater supply. By maintaining surface water systems through flows into lakes and base flows to rivers, groundwater performs the crucial role of maintaining the biodiversity and habitats of sensitive ecosystems (Tharme, 2003). The role of groundwater is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become less reliable and increasingly exploited to support increasing population and development (Bovolo et al., 2009).
The effects of global warming on water resources, especially on groundwater, will depend on the groundwater system, its geographical location, and changes in hydrological variables (Alley, 2001; Huntington, 2006; Sophocleous, 2004).
Knowing how climate change will affect groundwater resources is thus important as it will allow water resources managers to make more rational decisions on water allocation and management (Sullivan,2001) and enable the formulation of mitigation and adaptation measures.
Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water. The modern civilization, industrialization,
urbanization and increase in population have lead to fast degradation of our ground water quality.
The occurrence of groundwater depends primarily on geology, geomorphology and rainfall – both current and historic. The inter-relationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, quality, reliability, ease of access and sustainability. Climate change will superimpose itself by modifying rainfall and evaporation patterns, raising questions about how such changes may affect groundwater availability and, ultimately, rural water supplies.The quality of water from dug wells is largelydependent on the concentration of biological, chemical land physical contaminants (Musa et al., 1999).
The main drinking water sources, most especially in African countries are from boreholes, pipe borne, deep and shallow wells, dug outs, streams and rivers which are mostly of poor quality. Water quality is a growing concern throughout the developing world (UNICEF, 2013) and sources of drinking water are constantly under threat from contamination. In Ghana, 62 to 67% of the people depend on groundwater (GEMS/Water Project, 1997) and many cities and towns have problems with the quality of waterused in homes and work places (Nkansah et al., 2010; Obiri-Danso et al., 2009).

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1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The IPCC projects that by 2020, between 75 and 250 million people globally are expected to increase water stress due to climate change (IPCC, 2007), adversely affecting livelihoods and exacerbating water related problems.
Climate change is majorly attributed to anthropogenic activities such as burning of fossils, clear felling of trees and other bad farming practices. Ultimately all these practices have consequential impact on groundwater as the hydrological cycle is disrupted. The study area is within the savannah regions which means temperatures are high. And temperature and precipitation are the core factors to assess the overall impacts of climate change (IPCC, 2007). High temperatures increases evaporation and consequently affects precipitation which also affects the amounts of water that runs down to rivers, streams, lakes which in turn recharges the aquifers.
But in Bongo district, little research has been conducted to investigate the effects of climate change on groundwater resources for that matter hand dug wells.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION
As a result of the insufficient water for households by the Ghana Water Company, most households in Bongo depend on hand dug wells and also boreholes for drinking and for other purposes. This study will bridge the gap in knowledge as the effects of climate change on hand dug wells is being examined critically. The understanding of the effects of climate change on hand dug wells in the Bongo district is crucial in agricultural planning, hydrological modeling, water resource assessment, and other environmental assessments (Michaelides et al. 2009).
1.4 OBJECTIVES
The objectives are as follows;
• To determine the trend in the water level of the wells now and the previous years.
• To determine the weather conditions of the Bongo District.
1.5 SCOPE
This research would cover seven (23) communities in the Bongo District. The study is limited to groundwater drinking water sources (hand-dug wells) and would be carried purposely to check whether climate change had caused any impact on the hand-hug wells in that District.
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study has been organized under five main chapters. Chapters one focuses general introduction to the study and defines the research problem, objectives, scope and justification. The chapter two reviews literature on the concept of groundwater (hand-dug wells), global problem of climate change, impact of climate change on groundwater. Chapter three entails the geology of the study area, demographic characteristics and economic activities of the Bongo District. Chapter four covers the profile of the study area as well as the methodology that has been employed to carry out the research. The fifth chapter presents an in-depth analysis and discussion of results.
The sixth and final chapter covers the major findings and management recommendations and conclusions.

2.0 CHAPTER TWO
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter review relevant literature, report and all available information on the research topic. Climate changes as global issue, climate change on groundwater and impact of climate change on groundwater resources, potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation, degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise, potential impacts of landuse change caused by climate change, potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration, increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use, effects of climate change on temperature and sea level, effects of climate change on water availability, effects of climate change on health and effects of climate change on agriculture.
2.2 CLIMATE CHANGE: GLOBAL PROBLEM
Over the past 150 years, the global mean surface temperature has increased 0.76oC, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC, 2007). Global warning has caused greater climate volatility such as changes in precipitation patterns and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and has led to a rise mean global sea levels. It is widely believed that climate change is largely the result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, if no action is taken, it is likely to intensify in the years to come. Under a high emissions scenario developed by (IPCC, 2001), by the end of this century, the global mean temperature increase from the 1980-1999 levels could reach 4 oC , with a range from 2.4 oC to 6.4 oC .This would have serious consequences for the world’s growth and development. Climate change is a global problem and requires a global problem. In recent years, addressing climate change has been high on the international policy agenda. There is now a consensus that to prevent global warming from reaching dangerous levels, action is needed to control and mitigate GHG emissions and stabilize their atmospheric concentration within a range of 450-550 parts per million (ppm) (IPCC,2007).
At the global scale, there is evidence of a broadly coherent pattern of change in annual runoff, with some regions experiencing an increase (Tao et al., 2003a, b, for China; Hyvarinen, 2003, for Finland; Walter et al., 2004, for the coterminous USA), particularly at higher latitudes, and others a decrease, for example in parts of West Africa, southern Europe and southern Latin America (Milly et al., 2005). Labat et al. (2004) claimed a 4% increase in global total runoff per 1°C rise in temperature during the 20th century, with regional variation around this trend, but this has been challenged due to the effects of non-climatic drivers on runoff and bias due to the small number of data points (Legates et al., 2005). Gedney et al. (2006) gave the first tentative evidence that CO2 forcing leads to increases in runoff due to the effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on plant physiology, although other evidence for such a relationship is difficult to find. The methodology used to search for trends can also influence results, since omitting the effects of cross-correlation between river catchments can lead to an overestimation of the number of catchments showing significant trends (Douglas et al., 2000).
Globally, the number of great inland flood catastrophes during the last 10 years (1996–2005) is twice as large, per decade, as between 1950 and 1980, while related economic losses have increased by a factor of five (Kron and Berz, 2007). Dominant drivers of the upward trend of flood damage are socio-economic factors such as economic growth, increases in population and in the wealth concentrated in vulnerable areas, and land-use change. Floods have been the most reported natural disaster events in many regions, affecting 140 million people per year on average (WDR, 2003, 2004). In Bangladesh, during the 1998 flood, about 70% of the country’s area was inundated (compared to an average value of 20–25%) (Mirza, 2003; Clarke and King,
2.3 Climate change on groundwater
Groundwater quality is affected by many factors such as physico- chemical characters of the rocks through which the water is circulating, geology of the location, climate of the area, role of microorganisms that operate for the oxidative and reductive biodegradation of organic matter, intrusion of saline waters as in coastal areas etc. Ground water constitutes an important component of many water resource systems, supplying water for domestic use, for industry and for agriculture. At present, nearly one-fifth of all water used in the world is obtained from groundwater resources. Some 15% of world’s crop land is irrigated by groundwater. The present irrigated area in India is 60 million hectares (Mha) of which about 40% is from groundwater (Raghunath, 1987).
In Europe the problem of groundwater pollution is worsening. Within 50 years some 60,000 square kilometers of groundwater aquifers in western and central Europe are calculated to be contaminated with pesticides and fertilizers (Niemczynowicz, 1996). Of Hungary’s 1,600 field wells tapping groundwater, 600 of them are already contaminated, mostly with agricultural chemicals (Havas-Szilagyi, et a1., 1998). In the Czech Republic 70%-of all surface waters are heavily polluted, mostly with municipal and industrial wastes. Some 30% of the country’s rivers are so fouled with pollutants that no fish survived (Nash, 1993). In US, 40% of all surface waters are unfit for bathing or fishing, and 48% of all lakes are eutrophied (US EPA, 1998). Germany has accorded high priority to ground water protection where over 80 per cent of the public water supply was taken from groundwater, including artificial recharge and bank infiltration. However despite legislation, groundwater pollution was increasing, particularly in agricultural areas. Hence limits have been introduced for pesticides levels and new rules have been introduced governing dumping and storage.
2.4 Impact of climate change on groundwater resources
The impact of climate change on the recharge of groundwater resources is the result of a complex and sensitive interaction between the changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, local geology and soil and plant physiological response to atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The predicted general increase in annual average temperatures and the decreases in summer precipitation lead to higher soil moisture deficits and a later return of the soils to field capacity. Meanwhile, the largely unchanged spring precipitation and warmer temperatures mean that soil moisture deficits are likely to develop earlier in spring, resulting in a generally shorter winter recharge period. Whether this shortened recharge period leads to reduced recharge depends on whether it is outweighed by the expected increased winter precipitation. The increased variability in precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration will therefore have varied effects on different aquifers and different locations within an aquifer, depending on spatial variability in soil and aquifer hydraulic properties, and distance from the recharge area (Green et al., 2011).
2.5 Potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation
Spatial and temporal changes in temperature and precipitation may modify the surface hydraulic boundary conditions of, and ultimately cause a shift in the water balance of an aquifer. For example, variations in the amount of precipitation, the timing of precipitation events, and the form of precipitation are all key factors in determining the amount and timing of recharge to aquifers. In Central Asia, output from the coupled atmosphere-sea surface global circulation model for the period 2080-2100 shows a rise in temperature of 3.5?4.5 oC and a decrease in precipitation. For South Asia, 2.5?3.5 oC increase of temperature and an increase in precipitation are projected. Changes in the amount of precipitation are expected to decrease mean runoff by 1 mm/day in Central Asia and to increase mean runoff by a similar amount in South Asia. Due to the change in the variability of precipitation, surface water resources are likely to become more unreliable, thus precipitating a shift to development of more “reliable” groundwater resources, as has been observed in Taiwan (Hiscock and Tanaka 2006).The changing frequency of droughts or heavy precipitation can also be expected to impact on water levels in aquifers. Droughts result in declining water levels not only because of reduction in rainfall, but also due to increased evaporation and a reduction in infiltration that may accompany the development of dry top soils. Paradoxically, extreme precipitation events may lead to less recharge to groundwater in upland areas because more of the precipitation is lost as runoff. Similarly, flood magnitude and frequency could increase as a consequence of increased frequency of heavy precipitation events, which could increase groundwater recharge in some floodplains.

2.6 Degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise
As global temperatures rise, sea level rise is also expected due to the melting of ice sheets and glaciers. Rising sea levels would allow saltwater to penetrate farther inland groundwater supplies, damaging urban water supplies, ecosystems, and coastal farmland (IPCC,1998). Furthermore, a reduced groundwater head caused by lower rainfall will aggravate the impacts of sea level rise. Saline intrusion into alluvial aquifers may be moderate, but higher in limestone aquifers. Reduced rates of groundwater recharge, flow and discharge and higher aquifer temperatures may increase the levels of bacterial, pesticide, nutrient and metal contamination. Similarly, increased flooding could increase the flushing of urban and agricultural waste into groundwater systems, especially into unconfined aquifers, and further deteriorate groundwater quality.
About 45% of population in the world lives in the low elevation coastal zone and about two thirds of the population residing in this zone are in Asia (IHDP ,2007).
Sea level rise has already affected a large population, resulting in a huge loss of capital value, land, and precious wetlands, and incurring a high adaptation/protection cost.
In Asia alone, projected sea level rise could flood the residences of millions of people living in the coastal zones of South, Southeast and East Asia such as Vietnam, Bangladesh, India and China (Wassmann et al., 2004; Stern 2006; Cruz et al., 2007).
2.7 Potential impacts of land use change caused by climate change
Climate change studies suggest that some Asia-Pacific forests and vegetation may experience some initially beneficial effects from climate change and enhanced atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Any vegetation change scenarios will have direct and indirect impacts on groundwater recharge. For example, the projected decline of steppe and desert biomes on the Tibetan Plateau may be accompanied by an expansion of conifer, broad-leaved, and evergreen forests and shrub land. Expanded forest cover may increase groundwater recharge in the Tibetan Plateau, with consequent changes in downstream river flows. In addition, studies suggest significant shifts in the distribution of tree species in China in response to warming of 2–4°C, including the migration of forest communities into non-forested areas of East China (CSIRO 2006). The increase in forest area may increase the groundwater recharge in East China. Changes in precipitation and temperature caused by the elevated level of CO2 in the atmosphere can increase the infiltration rate of water through the vadose zone. A model that simulates the effect of increased CO2 level on plants, groundwater and the vadose zone was applied in subtropical and Mediterranean regions of Australia.
The subtropical regions responded more to the frequency and volume of precipitation whereas the Mediterranean region was influenced more by changes in temperature.
In both locations, groundwater recharge rate varied significantly i.e., 75-500% faster in Mediterranean region and from 34% slower to 119% faster in subtropical regions (Green et al,. 2007).
Urban built-up areas have expanded rapidly, replacing either forest or agricultural land (i.e., replacing vegetation with concrete and bitumen). In cases such as Bandung, Bangkok, Shanghai, Colombo and Kandy, the change in agricultural land is mainly from rice paddies. Further, in Colombo and Kandy peri-urban areas, the cropping efficiency in the late 1970s was nearly 200% with two cultivation seasons, while in the last decade, this dropped to an average of 140%. This has reduced water logging of the paddy fields and thus reduced the consequent subsurface flow and groundwater recharge, influencing water resources in the surrounding urban region (IGES, 2007). Reduced water logging of other peri-urban areas can be expected to reduce groundwater recharge to aquifers used by urban industry and populations.
2.8 Potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration
Forests play an important role in mitigating climate change. The IPCC recognizes that sustainable forestry offers reduction in emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), afforestation, increasing sequestration in existing forests, supplying biomass for bio-energy and providing wood as a substitute for more energy intensive products such as concrete, aluminum, steel and plastics, as potential carbon mitigation options. The heightened global interest in providing incentives for forest conservation by valuing standing forests as carbon sinks and reservoirs is encouraging). However, increased forest cover will have impacts on groundwater recharge, through increased evapo-transpiration, that may require on-site research before proceeding with specific projects.
Some research has revealed that groundwater recharge is generally lower in forested areas than non-forested areas(Scanlon et al., 2006).Carbon sequestration in aquifers may have unforeseen impacts on human health due to groundwater contamination (Jackson et al., 2005).
When carbon dioxide enters the groundwater it can increase its acidity, potentially leaching toxic chemicals, such as lead, from rocks into the water, making groundwater unsuitable for use. To address and manage this risk, further study is needed on soil, geology, and optimum amounts of sequestration that will not cause increased acidity in groundwater.
2.9 Increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use
In the future, dependence on groundwater may increase due to the increasing unreliability of using surface water. It is projected that in many areas the quantity of surface water will vary and its quality will be degraded because of increased drought and flood events as a result of climate change (Kundzewicz et al., 2007). IPCC summary reports indicate that there is a very high likelihood that current water management practices will be inadequate to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on water supply reliability.
3.0 Effects of Climate Change on temperature and sea level
“Higher water temperatures and changes in extremes, including floods and droughts, are projected to affect water quality and exacerbate many forms of water pollution”. In addition, water use generally increases with temperatures. In addition, “Sea-level rise is projected to extend areas of salinisation of groundwater and estuaries, resulting in a decrease of freshwater availability for humans and ecosystems in coastal areas” (IPCC, 2008).
3.1 Effects of Climate Change on Water Availability
Climate change and variability have the potential to impose additional pressures on water availability, water accessibility and water demand in Africa. Even in the absence of climate change, present population trends and patterns of water use indicate that more African countries will exceed the limits of their “economically usable, land-based water resources before 2025” (Ashton, 2002, p. 236). In some assessments, the population at risk of increased water stress in Africa, for the full range of SRES scenarios, is projected to be 75-250 million and 350-600 million people by the 2020s and 2050s, respectively (Arnell, 2004). However, the impact of climate change on water resources across the continent is not uniform. An analysis of six climate models (HadCM3, ECHAM4-OPYC, CSIRO-Mk2, CGCM2, GFDL_r30 and CCSR/NIES2) and the SRES scenarios (Arnell, 2004) shows a likely increase in the number this season (Hudson and Jones, 2002).
Changes in temperature and precipitation influence the hydrological cycle and will affect evaporation and runoff, and the amount of water stored in lakes, wetlands and groundwater (Bruce et al., 2000; Charman, 2002; Clair, 1998; Clair et al, 2003; Rivard et al., 2003; Schindler, 2001). These impacts in turn result in changes in the quantity and quality of water; the magnitude and timing of river flows, and the time required for water resource renewal. These changes will both influence the availability of water for human use and impact upon freshwater habitats and ecosystems. Present trends indicate that overall precipitation throughout most of Atlantic Canada, with the possible exception of western and central Labrador, will continue to increase (Cayan et al, 2002; Jacobs and Banfield, 2000; Vasseur and Catto, 2008). An overall increase in precipitation, however, can obscure significant differences in both year-to-year variations and seasonal water supplies. Increased precipitation does not necessarily lead to more water in rivers, lakes, and wetlands due to evapotranspiration and the seasonal timing of the rainfall. Under the influence of increased summer temperatures, the increased rate of evaporation from ponds may exceed the influx of precipitation, causing declines in water levels. Wetland areas and lakes throughout the province are sensitive to variations in hydrology (Bobba et al., 1999; Charman, 2002; Clair et al., 1997, 1998; Hecky et al, 1997; Lomond, 1997; Price et al., 2005; Rahman, 2009; Rollings,1997). Declines in summer precipitation noted in several Newfoundland sites (Catto and Hickman, 2004; Slaney, 2006) have contributed to seasonal desiccation of streams and wetlands.
3.2 Effects of climate change on Health
Impacts, and the necessary adaptations, can result in effects on human health. Study has generally proceeded along three lines: health impacts associated with particular sectors (e.g. Coastal Zone, Water); health impacts associated with community sustainability, adaptation, and adaptive capacity concerns; and specific health-related impacts (Duncan et al., 1997; Berry et al, 2009; Haines et al., 2006; Kristie et al, 2006; Lemmen and Warren, 2004; Menne and Ebi, 2006; Seguin, 2006, 2008). References pertaining to the latter are listed here. Severe events can result in many people being dislocated and temporarily residing in shelters, increasing the chance of disease outbreak. People are also affected by the stress induced by such events (Hutton, 2005; Hutton et al, 2007). Mental health impacts can include depression resulting from financial loss, injuries, and/or relocation. Psychological effects commonly persist for several years following a disaster. Atlantic Canada is recognized as one of four areas of Canada where air pollution is greatest, largely because of air masses from the eastern United States (Labelle, 1998). Ozone is the most common air pollutant. An increase in heat waves, combined with air pollution, can increase the frequency of smog days in urban areas and cause serious health problems, such as asthma and other pulmonary illnesses, as well as heat stress and related illnesses (Haq et al,
2008; ; Health Canada, 2005; Kostatsky, 2007; Kostatsky et al., 2008; Mao, 2007; McMichael et al., 2003; Ouimet, 2007). Impacts of heat waves, smog events, and the effects of airborne particulates resulting from forest fires (Dominici et al, 2006; Stieb et al, 1995; Moore et al, 2006) may be compounded as a result of climate change.

3.3 Effects of Climate change on Agriculture
Agriculture is highly dependent on climate. In Newfoundland and Labrador, the projected changes in climate present both opportunity and risk (Wall et al., 2004; Weber and Hauer, 2003).
The opportunity to extend the growing season and grow higher value crops is balanced against the risk of increased frequency of extreme events which may damage crops and or infrastructure, impacts on the environment, uncertainty in global markets, and potential changes in pest spectrum and incidence of disease. The potential impacts of climate change on animal production are multifaceted, but largely unstudied (especially in Atlantic Canada). One potential impact is the need to introduce artificial cooling of livestock buildings. The variability of climatic conditions during the reproductive period for fur-farmed species has a significant impact on reproductive success. Animal diseases and their spread can be influenced by climate. Water usage in agricultural operations (Dryden-Cripton et al., 2007) is a potential issue under changing climate. The desire or requirement to reduce GHG emissions represents another potential adaptation impact (Burton and Sauvé, 2006; Desjardins et al, 2007a, 2007b; Janzen et al, 2006, 2008; Smith et al., 2009a, 2009b). In Canada, recent studies have highlighted the issues for the livestock industries (Kebreab et al, 2006; Stewart et al., 2009; Vergé et al, 2008, 2009; also see O`Mara et al, 2008). Nitrogen management has been investigated under both different scenarios
of climate change (DeJong et al, 2008), and under different cultivation and operational techniques (Christopher and Lal, 2007; Rochette, 2008; Rochette et al, 2004, 2008; Rochette and Bertrand, 2008; Rochette and McGinn, 2008; Yang et al., 2007).
Agriculture in many climatically-suitable regions of Newfoundland is limited by soil conditions and competing demands for suitable land (e.g. Ramsey, 1993; Sigursveinsson, 1985).
Assessment of the potential competing uses for land conducted using economy-ecosystem response models (Hauer et al, 2002), has not been conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador. Potential for development of new crops, or expansion of present efforts (e.g. Debnath, 2009), may exist. Expansion of agriculture in suitable areas of Labrador (c.f. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2004; Tarnoci, 2003), could also be considered.

• A number of researchers have studied the effects of climate change on groundwater resources. Different hydrologic and groundwater flow methods were used in the studies.

In a study of Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, (Iyrkama; Sykes, 2007) used help3 to simulate past and future recharge. They used temperature and precipitation climate change scenarios based on the predictions IPCC (2001). Results showed that an increase in rainfall as a result of climate change led to an increase in recharge. The increase though varied from place to place due to differences in land use and soil types.

Brouyere et al., 2004 studied the impacts of climate change in small aquifer, the Geer basin in Belgium. They used an integrated Hydrological model (MOHISE) which is composed of three interacting sub models: a soil model, a surface water model and groundwater model which are dynamically linked.

Climate change scenario was prepared by Royal Institute Meteorology of Belgium (IRMB) based on experiment done with seven GCMs. They found out that future climate changes could results in a decrease in groundwater levels. However no seasonal changes were noted. In another independent study in the same basin (Goderniaux et al,.2009) combined a sub surface flow model, Hydro-Geosphere with climate change scenarios from six regional climate models assuming the Special Report on Emission Scenario(SRES)A2(medium –high) emission scenario. Results showed a significant decrease of up to 8m in groundwater levels by 2080.

In another study in the United States, Crowley and Lukkonen (2003) investigated the impact of climate on groundwater levels in the Lansing area in Michigan. They considered 20years centered on 2030 as the future changed climate condition and the baseline as the period 1961 to 1990. Groundwater recharge was estimated from stream flow simulations and from variable derived from GCMs. Their results indicated that groundwater levels would increase ar decrease depending on GCM used to simulate the future.

In (Scibek and Allen, 2006a), the responses of two aquifers to climate change, one in western Canada and the other In the United States, were compared. One aquifer is recharge dominated while the other is connected to a river. Downscaled climate change scenarios from the Canadian Global Climate Model1 GCM were used in combination with a groundwater flow model, MODFLOW. Small changes in groundwater levels forced by changes in recharge were noted. The results show that the climate region, distribution of material properties, nature of surface water – groundwater interaction and aquifer geometry influence the impact on water levels and water quality as well.

Another study examined the potential flood damage impacts of changes in extreme precipitation events by using the Canadian Climate Center model and the IS92a scenario for the metro Boston area in the north-eastern USA (Kirshen et al., 2005b). This study found that, without adaptation investments, both the number of properties damaged by floods and the overall cost of flood damage would double by 2100, relative to what might be expected if there was no climate change. It also found that flood-related transportation delays would become an increasingly significant nuisance over the course of this century. The study concluded that the likely economic magnitude of these damages is sufficiently high to justify large expenditures on adaptation strategies such as universal flood-proofing in floodplains.

(Yusoff et al., 2002; Loaiciga et al.,2000; Arnell, 1998) have used a range of modelling techniques such as soil water balance models (Kruger et al., 2001; Arnell 1998), empirical models (Chen etal., 2002), conceptual models (Cooper et al., 1995) and more complex distributed models (Croley and Luukkonen, 2003; Kirshen, 2002; Yusoff et al., 2002), but all have derived changes in groundwater recharge by assuming that parameters other than precipitation and temperature remain constant.

Another study in the Mures RB focuses on the Tarnava RB (Mare ; Mica rivers), applying the hydrological model MEDL. This model is based on the balance between rainfalls, soil accumulations, evapotranspiration and runoff at the gauging stations: Zetea, Odorheiul Secuiesc, Medias, Bezid, Tarnaveni and Mihalt, for the period 1961-2000. The study emphasised the impact of climatic changes on water resources, on the assumption of doubling the amount of the CO2 equivalent in the atmosphere. The most significant changes for the Mihalt station on the Tarnava River are the following (A. Galie, 2006):
• The average annual discharge increases by 0.9%;
• The average annual discharge variation records an increase of about 71.7% in the period October-February, in July and August and a decrease of about 30.2% in the period March-June and in September. The average multiannual discharge is expected to be less variable taking into account climate change than it is presently;
• The minimum outflow increases in the period December to February with a variation of 156.9% and decreases during spring, summer and autumn with variation of 19.4%;
• The flash floods resulting from snow melting are expected to occur earlier, usually in January and will be about 21.4% more intensive; pluvial floods will also change.

Hanson et al. (2012), for example, used a coupled numerical model to examine climate impacts on groundwater conditions in the semi-arid, irrigated Central Valley of California. These authors predict that as the basin’s climate changes in the coming decades, reductions in surface runoff and rising crop water demand will lead to a shift to a largely groundwater-dominated irrigation economy. Coupled with sustained summer droughts, this shift (represented by the authors as a 3.5X increase in groundwater pumping across the model domain) is predicted to lead to large reductions in future groundwater storage in the valley aquifer system (causing up to 10’s of meters of water level decline). The depletion in storage volume caused by pumping far exceeded model-predicted volumetric changes in recharge related to direct climate impacts (~+4% change from historic conditions).

3.0 CHAPTER THREE
3.1 STUDY AREA
3.2 LOCATION
The Bongo District is one of the 13 Districts in the Upper East Region. It was created by Legislative Instrument 1446(LI 1446) in 1988 with Bongo and its capital. The Bongo District shares boundaries with Burkino Faso to the north, Kassena –Nankena East to the west, Bolgatanga Municipal to the south west and Nabdam District to south east.

Fig 3.1 Source: Ghana Statistical Service

3.3 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
The climate of the district is similar to that experienced in other parts of the Upper East Region. Mean monthly temperature is about 21 oC. Very high temperatures of up to 40 oC occur just before the onset of the single rainy season in June and low temperatures of about 12 oC can be experienced in December when desiccating winds from the Sahara dry up the vegetation. During the dry season ideal conditions are created for bush fires, which have become an annual phenomenon in the area. The district has an average of some 70 – rain days in a year with rainfall ranging between 600mm and 1400mm. The rains fall heavily within short periods of time, flooding the fields and eroding soils into rivers. However, the fields dry up soon after the rainy season (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.4 GEOLOGY AND MINERALS
Granite rocks lie under the entire Bongo District. They have well-developed fractures, which make the drilling of boreholes and wells possible. The granite rocks obtrude all over the landscape and could be a source of material for the construction industry. These granite rocks are coloured pink, coarse grained and potassium rich. Hornblende and a little biotite are some of the constituent primary minerals in the district.
The granite has a rectangular joining and weathers into large upstanding masses and blocky-perched boulders. The Bongo hill rises several hundreds of meters above the surrounding land with steep and craggy sides. The rocks could be a source of tourist attraction with revenue accruing to the district assembly and people (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.5 SOIL CHARACTERISTICS
The Bongo group of soils is developed from the Bongo granites. They are characterized by numerous groves of baobab trees. The parent materials of the soils have been known to be very productive due to the high potash and phosphate content. Human population densities are high in the district and owing to long periods of intensive farming accompanied by mismanagement of the land, soil exhaustion and erosion are prevalent. Generally, the Bongo soils consist of about 3 inches of very slightly human stained, crumbly coarse sandy loan overlying reddish brown, fine blocky, very coarse sandy loan containing occasional incompletely weathered feldspar particles. It grades below into red, mottled pink and yellow coarse sandy clay loan of partially decomposed granite (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.6 ECOLOGICAL ZONE
The district lies within the Northern Savannah Zone with one rainy season. The amount of rainfall in the district is offset by the intense drought that precedes the rain and by the very high rate of evaporation that is estimated at 168 cm per annum. The vegetation is that of the Guinea Savannah type. Rivers and streams dry up during the dry season and the vegetation withers. During this period, farming activities are halted and livestock starve resulting in severe loss of animal weight, which in turn, affects household income (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.7 POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
The Bongo District has a population of 84,545, representing an increase of 8.6 percent of its population in the 2000 PHC (77,885). In terms of sex distribution, female constitute 52.4 percent of the population (44,461) and male 47.6 percent (40,084). The district is predominantly rural with about 94 percent (79,376) of its population residing in rural settlements. The district has a relatively young population with about two out of every five persons in the population below 15 years. The aged, that is those 65 years and older, constitute only seven percent of the population. A similar pattern is observed among the male and female and urban and rural populations (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

4.0 CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 METHODOLOGY
This chapter focused on the methodology that was adopted in carrying out the research work. It looked at the methods, instruments and procedures used in data acquisition, data analysis and data processing. Moreover, it gives a clear explanation of how the data is being acquired. The methodology of this study comprises of Desk Study, Reconnaissance Survey,
4.2 DESK STUDY
It mainly involves gaining and review of technical reports, scientific papers on projects topics and also on the study area. Desk study helps the researcher to acquire the platform on how to get information about the project work before data acquisition, data processing and data analysis. Technical report, articles, Journals, Thesis and Scientific papers, gives information about the climate, Vegetation, Geography and socio economic values of people within the Bongo District. Also information on how research methodology data acquisition, data processing, data analysis, data interpretation and the idea on how to come out with the map of study area was obtained via Desk study.
4.3 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
It entails visits to the study area. Bongo was visited two (2) times. In doing this will help to get self-acquainted to the study area and to confirm the existence of hand dug wells in the District.
4.4 DATA COLLECTION
Data used for undertaking this project was obtained from the Rural Aid in Zuarungu (Upper East Region), rainfall and temperature from the Ghana Meteorological Agency, Bolgatanga Office, and measurement of static water levels and water depth from 24 hand-dug wells in 23 communities in the Bongo Municipality.

Fig. 4.1Hand-dug wells location

Fig. 4.1 Location map of the hand dug wells

Table 4.1 Locations of the Hand-dug wells with GPS coordinates

LATITUDES
LONGITUDES
DISTRICT
COMMUNITIES
10.886 -0.748 Bongo Beo Kasengo
10.872 -0.755 Bongo Beo Nayiri
10.961 -0.830 Bongo Beo Waliga
10.961 -0.831 Bongo Beo Sapooron
10.962 -0.826 Bongo Soe Sanabiisi
10.956 -0.768 Bongo Soe Yidongo
10.977 -0.777
Bongo Akunka 1
10.976 -0.793 Bongo Akunka 2
10.979 -0.774 Bongo Akunla 3
10.966 -0.830 Bongo Foe Asabre
10.978 -0.833 Bongo Soe Asooregu
10.908 -0.737 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 1
10.899 -0.735 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 2
10.890 -0.729 Bongo Adaboya Binadoore
10.969 -0.826 Bongo Soe Tamoriga
10.950 -0.771 Bongo Soe Tuorey
10.956 -0.818 Bongo Soe Amanga 1
10.958 -0.820 Bongo Soe Amanga 2
10.967 -0.819 Bongo Soe Amanga 3
10.986 -0.773 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 1
10.991 -0.769 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 2
10.975 -0.762 Bongo Soe Azordana 1
10.972 -0.763 Bongo Soe Azordana 2
10.972 -0.765 Bongo Soe Azordana 3

4.4 QUESTIONNAIRES/INTERVIEWS
This was administered to the appropriate key informants which helped to complete the gaps in the secondary data. These gaps included; year of intervention, depth of the hand dug well and the static water level.
4.4.1 RESEACH QUESTIONS
• What is the date of intervention of the well?
• What is the static water level of the well?
• What is the depth of the well?
• Has the well been silted before?
• How many times has/have the well been silted?

4.5 MATERIALS AND METHODS
4.5.1 MATERIALS
• Sounding device: The sounding device consists of a measuring tape attached to a probe equipped with an acoustic and light signal. The probe is lowered into a piezometer or well and when it gets in contact with the water, a beep sound is produced and a light goes on. The water level is then read from the measuring tape.
• GPS for taking coordinates on the field.
4.5.2 METHODS
The statistical approach here used to explore the relationships between climatic data series which are not perfectly similar, such as monthly rainfall and temperature, is the correlative analysis applied to the standardized anomalies. This approach also allows for the comparisons of data series of different time periods and lengths.
4.5.2.1 Correlation Analysis
The correlation analyses are also used in other context to analyse the relations between climatic variability and fluctuations in hydrological time series (Hanson et al., 2004; Gurdak et al., 2006).
The theoretical aspects of these methods are thoroughly described by different authors (Mangin, 1984; Box et al., 1994). Autocorrelation makes it possible to analyze the inertia of a variable over time. It re?ects the dependence between hydrological events when the time that separates them increases. The correlogram C(k) re?ects the system memory effect, and the autocorrelation coef?cient r(k) obtained by discretization of the time series decreases over time.
Where n is the length of the time series, xt is the value at time t, x. is the mean of the events, and k is a time lag ranging from 0 to m. The cutting point m determines the interval in which the analysis is carried out. For m ? n/3, optimum results are found and the usual value of m is n/3 (Mangin, 1984). The inertia of the system is quanti?ed through the memory effect, which is the in?uential time an event has on a time series. To compare the inertia between different systems, (Mangin, 1984) proposes to consider the time lag k corresponding to the r(k) value of 0.2. The cross-correlation function is used to establish a relation between an input time series xt and an output time series yt. If the input time series is random, the cross-correlation function rxy(k) corresponds to the system’s impulse response (Box et al., 1994). The cross-correlation function is not symmetrical: rxy(k)?ryx(k). It provides information on the causal relation between the input and the output (Larocque et al., 1998).
where n is the length of the time series, x and y are the mean of the input and output events, respectively, k is a time lag, Cxy(k) is a cross-correlogram, and ?x and ?y are the standard deviations of the time series. The cross-correlation function is used to determine the response time of the system between input and output. The lag at which the cross-correlation function takes its maximum corresponds to the response time.

5.0 CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The summary of the results of the analyzed data conducted on 24 hand-dug wells from the study area are presented in table 5.1 which provides a summary of the previous and present static water levels while table 5.2 provides a summary of the water depth of the hand-dug wells.
Table 5.1 Summary of the static water levels
COMMUNITIES PRESENT STATIC WATER
LEVEL (m) PREVIOUS STATIC WATER
LEVEL(m)
Beo Kasengo 0.83 2.3
Beo Nayiri 2 3.5
Beo Waliga 0 2
Beo Sapooron 0.4 2
Soe Sanabiisi 2 2.8
Soe Yidongo 1.59 4
Akunka 1 1 0.2
Akunka 2 0.49 1
Akunka 3 2.5 3
Foe Asabre 0.3 2.14
Soe Asooregu 1.8 3.3
Adaboya Sadugro 1 0.14 1.83
Adaboya Sadugro 2 3.2 5
Adaboya Binadoore 3.4 4.5
Soe Tamoriga 0 2.5
Soe Tuorey 0.1 2
Soe Amanga 1 1.1 2.5
Soe Amanga 2 0.5 2
Soe Amanga 3 0 2
Soe Ayeribea 1 2.19 4
Soe Ayeribea 2 1.6 2
Soe Azordana 1 1.3 3
Soe Azordana 2 0 2
Soe Azordana 3 4.7 3

Fig. 5.1 shows map of the static water levels

Table 5.2 Summary of the water depth
COMMUNITIES WATER DEPTH (m)
Beo Kasengo 1.56
Beo Nayiri 8
Beo Waliga 7.15
Beo Sapooron 9.85
Soe Sanabiisi 4
Soe Yidongo 7.25
Akunka 1 8.5
Akunka 2 7.97
Akunka 3 7.51
Soe Asooregu 5.49
Adaboya Sadugro 1 3.68
Adaboya Sadugro 2 5.41
Soe Tamoriga 6.35
Soe Tuorey 7.37
Soe Amanga 1 7.57
Soe Amanga 2 7.49
Soe Amanga 3 7.24
Soe Ayeribea 1 9.48
Soe Azordana 1 6.06
Soe Azordana 2 6.35
Soe Azordana 3 5.88

Fig. 5.2 shows map of the water depth

Fig. 5.2 shows the map of the water depth

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‘EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON HAND-DUG WELLS IN THE BONGO DISTRICT’

TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, UDS NAVRONGO CAMPUS

NAME: BUAH ANTOINETTE
ID: FAS/5250/14
NUMBER: 0208697474/0554289841

SUPERVISOR: MR SAMUEL ABANYIE

1.0 CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Climate change is one of the challenges facing mankind today. Several definitions of climate change have been put forward by a number of scientific bodies. One such definition by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) refers to climate change as, ‘a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods’.
There is growing evidence that global climate is changing. According to International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC,2001a), global mean temperatures have risen 0.3-0.6oc since the late 19th century and global sea levels have risen between 10 and 25cm (McCarthy et al.,2001) noted that global temperatures will continue to rise by between 1.4 and 5.8oc by 2100 relative to 1990 due to the emissions of greenhouse gases. As the warming process continues, it will bring about numerous environmental problems, among which the most severe will relate to water resources (Loaiciga et al., 1996; Milly et al.,2005; Holman,2006; IPCC,2007).
Temperature increase also affect the hydrological cycle by directly increasing evaporation of available surface water and vegetation transpiration. Consequently these changes can influence precipitation amount, timing and intensity rates and indirectly impact the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs (i.e. lakes, soil moisture, groundwater)(Toews,2003).
Water is one of earth’s most precious resources that is indispensably and intricately connected to life. Good drinking water is not a luxury; it is one of the most essential amenities of life. Safe drinking water is a priority for all.

This is the reason for which water must be given the necessary attention at all times. Although water is essential for human survival, many do not have sufficient potable drinking water supply and sufficient water to maintain basic hygiene. Globally, 748 million people lack access to improved drinking water and it is estimated that 1.8 billion people use a source of drinking water that is feacally contaminated (WHO/UNICEF, 2004).
Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking and irrigation in low rainfall arid and semi arid areas where are no significant surface waters sources. This is because groundwater is slow to respond to changes in precipitation regime and thus acts as more resilient buffer during dry spells. In fact worldwide, more than 2million people depend on groundwater for their daily support (Kemper, 2004). Furthermore groundwater forms the largest proportion (? 97%) of the world’s freshwater supply. By maintaining surface water systems through flows into lakes and base flows to rivers, groundwater performs the crucial role of maintaining the biodiversity and habitats of sensitive ecosystems (Tharme, 2003). The role of groundwater is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become less reliable and increasingly exploited to support increasing population and development (Bovolo et al., 2009).
The effects of global warming on water resources, especially on groundwater, will depend on the groundwater system, its geographical location, and changes in hydrological variables (Alley, 2001; Huntington, 2006; Sophocleous, 2004).
Knowing how climate change will affect groundwater resources is thus important as it will allow water resources managers to make more rational decisions on water allocation and management (Sullivan,2001) and enable the formulation of mitigation and adaptation measures.
Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water. The modern civilization, industrialization,
urbanization and increase in population have lead to fast degradation of our ground water quality.
The occurrence of groundwater depends primarily on geology, geomorphology and rainfall – both current and historic. The inter-relationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, quality, reliability, ease of access and sustainability. Climate change will superimpose itself by modifying rainfall and evaporation patterns, raising questions about how such changes may affect groundwater availability and, ultimately, rural water supplies.The quality of water from dug wells is largelydependent on the concentration of biological, chemical land physical contaminants (Musa et al., 1999).
The main drinking water sources, most especially in African countries are from boreholes, pipe borne, deep and shallow wells, dug outs, streams and rivers which are mostly of poor quality. Water quality is a growing concern throughout the developing world (UNICEF, 2013) and sources of drinking water are constantly under threat from contamination. In Ghana, 62 to 67% of the people depend on groundwater (GEMS/Water Project, 1997) and many cities and towns have problems with the quality of waterused in homes and work places (Nkansah et al., 2010; Obiri-Danso et al., 2009).

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The IPCC projects that by 2020, between 75 and 250 million people globally are expected to increase water stress due to climate change (IPCC, 2007), adversely affecting livelihoods and exacerbating water related problems.
Climate change is majorly attributed to anthropogenic activities such as burning of fossils, clear felling of trees and other bad farming practices. Ultimately all these practices have consequential impact on groundwater as the hydrological cycle is disrupted. The study area is within the savannah regions which means temperatures are high. And temperature and precipitation are the core factors to assess the overall impacts of climate change (IPCC, 2007). High temperatures increases evaporation and consequently affects precipitation which also affects the amounts of water that runs down to rivers, streams, lakes which in turn recharges the aquifers.
But in Bongo district, little research has been conducted to investigate the effects of climate change on groundwater resources for that matter hand dug wells.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION
As a result of the insufficient water for households by the Ghana Water Company, most households in Bongo depend on hand dug wells and also boreholes for drinking and for other purposes. This study will bridge the gap in knowledge as the effects of climate change on hand dug wells is being examined critically. The understanding of the effects of climate change on hand dug wells in the Bongo district is crucial in agricultural planning, hydrological modeling, water resource assessment, and other environmental assessments (Michaelides et al. 2009).
1.4 OBJECTIVES
The objectives are as follows;
• To determine the trend in the water level of the wells now and the previous years.
• To determine the weather conditions of the Bongo District.
1.5 SCOPE
This research would cover seven (23) communities in the Bongo District. The study is limited to groundwater drinking water sources (hand-dug wells) and would be carried purposely to check whether climate change had caused any impact on the hand-hug wells in that District.
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study has been organized under five main chapters. Chapters one focuses general introduction to the study and defines the research problem, objectives, scope and justification. The chapter two reviews literature on the concept of groundwater (hand-dug wells), global problem of climate change, impact of climate change on groundwater. Chapter three entails the geology of the study area, demographic characteristics and economic activities of the Bongo District. Chapter four covers the profile of the study area as well as the methodology that has been employed to carry out the research. The fifth chapter presents an in-depth analysis and discussion of results.
The sixth and final chapter covers the major findings and management recommendations and conclusions.

2.0 CHAPTER TWO
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter review relevant literature, report and all available information on the research topic. Climate changes as global issue, climate change on groundwater and impact of climate change on groundwater resources, potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation, degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise, potential impacts of landuse change caused by climate change, potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration, increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use, effects of climate change on temperature and sea level, effects of climate change on water availability, effects of climate change on health and effects of climate change on agriculture.
2.2 CLIMATE CHANGE: GLOBAL PROBLEM
Over the past 150 years, the global mean surface temperature has increased 0.76oC, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC, 2007). Global warning has caused greater climate volatility such as changes in precipitation patterns and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and has led to a rise mean global sea levels. It is widely believed that climate change is largely the result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, if no action is taken, it is likely to intensify in the years to come. Under a high emissions scenario developed by (IPCC, 2001), by the end of this century, the global mean temperature increase from the 1980-1999 levels could reach 4 oC , with a range from 2.4 oC to 6.4 oC .This would have serious consequences for the world’s growth and development. Climate change is a global problem and requires a global problem. In recent years, addressing climate change has been high on the international policy agenda. There is now a consensus that to prevent global warming from reaching dangerous levels, action is needed to control and mitigate GHG emissions and stabilize their atmospheric concentration within a range of 450-550 parts per million (ppm) (IPCC,2007).
At the global scale, there is evidence of a broadly coherent pattern of change in annual runoff, with some regions experiencing an increase (Tao et al., 2003a, b, for China; Hyvarinen, 2003, for Finland; Walter et al., 2004, for the coterminous USA), particularly at higher latitudes, and others a decrease, for example in parts of West Africa, southern Europe and southern Latin America (Milly et al., 2005). Labat et al. (2004) claimed a 4% increase in global total runoff per 1°C rise in temperature during the 20th century, with regional variation around this trend, but this has been challenged due to the effects of non-climatic drivers on runoff and bias due to the small number of data points (Legates et al., 2005). Gedney et al. (2006) gave the first tentative evidence that CO2 forcing leads to increases in runoff due to the effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on plant physiology, although other evidence for such a relationship is difficult to find. The methodology used to search for trends can also influence results, since omitting the effects of cross-correlation between river catchments can lead to an overestimation of the number of catchments showing significant trends (Douglas et al., 2000).
Globally, the number of great inland flood catastrophes during the last 10 years (1996–2005) is twice as large, per decade, as between 1950 and 1980, while related economic losses have increased by a factor of five (Kron and Berz, 2007). Dominant drivers of the upward trend of flood damage are socio-economic factors such as economic growth, increases in population and in the wealth concentrated in vulnerable areas, and land-use change. Floods have been the most reported natural disaster events in many regions, affecting 140 million people per year on average (WDR, 2003, 2004). In Bangladesh, during the 1998 flood, about 70% of the country’s area was inundated (compared to an average value of 20–25%) (Mirza, 2003; Clarke and King,
2.3 Climate change on groundwater
Groundwater quality is affected by many factors such as physico- chemical characters of the rocks through which the water is circulating, geology of the location, climate of the area, role of microorganisms that operate for the oxidative and reductive biodegradation of organic matter, intrusion of saline waters as in coastal areas etc. Ground water constitutes an important component of many water resource systems, supplying water for domestic use, for industry and for agriculture. At present, nearly one-fifth of all water used in the world is obtained from groundwater resources. Some 15% of world’s crop land is irrigated by groundwater. The present irrigated area in India is 60 million hectares (Mha) of which about 40% is from groundwater (Raghunath, 1987).
In Europe the problem of groundwater pollution is worsening. Within 50 years some 60,000 square kilometers of groundwater aquifers in western and central Europe are calculated to be contaminated with pesticides and fertilizers (Niemczynowicz, 1996). Of Hungary’s 1,600 field wells tapping groundwater, 600 of them are already contaminated, mostly with agricultural chemicals (Havas-Szilagyi, et a1., 1998). In the Czech Republic 70%-of all surface waters are heavily polluted, mostly with municipal and industrial wastes. Some 30% of the country’s rivers are so fouled with pollutants that no fish survived (Nash, 1993). In US, 40% of all surface waters are unfit for bathing or fishing, and 48% of all lakes are eutrophied (US EPA, 1998). Germany has accorded high priority to ground water protection where over 80 per cent of the public water supply was taken from groundwater, including artificial recharge and bank infiltration. However despite legislation, groundwater pollution was increasing, particularly in agricultural areas. Hence limits have been introduced for pesticides levels and new rules have been introduced governing dumping and storage.
2.4 Impact of climate change on groundwater resources
The impact of climate change on the recharge of groundwater resources is the result of a complex and sensitive interaction between the changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, local geology and soil and plant physiological response to atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The predicted general increase in annual average temperatures and the decreases in summer precipitation lead to higher soil moisture deficits and a later return of the soils to field capacity. Meanwhile, the largely unchanged spring precipitation and warmer temperatures mean that soil moisture deficits are likely to develop earlier in spring, resulting in a generally shorter winter recharge period. Whether this shortened recharge period leads to reduced recharge depends on whether it is outweighed by the expected increased winter precipitation. The increased variability in precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration will therefore have varied effects on different aquifers and different locations within an aquifer, depending on spatial variability in soil and aquifer hydraulic properties, and distance from the recharge area (Green et al., 2011).
2.5 Potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation
Spatial and temporal changes in temperature and precipitation may modify the surface hydraulic boundary conditions of, and ultimately cause a shift in the water balance of an aquifer. For example, variations in the amount of precipitation, the timing of precipitation events, and the form of precipitation are all key factors in determining the amount and timing of recharge to aquifers. In Central Asia, output from the coupled atmosphere-sea surface global circulation model for the period 2080-2100 shows a rise in temperature of 3.5?4.5 oC and a decrease in precipitation. For South Asia, 2.5?3.5 oC increase of temperature and an increase in precipitation are projected. Changes in the amount of precipitation are expected to decrease mean runoff by 1 mm/day in Central Asia and to increase mean runoff by a similar amount in South Asia. Due to the change in the variability of precipitation, surface water resources are likely to become more unreliable, thus precipitating a shift to development of more “reliable” groundwater resources, as has been observed in Taiwan (Hiscock and Tanaka 2006).The changing frequency of droughts or heavy precipitation can also be expected to impact on water levels in aquifers. Droughts result in declining water levels not only because of reduction in rainfall, but also due to increased evaporation and a reduction in infiltration that may accompany the development of dry top soils. Paradoxically, extreme precipitation events may lead to less recharge to groundwater in upland areas because more of the precipitation is lost as runoff. Similarly, flood magnitude and frequency could increase as a consequence of increased frequency of heavy precipitation events, which could increase groundwater recharge in some floodplains.

2.6 Degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise
As global temperatures rise, sea level rise is also expected due to the melting of ice sheets and glaciers. Rising sea levels would allow saltwater to penetrate farther inland groundwater supplies, damaging urban water supplies, ecosystems, and coastal farmland (IPCC,1998). Furthermore, a reduced groundwater head caused by lower rainfall will aggravate the impacts of sea level rise. Saline intrusion into alluvial aquifers may be moderate, but higher in limestone aquifers. Reduced rates of groundwater recharge, flow and discharge and higher aquifer temperatures may increase the levels of bacterial, pesticide, nutrient and metal contamination. Similarly, increased flooding could increase the flushing of urban and agricultural waste into groundwater systems, especially into unconfined aquifers, and further deteriorate groundwater quality.
About 45% of population in the world lives in the low elevation coastal zone and about two thirds of the population residing in this zone are in Asia (IHDP ,2007).
Sea level rise has already affected a large population, resulting in a huge loss of capital value, land, and precious wetlands, and incurring a high adaptation/protection cost.
In Asia alone, projected sea level rise could flood the residences of millions of people living in the coastal zones of South, Southeast and East Asia such as Vietnam, Bangladesh, India and China (Wassmann et al., 2004; Stern 2006; Cruz et al., 2007).
2.7 Potential impacts of land use change caused by climate change
Climate change studies suggest that some Asia-Pacific forests and vegetation may experience some initially beneficial effects from climate change and enhanced atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Any vegetation change scenarios will have direct and indirect impacts on groundwater recharge. For example, the projected decline of steppe and desert biomes on the Tibetan Plateau may be accompanied by an expansion of conifer, broad-leaved, and evergreen forests and shrub land. Expanded forest cover may increase groundwater recharge in the Tibetan Plateau, with consequent changes in downstream river flows. In addition, studies suggest significant shifts in the distribution of tree species in China in response to warming of 2–4°C, including the migration of forest communities into non-forested areas of East China (CSIRO 2006). The increase in forest area may increase the groundwater recharge in East China. Changes in precipitation and temperature caused by the elevated level of CO2 in the atmosphere can increase the infiltration rate of water through the vadose zone. A model that simulates the effect of increased CO2 level on plants, groundwater and the vadose zone was applied in subtropical and Mediterranean regions of Australia.
The subtropical regions responded more to the frequency and volume of precipitation whereas the Mediterranean region was influenced more by changes in temperature.
In both locations, groundwater recharge rate varied significantly i.e., 75-500% faster in Mediterranean region and from 34% slower to 119% faster in subtropical regions (Green et al,. 2007).
Urban built-up areas have expanded rapidly, replacing either forest or agricultural land (i.e., replacing vegetation with concrete and bitumen). In cases such as Bandung, Bangkok, Shanghai, Colombo and Kandy, the change in agricultural land is mainly from rice paddies. Further, in Colombo and Kandy peri-urban areas, the cropping efficiency in the late 1970s was nearly 200% with two cultivation seasons, while in the last decade, this dropped to an average of 140%. This has reduced water logging of the paddy fields and thus reduced the consequent subsurface flow and groundwater recharge, influencing water resources in the surrounding urban region (IGES, 2007). Reduced water logging of other peri-urban areas can be expected to reduce groundwater recharge to aquifers used by urban industry and populations.
2.8 Potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration
Forests play an important role in mitigating climate change. The IPCC recognizes that sustainable forestry offers reduction in emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), afforestation, increasing sequestration in existing forests, supplying biomass for bio-energy and providing wood as a substitute for more energy intensive products such as concrete, aluminum, steel and plastics, as potential carbon mitigation options. The heightened global interest in providing incentives for forest conservation by valuing standing forests as carbon sinks and reservoirs is encouraging). However, increased forest cover will have impacts on groundwater recharge, through increased evapo-transpiration, that may require on-site research before proceeding with specific projects.
Some research has revealed that groundwater recharge is generally lower in forested areas than non-forested areas(Scanlon et al., 2006).Carbon sequestration in aquifers may have unforeseen impacts on human health due to groundwater contamination (Jackson et al., 2005).
When carbon dioxide enters the groundwater it can increase its acidity, potentially leaching toxic chemicals, such as lead, from rocks into the water, making groundwater unsuitable for use. To address and manage this risk, further study is needed on soil, geology, and optimum amounts of sequestration that will not cause increased acidity in groundwater.
2.9 Increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use
In the future, dependence on groundwater may increase due to the increasing unreliability of using surface water. It is projected that in many areas the quantity of surface water will vary and its quality will be degraded because of increased drought and flood events as a result of climate change (Kundzewicz et al., 2007). IPCC summary reports indicate that there is a very high likelihood that current water management practices will be inadequate to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on water supply reliability.
3.0 Effects of Climate Change on temperature and sea level
“Higher water temperatures and changes in extremes, including floods and droughts, are projected to affect water quality and exacerbate many forms of water pollution”. In addition, water use generally increases with temperatures. In addition, “Sea-level rise is projected to extend areas of salinisation of groundwater and estuaries, resulting in a decrease of freshwater availability for humans and ecosystems in coastal areas” (IPCC, 2008).
3.1 Effects of Climate Change on Water Availability
Climate change and variability have the potential to impose additional pressures on water availability, water accessibility and water demand in Africa. Even in the absence of climate change, present population trends and patterns of water use indicate that more African countries will exceed the limits of their “economically usable, land-based water resources before 2025” (Ashton, 2002, p. 236). In some assessments, the population at risk of increased water stress in Africa, for the full range of SRES scenarios, is projected to be 75-250 million and 350-600 million people by the 2020s and 2050s, respectively (Arnell, 2004). However, the impact of climate change on water resources across the continent is not uniform. An analysis of six climate models (HadCM3, ECHAM4-OPYC, CSIRO-Mk2, CGCM2, GFDL_r30 and CCSR/NIES2) and the SRES scenarios (Arnell, 2004) shows a likely increase in the number this season (Hudson and Jones, 2002).
Changes in temperature and precipitation influence the hydrological cycle and will affect evaporation and runoff, and the amount of water stored in lakes, wetlands and groundwater (Bruce et al., 2000; Charman, 2002; Clair, 1998; Clair et al, 2003; Rivard et al., 2003; Schindler, 2001). These impacts in turn result in changes in the quantity and quality of water; the magnitude and timing of river flows, and the time required for water resource renewal. These changes will both influence the availability of water for human use and impact upon freshwater habitats and ecosystems. Present trends indicate that overall precipitation throughout most of Atlantic Canada, with the possible exception of western and central Labrador, will continue to increase (Cayan et al, 2002; Jacobs and Banfield, 2000; Vasseur and Catto, 2008). An overall increase in precipitation, however, can obscure significant differences in both year-to-year variations and seasonal water supplies. Increased precipitation does not necessarily lead to more water in rivers, lakes, and wetlands due to evapotranspiration and the seasonal timing of the rainfall. Under the influence of increased summer temperatures, the increased rate of evaporation from ponds may exceed the influx of precipitation, causing declines in water levels. Wetland areas and lakes throughout the province are sensitive to variations in hydrology (Bobba et al., 1999; Charman, 2002; Clair et al., 1997, 1998; Hecky et al, 1997; Lomond, 1997; Price et al., 2005; Rahman, 2009; Rollings,1997). Declines in summer precipitation noted in several Newfoundland sites (Catto and Hickman, 2004; Slaney, 2006) have contributed to seasonal desiccation of streams and wetlands.
3.2 Effects of climate change on Health
Impacts, and the necessary adaptations, can result in effects on human health. Study has generally proceeded along three lines: health impacts associated with particular sectors (e.g. Coastal Zone, Water); health impacts associated with community sustainability, adaptation, and adaptive capacity concerns; and specific health-related impacts (Duncan et al., 1997; Berry et al, 2009; Haines et al., 2006; Kristie et al, 2006; Lemmen and Warren, 2004; Menne and Ebi, 2006; Seguin, 2006, 2008). References pertaining to the latter are listed here. Severe events can result in many people being dislocated and temporarily residing in shelters, increasing the chance of disease outbreak. People are also affected by the stress induced by such events (Hutton, 2005; Hutton et al, 2007). Mental health impacts can include depression resulting from financial loss, injuries, and/or relocation. Psychological effects commonly persist for several years following a disaster. Atlantic Canada is recognized as one of four areas of Canada where air pollution is greatest, largely because of air masses from the eastern United States (Labelle, 1998). Ozone is the most common air pollutant. An increase in heat waves, combined with air pollution, can increase the frequency of smog days in urban areas and cause serious health problems, such as asthma and other pulmonary illnesses, as well as heat stress and related illnesses (Haq et al,
2008; ; Health Canada, 2005; Kostatsky, 2007; Kostatsky et al., 2008; Mao, 2007; McMichael et al., 2003; Ouimet, 2007). Impacts of heat waves, smog events, and the effects of airborne particulates resulting from forest fires (Dominici et al, 2006; Stieb et al, 1995; Moore et al, 2006) may be compounded as a result of climate change.

3.3 Effects of Climate change on Agriculture
Agriculture is highly dependent on climate. In Newfoundland and Labrador, the projected changes in climate present both opportunity and risk (Wall et al., 2004; Weber and Hauer, 2003).
The opportunity to extend the growing season and grow higher value crops is balanced against the risk of increased frequency of extreme events which may damage crops and or infrastructure, impacts on the environment, uncertainty in global markets, and potential changes in pest spectrum and incidence of disease. The potential impacts of climate change on animal production are multifaceted, but largely unstudied (especially in Atlantic Canada). One potential impact is the need to introduce artificial cooling of livestock buildings. The variability of climatic conditions during the reproductive period for fur-farmed species has a significant impact on reproductive success. Animal diseases and their spread can be influenced by climate. Water usage in agricultural operations (Dryden-Cripton et al., 2007) is a potential issue under changing climate. The desire or requirement to reduce GHG emissions represents another potential adaptation impact (Burton and Sauvé, 2006; Desjardins et al, 2007a, 2007b; Janzen et al, 2006, 2008; Smith et al., 2009a, 2009b). In Canada, recent studies have highlighted the issues for the livestock industries (Kebreab et al, 2006; Stewart et al., 2009; Vergé et al, 2008, 2009; also see O`Mara et al, 2008). Nitrogen management has been investigated under both different scenarios
of climate change (DeJong et al, 2008), and under different cultivation and operational techniques (Christopher and Lal, 2007; Rochette, 2008; Rochette et al, 2004, 2008; Rochette and Bertrand, 2008; Rochette and McGinn, 2008; Yang et al., 2007).
Agriculture in many climatically-suitable regions of Newfoundland is limited by soil conditions and competing demands for suitable land (e.g. Ramsey, 1993; Sigursveinsson, 1985).
Assessment of the potential competing uses for land conducted using economy-ecosystem response models (Hauer et al, 2002), has not been conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador. Potential for development of new crops, or expansion of present efforts (e.g. Debnath, 2009), may exist. Expansion of agriculture in suitable areas of Labrador (c.f. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2004; Tarnoci, 2003), could also be considered.

• A number of researchers have studied the effects of climate change on groundwater resources. Different hydrologic and groundwater flow methods were used in the studies.

In a study of Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, (Iyrkama& Sykes, 2007) used help3 to simulate past and future recharge. They used temperature and precipitation climate change scenarios based on the predictions IPCC (2001). Results showed that an increase in rainfall as a result of climate change led to an increase in recharge. The increase though varied from place to place due to differences in land use and soil types.

Brouyere et al., 2004 studied the impacts of climate change in small aquifer, the Geer basin in Belgium. They used an integrated Hydrological model (MOHISE) which is composed of three interacting sub models: a soil model, a surface water model and groundwater model which are dynamically linked.

Climate change scenario was prepared by Royal Institute Meteorology of Belgium (IRMB) based on experiment done with seven GCMs. They found out that future climate changes could results in a decrease in groundwater levels. However no seasonal changes were noted. In another independent study in the same basin (Goderniaux et al,.2009) combined a sub surface flow model, Hydro-Geosphere with climate change scenarios from six regional climate models assuming the Special Report on Emission Scenario(SRES)A2(medium –high) emission scenario. Results showed a significant decrease of up to 8m in groundwater levels by 2080.

In another study in the United States, Crowley and Lukkonen (2003) investigated the impact of climate on groundwater levels in the Lansing area in Michigan. They considered 20years centered on 2030 as the future changed climate condition and the baseline as the period 1961 to 1990. Groundwater recharge was estimated from stream flow simulations and from variable derived from GCMs. Their results indicated that groundwater levels would increase ar decrease depending on GCM used to simulate the future.

In (Scibek and Allen, 2006a), the responses of two aquifers to climate change, one in western Canada and the other In the United States, were compared. One aquifer is recharge dominated while the other is connected to a river. Downscaled climate change scenarios from the Canadian Global Climate Model1 GCM were used in combination with a groundwater flow model, MODFLOW. Small changes in groundwater levels forced by changes in recharge were noted. The results show that the climate region, distribution of material properties, nature of surface water – groundwater interaction and aquifer geometry influence the impact on water levels and water quality as well.

Another study examined the potential flood damage impacts of changes in extreme precipitation events by using the Canadian Climate Center model and the IS92a scenario for the metro Boston area in the north-eastern USA (Kirshen et al., 2005b). This study found that, without adaptation investments, both the number of properties damaged by floods and the overall cost of flood damage would double by 2100, relative to what might be expected if there was no climate change. It also found that flood-related transportation delays would become an increasingly significant nuisance over the course of this century. The study concluded that the likely economic magnitude of these damages is sufficiently high to justify large expenditures on adaptation strategies such as universal flood-proofing in floodplains.

(Yusoff et al., 2002; Loaiciga et al.,2000; Arnell, 1998) have used a range of modelling techniques such as soil water balance models (Kruger et al., 2001; Arnell 1998), empirical models (Chen etal., 2002), conceptual models (Cooper et al., 1995) and more complex distributed models (Croley and Luukkonen, 2003; Kirshen, 2002; Yusoff et al., 2002), but all have derived changes in groundwater recharge by assuming that parameters other than precipitation and temperature remain constant.

Another study in the Mures RB focuses on the Tarnava RB (Mare & Mica rivers), applying the hydrological model MEDL. This model is based on the balance between rainfalls, soil accumulations, evapotranspiration and runoff at the gauging stations: Zetea, Odorheiul Secuiesc, Medias, Bezid, Tarnaveni and Mihalt, for the period 1961-2000. The study emphasised the impact of climatic changes on water resources, on the assumption of doubling the amount of the CO2 equivalent in the atmosphere. The most significant changes for the Mihalt station on the Tarnava River are the following (A. Galie, 2006):
• The average annual discharge increases by 0.9%;
• The average annual discharge variation records an increase of about 71.7% in the period October-February, in July and August and a decrease of about 30.2% in the period March-June and in September. The average multiannual discharge is expected to be less variable taking into account climate change than it is presently;
• The minimum outflow increases in the period December to February with a variation of 156.9% and decreases during spring, summer and autumn with variation of 19.4%;
• The flash floods resulting from snow melting are expected to occur earlier, usually in January and will be about 21.4% more intensive; pluvial floods will also change.

Hanson et al. (2012), for example, used a coupled numerical model to examine climate impacts on groundwater conditions in the semi-arid, irrigated Central Valley of California. These authors predict that as the basin’s climate changes in the coming decades, reductions in surface runoff and rising crop water demand will lead to a shift to a largely groundwater-dominated irrigation economy. Coupled with sustained summer droughts, this shift (represented by the authors as a 3.5X increase in groundwater pumping across the model domain) is predicted to lead to large reductions in future groundwater storage in the valley aquifer system (causing up to 10’s of meters of water level decline). The depletion in storage volume caused by pumping far exceeded model-predicted volumetric changes in recharge related to direct climate impacts (~+4% change from historic conditions).

3.0 CHAPTER THREE
3.1 STUDY AREA
3.2 LOCATION
The Bongo District is one of the 13 Districts in the Upper East Region. It was created by Legislative Instrument 1446(LI 1446) in 1988 with Bongo and its capital. The Bongo District shares boundaries with Burkino Faso to the north, Kassena –Nankena East to the west, Bolgatanga Municipal to the south west and Nabdam District to south east.

Fig 3.1 Source: Ghana Statistical Service

3.3 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
The climate of the district is similar to that experienced in other parts of the Upper East Region. Mean monthly temperature is about 21 oC. Very high temperatures of up to 40 oC occur just before the onset of the single rainy season in June and low temperatures of about 12 oC can be experienced in December when desiccating winds from the Sahara dry up the vegetation. During the dry season ideal conditions are created for bush fires, which have become an annual phenomenon in the area. The district has an average of some 70 – rain days in a year with rainfall ranging between 600mm and 1400mm. The rains fall heavily within short periods of time, flooding the fields and eroding soils into rivers. However, the fields dry up soon after the rainy season (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.4 GEOLOGY AND MINERALS
Granite rocks lie under the entire Bongo District. They have well-developed fractures, which make the drilling of boreholes and wells possible. The granite rocks obtrude all over the landscape and could be a source of material for the construction industry. These granite rocks are coloured pink, coarse grained and potassium rich. Hornblende and a little biotite are some of the constituent primary minerals in the district.
The granite has a rectangular joining and weathers into large upstanding masses and blocky-perched boulders. The Bongo hill rises several hundreds of meters above the surrounding land with steep and craggy sides. The rocks could be a source of tourist attraction with revenue accruing to the district assembly and people (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.5 SOIL CHARACTERISTICS
The Bongo group of soils is developed from the Bongo granites. They are characterized by numerous groves of baobab trees. The parent materials of the soils have been known to be very productive due to the high potash and phosphate content. Human population densities are high in the district and owing to long periods of intensive farming accompanied by mismanagement of the land, soil exhaustion and erosion are prevalent. Generally, the Bongo soils consist of about 3 inches of very slightly human stained, crumbly coarse sandy loan overlying reddish brown, fine blocky, very coarse sandy loan containing occasional incompletely weathered feldspar particles. It grades below into red, mottled pink and yellow coarse sandy clay loan of partially decomposed granite (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.6 ECOLOGICAL ZONE
The district lies within the Northern Savannah Zone with one rainy season. The amount of rainfall in the district is offset by the intense drought that precedes the rain and by the very high rate of evaporation that is estimated at 168 cm per annum. The vegetation is that of the Guinea Savannah type. Rivers and streams dry up during the dry season and the vegetation withers. During this period, farming activities are halted and livestock starve resulting in severe loss of animal weight, which in turn, affects household income (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.7 POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
The Bongo District has a population of 84,545, representing an increase of 8.6 percent of its population in the 2000 PHC (77,885). In terms of sex distribution, female constitute 52.4 percent of the population (44,461) and male 47.6 percent (40,084). The district is predominantly rural with about 94 percent (79,376) of its population residing in rural settlements. The district has a relatively young population with about two out of every five persons in the population below 15 years. The aged, that is those 65 years and older, constitute only seven percent of the population. A similar pattern is observed among the male and female and urban and rural populations (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

4.0 CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 METHODOLOGY
This chapter focused on the methodology that was adopted in carrying out the research work. It looked at the methods, instruments and procedures used in data acquisition, data analysis and data processing. Moreover, it gives a clear explanation of how the data is being acquired. The methodology of this study comprises of Desk Study, Reconnaissance Survey,
4.2 DESK STUDY
It mainly involves gaining and review of technical reports, scientific papers on projects topics and also on the study area. Desk study helps the researcher to acquire the platform on how to get information about the project work before data acquisition, data processing and data analysis. Technical report, articles, Journals, Thesis and Scientific papers, gives information about the climate, Vegetation, Geography and socio economic values of people within the Bongo District. Also information on how research methodology data acquisition, data processing, data analysis, data interpretation and the idea on how to come out with the map of study area was obtained via Desk study.
4.3 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
It entails visits to the study area. Bongo was visited two (2) times. In doing this will help to get self-acquainted to the study area and to confirm the existence of hand dug wells in the District.
4.4 DATA COLLECTION
Data used for undertaking this project was obtained from the Rural Aid in Zuarungu (Upper East Region), rainfall and temperature from the Ghana Meteorological Agency, Bolgatanga Office, and measurement of static water levels and water depth from 24 hand-dug wells in 23 communities in the Bongo Municipality.

Fig. 4.1Hand-dug wells location

Fig. 4.1 Location map of the hand dug wells

Table 4.1 Locations of the Hand-dug wells with GPS coordinates

LATITUDES
LONGITUDES
DISTRICT
COMMUNITIES
10.886 -0.748 Bongo Beo Kasengo
10.872 -0.755 Bongo Beo Nayiri
10.961 -0.830 Bongo Beo Waliga
10.961 -0.831 Bongo Beo Sapooron
10.962 -0.826 Bongo Soe Sanabiisi
10.956 -0.768 Bongo Soe Yidongo
10.977 -0.777
Bongo Akunka 1
10.976 -0.793 Bongo Akunka 2
10.979 -0.774 Bongo Akunla 3
10.966 -0.830 Bongo Foe Asabre
10.978 -0.833 Bongo Soe Asooregu
10.908 -0.737 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 1
10.899 -0.735 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 2
10.890 -0.729 Bongo Adaboya Binadoore
10.969 -0.826 Bongo Soe Tamoriga
10.950 -0.771 Bongo Soe Tuorey
10.956 -0.818 Bongo Soe Amanga 1
10.958 -0.820 Bongo Soe Amanga 2
10.967 -0.819 Bongo Soe Amanga 3
10.986 -0.773 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 1
10.991 -0.769 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 2
10.975 -0.762 Bongo Soe Azordana 1
10.972 -0.763 Bongo Soe Azordana 2
10.972 -0.765 Bongo Soe Azordana 3

4.4 QUESTIONNAIRES/INTERVIEWS
This was administered to the appropriate key informants which helped to complete the gaps in the secondary data. These gaps included; year of intervention, depth of the hand dug well and the static water level.
4.4.1 RESEACH QUESTIONS
• What is the date of intervention of the well?
• What is the static water level of the well?
• What is the depth of the well?
• Has the well been silted before?
• How many times has/have the well been silted?

4.5 MATERIALS AND METHODS
4.5.1 MATERIALS
• Sounding device: The sounding device consists of a measuring tape attached to a probe equipped with an acoustic and light signal. The probe is lowered into a piezometer or well and when it gets in contact with the water, a beep sound is produced and a light goes on. The water level is then read from the measuring tape.
• GPS for taking coordinates on the field.
4.5.2 METHODS
The statistical approach here used to explore the relationships between climatic data series which are not perfectly similar, such as monthly rainfall and temperature, is the correlative analysis applied to the standardized anomalies. This approach also allows for the comparisons of data series of different time periods and lengths.
4.5.2.1 Correlation Analysis
The correlation analyses are also used in other context to analyse the relations between climatic variability and fluctuations in hydrological time series (Hanson et al., 2004; Gurdak et al., 2006).
The theoretical aspects of these methods are thoroughly described by different authors (Mangin, 1984; Box et al., 1994). Autocorrelation makes it possible to analyze the inertia of a variable over time. It re?ects the dependence between hydrological events when the time that separates them increases. The correlogram C(k) re?ects the system memory effect, and the autocorrelation coef?cient r(k) obtained by discretization of the time series decreases over time.
Where n is the length of the time series, xt is the value at time t, x. is the mean of the events, and k is a time lag ranging from 0 to m. The cutting point m determines the interval in which the analysis is carried out. For m ? n/3, optimum results are found and the usual value of m is n/3 (Mangin, 1984). The inertia of the system is quanti?ed through the memory effect, which is the in?uential time an event has on a time series. To compare the inertia between different systems, (Mangin, 1984) proposes to consider the time lag k corresponding to the r(k) value of 0.2. The cross-correlation function is used to establish a relation between an input time series xt and an output time series yt. If the input time series is random, the cross-correlation function rxy(k) corresponds to the system’s impulse response (Box et al., 1994). The cross-correlation function is not symmetrical: rxy(k)?ryx(k). It provides information on the causal relation between the input and the output (Larocque et al., 1998).
where n is the length of the time series, x and y are the mean of the input and output events, respectively, k is a time lag, Cxy(k) is a cross-correlogram, and ?x and ?y are the standard deviations of the time series. The cross-correlation function is used to determine the response time of the system between input and output. The lag at which the cross-correlation function takes its maximum corresponds to the response time.

5.0 CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The summary of the results of the analyzed data conducted on 24 hand-dug wells from the study area are presented in table 5.1 which provides a summary of the previous and present static water levels while table 5.2 provides a summary of the water depth of the hand-dug wells.
Table 5.1 Summary of the static water levels
COMMUNITIES PRESENT STATIC WATER
LEVEL (m) PREVIOUS STATIC WATER
LEVEL(m)
Beo Kasengo 0.83 2.3
Beo Nayiri 2 3.5
Beo Waliga 0 2
Beo Sapooron 0.4 2
Soe Sanabiisi 2 2.8
Soe Yidongo 1.59 4
Akunka 1 1 0.2
Akunka 2 0.49 1
Akunka 3 2.5 3
Foe Asabre 0.3 2.14
Soe Asooregu 1.8 3.3
Adaboya Sadugro 1 0.14 1.83
Adaboya Sadugro 2 3.2 5
Adaboya Binadoore 3.4 4.5
Soe Tamoriga 0 2.5
Soe Tuorey 0.1 2
Soe Amanga 1 1.1 2.5
Soe Amanga 2 0.5 2
Soe Amanga 3 0 2
Soe Ayeribea 1 2.19 4
Soe Ayeribea 2 1.6 2
Soe Azordana 1 1.3 3
Soe Azordana 2 0 2
Soe Azordana 3 4.7 3

Fig. 5.1 shows map of the static water levels

Table 5.2 Summary of the water depth
COMMUNITIES WATER DEPTH (m)
Beo Kasengo 1.56
Beo Nayiri 8
Beo Waliga 7.15
Beo Sapooron 9.85
Soe Sanabiisi 4
Soe Yidongo 7.25
Akunka 1 8.5
Akunka 2 7.97
Akunka 3 7.51
Soe Asooregu 5.49
Adaboya Sadugro 1 3.68
Adaboya Sadugro 2 5.41
Soe Tamoriga 6.35
Soe Tuorey 7.37
Soe Amanga 1 7.57
Soe Amanga 2 7.49
Soe Amanga 3 7.24
Soe Ayeribea 1 9.48
Soe Azordana 1 6.06
Soe Azordana 2 6.35
Soe Azordana 3 5.88

Fig. 5.2 shows map of the water depth

Fig. 5.2 shows the map of the water depth

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‘EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON HAND-DUG WELLS IN THE BONGO DISTRICT’

TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, UDS NAVRONGO CAMPUS

NAME: BUAH ANTOINETTE
ID: FAS/5250/14
NUMBER: 0208697474/0554289841

SUPERVISOR: MR SAMUEL ABANYIE

1.0 CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Climate change is one of the challenges facing mankind today. Several definitions of climate change have been put forward by a number of scientific bodies. One such definition by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) refers to climate change as, ‘a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods’.
There is growing evidence that global climate is changing. According to International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC,2001a), global mean temperatures have risen 0.3-0.6oc since the late 19th century and global sea levels have risen between 10 and 25cm (McCarthy et al.,2001) noted that global temperatures will continue to rise by between 1.4 and 5.8oc by 2100 relative to 1990 due to the emissions of greenhouse gases. As the warming process continues, it will bring about numerous environmental problems, among which the most severe will relate to water resources (Loaiciga et al., 1996; Milly et al.,2005; Holman,2006; IPCC,2007).
Temperature increase also affect the hydrological cycle by directly increasing evaporation of available surface water and vegetation transpiration. Consequently these changes can influence precipitation amount, timing and intensity rates and indirectly impact the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs (i.e. lakes, soil moisture, groundwater)(Toews,2003).
Water is one of earth’s most precious resources that is indispensably and intricately connected to life. Good drinking water is not a luxury; it is one of the most essential amenities of life. Safe drinking water is a priority for all.

This is the reason for which water must be given the necessary attention at all times. Although water is essential for human survival, many do not have sufficient potable drinking water supply and sufficient water to maintain basic hygiene. Globally, 748 million people lack access to improved drinking water and it is estimated that 1.8 billion people use a source of drinking water that is feacally contaminated (WHO/UNICEF, 2004).
Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking and irrigation in low rainfall arid and semi arid areas where are no significant surface waters sources. This is because groundwater is slow to respond to changes in precipitation regime and thus acts as more resilient buffer during dry spells. In fact worldwide, more than 2million people depend on groundwater for their daily support (Kemper, 2004). Furthermore groundwater forms the largest proportion (? 97%) of the world’s freshwater supply. By maintaining surface water systems through flows into lakes and base flows to rivers, groundwater performs the crucial role of maintaining the biodiversity and habitats of sensitive ecosystems (Tharme, 2003). The role of groundwater is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become less reliable and increasingly exploited to support increasing population and development (Bovolo et al., 2009).
The effects of global warming on water resources, especially on groundwater, will depend on the groundwater system, its geographical location, and changes in hydrological variables (Alley, 2001; Huntington, 2006; Sophocleous, 2004).
Knowing how climate change will affect groundwater resources is thus important as it will allow water resources managers to make more rational decisions on water allocation and management (Sullivan,2001) and enable the formulation of mitigation and adaptation measures.
Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water. The modern civilization, industrialization,
urbanization and increase in population have lead to fast degradation of our ground water quality.
The occurrence of groundwater depends primarily on geology, geomorphology and rainfall – both current and historic. The inter-relationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, quality, reliability, ease of access and sustainability. Climate change will superimpose itself by modifying rainfall and evaporation patterns, raising questions about how such changes may affect groundwater availability and, ultimately, rural water supplies.The quality of water from dug wells is largelydependent on the concentration of biological, chemical land physical contaminants (Musa et al., 1999).
The main drinking water sources, most especially in African countries are from boreholes, pipe borne, deep and shallow wells, dug outs, streams and rivers which are mostly of poor quality. Water quality is a growing concern throughout the developing world (UNICEF, 2013) and sources of drinking water are constantly under threat from contamination. In Ghana, 62 to 67% of the people depend on groundwater (GEMS/Water Project, 1997) and many cities and towns have problems with the quality of waterused in homes and work places (Nkansah et al., 2010; Obiri-Danso et al., 2009).

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The IPCC projects that by 2020, between 75 and 250 million people globally are expected to increase water stress due to climate change (IPCC, 2007), adversely affecting livelihoods and exacerbating water related problems.
Climate change is majorly attributed to anthropogenic activities such as burning of fossils, clear felling of trees and other bad farming practices. Ultimately all these practices have consequential impact on groundwater as the hydrological cycle is disrupted. The study area is within the savannah regions which means temperatures are high. And temperature and precipitation are the core factors to assess the overall impacts of climate change (IPCC, 2007). High temperatures increases evaporation and consequently affects precipitation which also affects the amounts of water that runs down to rivers, streams, lakes which in turn recharges the aquifers.
But in Bongo district, little research has been conducted to investigate the effects of climate change on groundwater resources for that matter hand dug wells.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION
As a result of the insufficient water for households by the Ghana Water Company, most households in Bongo depend on hand dug wells and also boreholes for drinking and for other purposes. This study will bridge the gap in knowledge as the effects of climate change on hand dug wells is being examined critically. The understanding of the effects of climate change on hand dug wells in the Bongo district is crucial in agricultural planning, hydrological modeling, water resource assessment, and other environmental assessments (Michaelides et al. 2009).
1.4 OBJECTIVES
The objectives are as follows;
• To determine the trend in the water level of the wells now and the previous years.
• To determine the weather conditions of the Bongo District.
1.5 SCOPE
This research would cover seven (23) communities in the Bongo District. The study is limited to groundwater drinking water sources (hand-dug wells) and would be carried purposely to check whether climate change had caused any impact on the hand-hug wells in that District.
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study has been organized under five main chapters. Chapters one focuses general introduction to the study and defines the research problem, objectives, scope and justification. The chapter two reviews literature on the concept of groundwater (hand-dug wells), global problem of climate change, impact of climate change on groundwater. Chapter three entails the geology of the study area, demographic characteristics and economic activities of the Bongo District. Chapter four covers the profile of the study area as well as the methodology that has been employed to carry out the research. The fifth chapter presents an in-depth analysis and discussion of results.
The sixth and final chapter covers the major findings and management recommendations and conclusions.

2.0 CHAPTER TWO
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter review relevant literature, report and all available information on the research topic. Climate changes as global issue, climate change on groundwater and impact of climate change on groundwater resources, potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation, degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise, potential impacts of landuse change caused by climate change, potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration, increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use, effects of climate change on temperature and sea level, effects of climate change on water availability, effects of climate change on health and effects of climate change on agriculture.
2.2 CLIMATE CHANGE: GLOBAL PROBLEM
Over the past 150 years, the global mean surface temperature has increased 0.76oC, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC, 2007). Global warning has caused greater climate volatility such as changes in precipitation patterns and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and has led to a rise mean global sea levels. It is widely believed that climate change is largely the result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, if no action is taken, it is likely to intensify in the years to come. Under a high emissions scenario developed by (IPCC, 2001), by the end of this century, the global mean temperature increase from the 1980-1999 levels could reach 4 oC , with a range from 2.4 oC to 6.4 oC .This would have serious consequences for the world’s growth and development. Climate change is a global problem and requires a global problem. In recent years, addressing climate change has been high on the international policy agenda. There is now a consensus that to prevent global warming from reaching dangerous levels, action is needed to control and mitigate GHG emissions and stabilize their atmospheric concentration within a range of 450-550 parts per million (ppm) (IPCC,2007).
At the global scale, there is evidence of a broadly coherent pattern of change in annual runoff, with some regions experiencing an increase (Tao et al., 2003a, b, for China; Hyvarinen, 2003, for Finland; Walter et al., 2004, for the coterminous USA), particularly at higher latitudes, and others a decrease, for example in parts of West Africa, southern Europe and southern Latin America (Milly et al., 2005). Labat et al. (2004) claimed a 4% increase in global total runoff per 1°C rise in temperature during the 20th century, with regional variation around this trend, but this has been challenged due to the effects of non-climatic drivers on runoff and bias due to the small number of data points (Legates et al., 2005). Gedney et al. (2006) gave the first tentative evidence that CO2 forcing leads to increases in runoff due to the effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on plant physiology, although other evidence for such a relationship is difficult to find. The methodology used to search for trends can also influence results, since omitting the effects of cross-correlation between river catchments can lead to an overestimation of the number of catchments showing significant trends (Douglas et al., 2000).
Globally, the number of great inland flood catastrophes during the last 10 years (1996–2005) is twice as large, per decade, as between 1950 and 1980, while related economic losses have increased by a factor of five (Kron and Berz, 2007). Dominant drivers of the upward trend of flood damage are socio-economic factors such as economic growth, increases in population and in the wealth concentrated in vulnerable areas, and land-use change. Floods have been the most reported natural disaster events in many regions, affecting 140 million people per year on average (WDR, 2003, 2004). In Bangladesh, during the 1998 flood, about 70% of the country’s area was inundated (compared to an average value of 20–25%) (Mirza, 2003; Clarke and King,
2.3 Climate change on groundwater
Groundwater quality is affected by many factors such as physico- chemical characters of the rocks through which the water is circulating, geology of the location, climate of the area, role of microorganisms that operate for the oxidative and reductive biodegradation of organic matter, intrusion of saline waters as in coastal areas etc. Ground water constitutes an important component of many water resource systems, supplying water for domestic use, for industry and for agriculture. At present, nearly one-fifth of all water used in the world is obtained from groundwater resources. Some 15% of world’s crop land is irrigated by groundwater. The present irrigated area in India is 60 million hectares (Mha) of which about 40% is from groundwater (Raghunath, 1987).
In Europe the problem of groundwater pollution is worsening. Within 50 years some 60,000 square kilometers of groundwater aquifers in western and central Europe are calculated to be contaminated with pesticides and fertilizers (Niemczynowicz, 1996). Of Hungary’s 1,600 field wells tapping groundwater, 600 of them are already contaminated, mostly with agricultural chemicals (Havas-Szilagyi, et a1., 1998). In the Czech Republic 70%-of all surface waters are heavily polluted, mostly with municipal and industrial wastes. Some 30% of the country’s rivers are so fouled with pollutants that no fish survived (Nash, 1993). In US, 40% of all surface waters are unfit for bathing or fishing, and 48% of all lakes are eutrophied (US EPA, 1998). Germany has accorded high priority to ground water protection where over 80 per cent of the public water supply was taken from groundwater, including artificial recharge and bank infiltration. However despite legislation, groundwater pollution was increasing, particularly in agricultural areas. Hence limits have been introduced for pesticides levels and new rules have been introduced governing dumping and storage.
2.4 Impact of climate change on groundwater resources
The impact of climate change on the recharge of groundwater resources is the result of a complex and sensitive interaction between the changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, local geology and soil and plant physiological response to atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The predicted general increase in annual average temperatures and the decreases in summer precipitation lead to higher soil moisture deficits and a later return of the soils to field capacity. Meanwhile, the largely unchanged spring precipitation and warmer temperatures mean that soil moisture deficits are likely to develop earlier in spring, resulting in a generally shorter winter recharge period. Whether this shortened recharge period leads to reduced recharge depends on whether it is outweighed by the expected increased winter precipitation. The increased variability in precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration will therefore have varied effects on different aquifers and different locations within an aquifer, depending on spatial variability in soil and aquifer hydraulic properties, and distance from the recharge area (Green et al., 2011).
2.5 Potential impacts due to change of temperature and precipitation
Spatial and temporal changes in temperature and precipitation may modify the surface hydraulic boundary conditions of, and ultimately cause a shift in the water balance of an aquifer. For example, variations in the amount of precipitation, the timing of precipitation events, and the form of precipitation are all key factors in determining the amount and timing of recharge to aquifers. In Central Asia, output from the coupled atmosphere-sea surface global circulation model for the period 2080-2100 shows a rise in temperature of 3.5?4.5 oC and a decrease in precipitation. For South Asia, 2.5?3.5 oC increase of temperature and an increase in precipitation are projected. Changes in the amount of precipitation are expected to decrease mean runoff by 1 mm/day in Central Asia and to increase mean runoff by a similar amount in South Asia. Due to the change in the variability of precipitation, surface water resources are likely to become more unreliable, thus precipitating a shift to development of more “reliable” groundwater resources, as has been observed in Taiwan (Hiscock and Tanaka 2006).The changing frequency of droughts or heavy precipitation can also be expected to impact on water levels in aquifers. Droughts result in declining water levels not only because of reduction in rainfall, but also due to increased evaporation and a reduction in infiltration that may accompany the development of dry top soils. Paradoxically, extreme precipitation events may lead to less recharge to groundwater in upland areas because more of the precipitation is lost as runoff. Similarly, flood magnitude and frequency could increase as a consequence of increased frequency of heavy precipitation events, which could increase groundwater recharge in some floodplains.

2.6 Degradation of groundwater quality by sea level rise
As global temperatures rise, sea level rise is also expected due to the melting of ice sheets and glaciers. Rising sea levels would allow saltwater to penetrate farther inland groundwater supplies, damaging urban water supplies, ecosystems, and coastal farmland (IPCC,1998). Furthermore, a reduced groundwater head caused by lower rainfall will aggravate the impacts of sea level rise. Saline intrusion into alluvial aquifers may be moderate, but higher in limestone aquifers. Reduced rates of groundwater recharge, flow and discharge and higher aquifer temperatures may increase the levels of bacterial, pesticide, nutrient and metal contamination. Similarly, increased flooding could increase the flushing of urban and agricultural waste into groundwater systems, especially into unconfined aquifers, and further deteriorate groundwater quality.
About 45% of population in the world lives in the low elevation coastal zone and about two thirds of the population residing in this zone are in Asia (IHDP ,2007).
Sea level rise has already affected a large population, resulting in a huge loss of capital value, land, and precious wetlands, and incurring a high adaptation/protection cost.
In Asia alone, projected sea level rise could flood the residences of millions of people living in the coastal zones of South, Southeast and East Asia such as Vietnam, Bangladesh, India and China (Wassmann et al., 2004; Stern 2006; Cruz et al., 2007).
2.7 Potential impacts of land use change caused by climate change
Climate change studies suggest that some Asia-Pacific forests and vegetation may experience some initially beneficial effects from climate change and enhanced atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Any vegetation change scenarios will have direct and indirect impacts on groundwater recharge. For example, the projected decline of steppe and desert biomes on the Tibetan Plateau may be accompanied by an expansion of conifer, broad-leaved, and evergreen forests and shrub land. Expanded forest cover may increase groundwater recharge in the Tibetan Plateau, with consequent changes in downstream river flows. In addition, studies suggest significant shifts in the distribution of tree species in China in response to warming of 2–4°C, including the migration of forest communities into non-forested areas of East China (CSIRO 2006). The increase in forest area may increase the groundwater recharge in East China. Changes in precipitation and temperature caused by the elevated level of CO2 in the atmosphere can increase the infiltration rate of water through the vadose zone. A model that simulates the effect of increased CO2 level on plants, groundwater and the vadose zone was applied in subtropical and Mediterranean regions of Australia.
The subtropical regions responded more to the frequency and volume of precipitation whereas the Mediterranean region was influenced more by changes in temperature.
In both locations, groundwater recharge rate varied significantly i.e., 75-500% faster in Mediterranean region and from 34% slower to 119% faster in subtropical regions (Green et al,. 2007).
Urban built-up areas have expanded rapidly, replacing either forest or agricultural land (i.e., replacing vegetation with concrete and bitumen). In cases such as Bandung, Bangkok, Shanghai, Colombo and Kandy, the change in agricultural land is mainly from rice paddies. Further, in Colombo and Kandy peri-urban areas, the cropping efficiency in the late 1970s was nearly 200% with two cultivation seasons, while in the last decade, this dropped to an average of 140%. This has reduced water logging of the paddy fields and thus reduced the consequent subsurface flow and groundwater recharge, influencing water resources in the surrounding urban region (IGES, 2007). Reduced water logging of other peri-urban areas can be expected to reduce groundwater recharge to aquifers used by urban industry and populations.
2.8 Potential degradation of groundwater by afforestation and carbon sequestration
Forests play an important role in mitigating climate change. The IPCC recognizes that sustainable forestry offers reduction in emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), afforestation, increasing sequestration in existing forests, supplying biomass for bio-energy and providing wood as a substitute for more energy intensive products such as concrete, aluminum, steel and plastics, as potential carbon mitigation options. The heightened global interest in providing incentives for forest conservation by valuing standing forests as carbon sinks and reservoirs is encouraging). However, increased forest cover will have impacts on groundwater recharge, through increased evapo-transpiration, that may require on-site research before proceeding with specific projects.
Some research has revealed that groundwater recharge is generally lower in forested areas than non-forested areas(Scanlon et al., 2006).Carbon sequestration in aquifers may have unforeseen impacts on human health due to groundwater contamination (Jackson et al., 2005).
When carbon dioxide enters the groundwater it can increase its acidity, potentially leaching toxic chemicals, such as lead, from rocks into the water, making groundwater unsuitable for use. To address and manage this risk, further study is needed on soil, geology, and optimum amounts of sequestration that will not cause increased acidity in groundwater.
2.9 Increase of groundwater dependency due to changes in water use
In the future, dependence on groundwater may increase due to the increasing unreliability of using surface water. It is projected that in many areas the quantity of surface water will vary and its quality will be degraded because of increased drought and flood events as a result of climate change (Kundzewicz et al., 2007). IPCC summary reports indicate that there is a very high likelihood that current water management practices will be inadequate to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on water supply reliability.
3.0 Effects of Climate Change on temperature and sea level
“Higher water temperatures and changes in extremes, including floods and droughts, are projected to affect water quality and exacerbate many forms of water pollution”. In addition, water use generally increases with temperatures. In addition, “Sea-level rise is projected to extend areas of salinisation of groundwater and estuaries, resulting in a decrease of freshwater availability for humans and ecosystems in coastal areas” (IPCC, 2008).
3.1 Effects of Climate Change on Water Availability
Climate change and variability have the potential to impose additional pressures on water availability, water accessibility and water demand in Africa. Even in the absence of climate change, present population trends and patterns of water use indicate that more African countries will exceed the limits of their “economically usable, land-based water resources before 2025” (Ashton, 2002, p. 236). In some assessments, the population at risk of increased water stress in Africa, for the full range of SRES scenarios, is projected to be 75-250 million and 350-600 million people by the 2020s and 2050s, respectively (Arnell, 2004). However, the impact of climate change on water resources across the continent is not uniform. An analysis of six climate models (HadCM3, ECHAM4-OPYC, CSIRO-Mk2, CGCM2, GFDL_r30 and CCSR/NIES2) and the SRES scenarios (Arnell, 2004) shows a likely increase in the number this season (Hudson and Jones, 2002).
Changes in temperature and precipitation influence the hydrological cycle and will affect evaporation and runoff, and the amount of water stored in lakes, wetlands and groundwater (Bruce et al., 2000; Charman, 2002; Clair, 1998; Clair et al, 2003; Rivard et al., 2003; Schindler, 2001). These impacts in turn result in changes in the quantity and quality of water; the magnitude and timing of river flows, and the time required for water resource renewal. These changes will both influence the availability of water for human use and impact upon freshwater habitats and ecosystems. Present trends indicate that overall precipitation throughout most of Atlantic Canada, with the possible exception of western and central Labrador, will continue to increase (Cayan et al, 2002; Jacobs and Banfield, 2000; Vasseur and Catto, 2008). An overall increase in precipitation, however, can obscure significant differences in both year-to-year variations and seasonal water supplies. Increased precipitation does not necessarily lead to more water in rivers, lakes, and wetlands due to evapotranspiration and the seasonal timing of the rainfall. Under the influence of increased summer temperatures, the increased rate of evaporation from ponds may exceed the influx of precipitation, causing declines in water levels. Wetland areas and lakes throughout the province are sensitive to variations in hydrology (Bobba et al., 1999; Charman, 2002; Clair et al., 1997, 1998; Hecky et al, 1997; Lomond, 1997; Price et al., 2005; Rahman, 2009; Rollings,1997). Declines in summer precipitation noted in several Newfoundland sites (Catto and Hickman, 2004; Slaney, 2006) have contributed to seasonal desiccation of streams and wetlands.
3.2 Effects of climate change on Health
Impacts, and the necessary adaptations, can result in effects on human health. Study has generally proceeded along three lines: health impacts associated with particular sectors (e.g. Coastal Zone, Water); health impacts associated with community sustainability, adaptation, and adaptive capacity concerns; and specific health-related impacts (Duncan et al., 1997; Berry et al, 2009; Haines et al., 2006; Kristie et al, 2006; Lemmen and Warren, 2004; Menne and Ebi, 2006; Seguin, 2006, 2008). References pertaining to the latter are listed here. Severe events can result in many people being dislocated and temporarily residing in shelters, increasing the chance of disease outbreak. People are also affected by the stress induced by such events (Hutton, 2005; Hutton et al, 2007). Mental health impacts can include depression resulting from financial loss, injuries, and/or relocation. Psychological effects commonly persist for several years following a disaster. Atlantic Canada is recognized as one of four areas of Canada where air pollution is greatest, largely because of air masses from the eastern United States (Labelle, 1998). Ozone is the most common air pollutant. An increase in heat waves, combined with air pollution, can increase the frequency of smog days in urban areas and cause serious health problems, such as asthma and other pulmonary illnesses, as well as heat stress and related illnesses (Haq et al,
2008; ; Health Canada, 2005; Kostatsky, 2007; Kostatsky et al., 2008; Mao, 2007; McMichael et al., 2003; Ouimet, 2007). Impacts of heat waves, smog events, and the effects of airborne particulates resulting from forest fires (Dominici et al, 2006; Stieb et al, 1995; Moore et al, 2006) may be compounded as a result of climate change.

3.3 Effects of Climate change on Agriculture
Agriculture is highly dependent on climate. In Newfoundland and Labrador, the projected changes in climate present both opportunity and risk (Wall et al., 2004; Weber and Hauer, 2003).
The opportunity to extend the growing season and grow higher value crops is balanced against the risk of increased frequency of extreme events which may damage crops and or infrastructure, impacts on the environment, uncertainty in global markets, and potential changes in pest spectrum and incidence of disease. The potential impacts of climate change on animal production are multifaceted, but largely unstudied (especially in Atlantic Canada). One potential impact is the need to introduce artificial cooling of livestock buildings. The variability of climatic conditions during the reproductive period for fur-farmed species has a significant impact on reproductive success. Animal diseases and their spread can be influenced by climate. Water usage in agricultural operations (Dryden-Cripton et al., 2007) is a potential issue under changing climate. The desire or requirement to reduce GHG emissions represents another potential adaptation impact (Burton and Sauvé, 2006; Desjardins et al, 2007a, 2007b; Janzen et al, 2006, 2008; Smith et al., 2009a, 2009b). In Canada, recent studies have highlighted the issues for the livestock industries (Kebreab et al, 2006; Stewart et al., 2009; Vergé et al, 2008, 2009; also see O`Mara et al, 2008). Nitrogen management has been investigated under both different scenarios
of climate change (DeJong et al, 2008), and under different cultivation and operational techniques (Christopher and Lal, 2007; Rochette, 2008; Rochette et al, 2004, 2008; Rochette and Bertrand, 2008; Rochette and McGinn, 2008; Yang et al., 2007).
Agriculture in many climatically-suitable regions of Newfoundland is limited by soil conditions and competing demands for suitable land (e.g. Ramsey, 1993; Sigursveinsson, 1985).
Assessment of the potential competing uses for land conducted using economy-ecosystem response models (Hauer et al, 2002), has not been conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador. Potential for development of new crops, or expansion of present efforts (e.g. Debnath, 2009), may exist. Expansion of agriculture in suitable areas of Labrador (c.f. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2004; Tarnoci, 2003), could also be considered.

• A number of researchers have studied the effects of climate change on groundwater resources. Different hydrologic and groundwater flow methods were used in the studies.

In a study of Grand River watershed in Ontario, Canada, (Iyrkama; Sykes, 2007) used help3 to simulate past and future recharge. They used temperature and precipitation climate change scenarios based on the predictions IPCC (2001). Results showed that an increase in rainfall as a result of climate change led to an increase in recharge. The increase though varied from place to place due to differences in land use and soil types.

Brouyere et al., 2004 studied the impacts of climate change in small aquifer, the Geer basin in Belgium. They used an integrated Hydrological model (MOHISE) which is composed of three interacting sub models: a soil model, a surface water model and groundwater model which are dynamically linked.

Climate change scenario was prepared by Royal Institute Meteorology of Belgium (IRMB) based on experiment done with seven GCMs. They found out that future climate changes could results in a decrease in groundwater levels. However no seasonal changes were noted. In another independent study in the same basin (Goderniaux et al,.2009) combined a sub surface flow model, Hydro-Geosphere with climate change scenarios from six regional climate models assuming the Special Report on Emission Scenario(SRES)A2(medium –high) emission scenario. Results showed a significant decrease of up to 8m in groundwater levels by 2080.

In another study in the United States, Crowley and Lukkonen (2003) investigated the impact of climate on groundwater levels in the Lansing area in Michigan. They considered 20years centered on 2030 as the future changed climate condition and the baseline as the period 1961 to 1990. Groundwater recharge was estimated from stream flow simulations and from variable derived from GCMs. Their results indicated that groundwater levels would increase ar decrease depending on GCM used to simulate the future.

In (Scibek and Allen, 2006a), the responses of two aquifers to climate change, one in western Canada and the other In the United States, were compared. One aquifer is recharge dominated while the other is connected to a river. Downscaled climate change scenarios from the Canadian Global Climate Model1 GCM were used in combination with a groundwater flow model, MODFLOW. Small changes in groundwater levels forced by changes in recharge were noted. The results show that the climate region, distribution of material properties, nature of surface water – groundwater interaction and aquifer geometry influence the impact on water levels and water quality as well.

Another study examined the potential flood damage impacts of changes in extreme precipitation events by using the Canadian Climate Center model and the IS92a scenario for the metro Boston area in the north-eastern USA (Kirshen et al., 2005b). This study found that, without adaptation investments, both the number of properties damaged by floods and the overall cost of flood damage would double by 2100, relative to what might be expected if there was no climate change. It also found that flood-related transportation delays would become an increasingly significant nuisance over the course of this century. The study concluded that the likely economic magnitude of these damages is sufficiently high to justify large expenditures on adaptation strategies such as universal flood-proofing in floodplains.

(Yusoff et al., 2002; Loaiciga et al.,2000; Arnell, 1998) have used a range of modelling techniques such as soil water balance models (Kruger et al., 2001; Arnell 1998), empirical models (Chen etal., 2002), conceptual models (Cooper et al., 1995) and more complex distributed models (Croley and Luukkonen, 2003; Kirshen, 2002; Yusoff et al., 2002), but all have derived changes in groundwater recharge by assuming that parameters other than precipitation and temperature remain constant.

Another study in the Mures RB focuses on the Tarnava RB (Mare ; Mica rivers), applying the hydrological model MEDL. This model is based on the balance between rainfalls, soil accumulations, evapotranspiration and runoff at the gauging stations: Zetea, Odorheiul Secuiesc, Medias, Bezid, Tarnaveni and Mihalt, for the period 1961-2000. The study emphasised the impact of climatic changes on water resources, on the assumption of doubling the amount of the CO2 equivalent in the atmosphere. The most significant changes for the Mihalt station on the Tarnava River are the following (A. Galie, 2006):
• The average annual discharge increases by 0.9%;
• The average annual discharge variation records an increase of about 71.7% in the period October-February, in July and August and a decrease of about 30.2% in the period March-June and in September. The average multiannual discharge is expected to be less variable taking into account climate change than it is presently;
• The minimum outflow increases in the period December to February with a variation of 156.9% and decreases during spring, summer and autumn with variation of 19.4%;
• The flash floods resulting from snow melting are expected to occur earlier, usually in January and will be about 21.4% more intensive; pluvial floods will also change.

Hanson et al. (2012), for example, used a coupled numerical model to examine climate impacts on groundwater conditions in the semi-arid, irrigated Central Valley of California. These authors predict that as the basin’s climate changes in the coming decades, reductions in surface runoff and rising crop water demand will lead to a shift to a largely groundwater-dominated irrigation economy. Coupled with sustained summer droughts, this shift (represented by the authors as a 3.5X increase in groundwater pumping across the model domain) is predicted to lead to large reductions in future groundwater storage in the valley aquifer system (causing up to 10’s of meters of water level decline). The depletion in storage volume caused by pumping far exceeded model-predicted volumetric changes in recharge related to direct climate impacts (~+4% change from historic conditions).

3.0 CHAPTER THREE
3.1 STUDY AREA
3.2 LOCATION
The Bongo District is one of the 13 Districts in the Upper East Region. It was created by Legislative Instrument 1446(LI 1446) in 1988 with Bongo and its capital. The Bongo District shares boundaries with Burkino Faso to the north, Kassena –Nankena East to the west, Bolgatanga Municipal to the south west and Nabdam District to south east.

Fig 3.1 Source: Ghana Statistical Service

3.3 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
The climate of the district is similar to that experienced in other parts of the Upper East Region. Mean monthly temperature is about 21 oC. Very high temperatures of up to 40 oC occur just before the onset of the single rainy season in June and low temperatures of about 12 oC can be experienced in December when desiccating winds from the Sahara dry up the vegetation. During the dry season ideal conditions are created for bush fires, which have become an annual phenomenon in the area. The district has an average of some 70 – rain days in a year with rainfall ranging between 600mm and 1400mm. The rains fall heavily within short periods of time, flooding the fields and eroding soils into rivers. However, the fields dry up soon after the rainy season (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.4 GEOLOGY AND MINERALS
Granite rocks lie under the entire Bongo District. They have well-developed fractures, which make the drilling of boreholes and wells possible. The granite rocks obtrude all over the landscape and could be a source of material for the construction industry. These granite rocks are coloured pink, coarse grained and potassium rich. Hornblende and a little biotite are some of the constituent primary minerals in the district.
The granite has a rectangular joining and weathers into large upstanding masses and blocky-perched boulders. The Bongo hill rises several hundreds of meters above the surrounding land with steep and craggy sides. The rocks could be a source of tourist attraction with revenue accruing to the district assembly and people (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

3.5 SOIL CHARACTERISTICS
The Bongo group of soils is developed from the Bongo granites. They are characterized by numerous groves of baobab trees. The parent materials of the soils have been known to be very productive due to the high potash and phosphate content. Human population densities are high in the district and owing to long periods of intensive farming accompanied by mismanagement of the land, soil exhaustion and erosion are prevalent. Generally, the Bongo soils consist of about 3 inches of very slightly human stained, crumbly coarse sandy loan overlying reddish brown, fine blocky, very coarse sandy loan containing occasional incompletely weathered feldspar particles. It grades below into red, mottled pink and yellow coarse sandy clay loan of partially decomposed granite (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.6 ECOLOGICAL ZONE
The district lies within the Northern Savannah Zone with one rainy season. The amount of rainfall in the district is offset by the intense drought that precedes the rain and by the very high rate of evaporation that is estimated at 168 cm per annum. The vegetation is that of the Guinea Savannah type. Rivers and streams dry up during the dry season and the vegetation withers. During this period, farming activities are halted and livestock starve resulting in severe loss of animal weight, which in turn, affects household income (Population and Housing Census, 2010).
3.7 POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION
The Bongo District has a population of 84,545, representing an increase of 8.6 percent of its population in the 2000 PHC (77,885). In terms of sex distribution, female constitute 52.4 percent of the population (44,461) and male 47.6 percent (40,084). The district is predominantly rural with about 94 percent (79,376) of its population residing in rural settlements. The district has a relatively young population with about two out of every five persons in the population below 15 years. The aged, that is those 65 years and older, constitute only seven percent of the population. A similar pattern is observed among the male and female and urban and rural populations (Population and Housing Census, 2010).

4.0 CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 METHODOLOGY
This chapter focused on the methodology that was adopted in carrying out the research work. It looked at the methods, instruments and procedures used in data acquisition, data analysis and data processing. Moreover, it gives a clear explanation of how the data is being acquired. The methodology of this study comprises of Desk Study, Reconnaissance Survey,
4.2 DESK STUDY
It mainly involves gaining and review of technical reports, scientific papers on projects topics and also on the study area. Desk study helps the researcher to acquire the platform on how to get information about the project work before data acquisition, data processing and data analysis. Technical report, articles, Journals, Thesis and Scientific papers, gives information about the climate, Vegetation, Geography and socio economic values of people within the Bongo District. Also information on how research methodology data acquisition, data processing, data analysis, data interpretation and the idea on how to come out with the map of study area was obtained via Desk study.
4.3 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
It entails visits to the study area. Bongo was visited two (2) times. In doing this will help to get self-acquainted to the study area and to confirm the existence of hand dug wells in the District.
4.4 DATA COLLECTION
Data used for undertaking this project was obtained from the Rural Aid in Zuarungu (Upper East Region), rainfall and temperature from the Ghana Meteorological Agency, Bolgatanga Office, and measurement of static water levels and water depth from 24 hand-dug wells in 23 communities in the Bongo Municipality.

Fig. 4.1Hand-dug wells location

Fig. 4.1 Location map of the hand dug wells

Table 4.1 Locations of the Hand-dug wells with GPS coordinates

LATITUDES
LONGITUDES
DISTRICT
COMMUNITIES
10.886 -0.748 Bongo Beo Kasengo
10.872 -0.755 Bongo Beo Nayiri
10.961 -0.830 Bongo Beo Waliga
10.961 -0.831 Bongo Beo Sapooron
10.962 -0.826 Bongo Soe Sanabiisi
10.956 -0.768 Bongo Soe Yidongo
10.977 -0.777
Bongo Akunka 1
10.976 -0.793 Bongo Akunka 2
10.979 -0.774 Bongo Akunla 3
10.966 -0.830 Bongo Foe Asabre
10.978 -0.833 Bongo Soe Asooregu
10.908 -0.737 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 1
10.899 -0.735 Bongo Adaboya Sadugro 2
10.890 -0.729 Bongo Adaboya Binadoore
10.969 -0.826 Bongo Soe Tamoriga
10.950 -0.771 Bongo Soe Tuorey
10.956 -0.818 Bongo Soe Amanga 1
10.958 -0.820 Bongo Soe Amanga 2
10.967 -0.819 Bongo Soe Amanga 3
10.986 -0.773 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 1
10.991 -0.769 Bongo Soe Ayeribea 2
10.975 -0.762 Bongo Soe Azordana 1
10.972 -0.763 Bongo Soe Azordana 2
10.972 -0.765 Bongo Soe Azordana 3

4.4 QUESTIONNAIRES/INTERVIEWS
This was administered to the appropriate key informants which helped to complete the gaps in the secondary data. These gaps included; year of intervention, depth of the hand dug well and the static water level.
4.4.1 RESEACH QUESTIONS
• What is the date of intervention of the well?
• What is the static water level of the well?
• What is the depth of the well?
• Has the well been silted before?
• How many times has/have the well been silted?

4.5 MATERIALS AND METHODS
4.5.1 MATERIALS
• Sounding device: The sounding device consists of a measuring tape attached to a probe equipped with an acoustic and light signal. The probe is lowered into a piezometer or well and when it gets in contact with the water, a beep sound is produced and a light goes on. The water level is then read from the measuring tape.
• GPS for taking coordinates on the field.
4.5.2 METHODS
The statistical approach here used to explore the relationships between climatic data series which are not perfectly similar, such as monthly rainfall and temperature, is the correlative analysis applied to the standardized anomalies. This approach also allows for the comparisons of data series of different time periods and lengths.
4.5.2.1 Correlation Analysis
The correlation analyses are also used in other context to analyse the relations between climatic variability and fluctuations in hydrological time series (Hanson et al., 2004; Gurdak et al., 2006).
The theoretical aspects of these methods are thoroughly described by different authors (Mangin, 1984; Box et al., 1994). Autocorrelation makes it possible to analyze the inertia of a variable over time. It re?ects the dependence between hydrological events when the time that separates them increases. The correlogram C(k) re?ects the system memory effect, and the autocorrelation coef?cient r(k) obtained by discretization of the time series decreases over time.
Where n is the length of the time series, xt is the value at time t, x. is the mean of the events, and k is a time lag ranging from 0 to m. The cutting point m determines the interval in which the analysis is carried out. For m ? n/3, optimum results are found and the usual value of m is n/3 (Mangin, 1984). The inertia of the system is quanti?ed through the memory effect, which is the in?uential time an event has on a time series. To compare the inertia between different systems, (Mangin, 1984) proposes to consider the time lag k corresponding to the r(k) value of 0.2. The cross-correlation function is used to establish a relation between an input time series xt and an output time series yt. If the input time series is random, the cross-correlation function rxy(k) corresponds to the system’s impulse response (Box et al., 1994). The cross-correlation function is not symmetrical: rxy(k)?ryx(k). It provides information on the causal relation between the input and the output (Larocque et al., 1998).
where n is the length of the time series, x and y are the mean of the input and output events, respectively, k is a time lag, Cxy(k) is a cross-correlogram, and ?x and ?y are the standard deviations of the time series. The cross-correlation function is used to determine the response time of the system between input and output. The lag at which the cross-correlation function takes its maximum corresponds to the response time.

5.0 CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The summary of the results of the analyzed data conducted on 24 hand-dug wells from the study area are presented in table 5.1 which provides a summary of the previous and present static water levels while table 5.2 provides a summary of the water depth of the hand-dug wells.
Table 5.1 Summary of the static water levels
COMMUNITIES PRESENT STATIC WATER
LEVEL (m) PREVIOUS STATIC WATER
LEVEL(m)
Beo Kasengo 0.83 2.3
Beo Nayiri 2 3.5
Beo Waliga 0 2
Beo Sapooron 0.4 2
Soe Sanabiisi 2 2.8
Soe Yidongo 1.59 4
Akunka 1 1 0.2
Akunka 2 0.49 1
Akunka 3 2.5 3
Foe Asabre 0.3 2.14
Soe Asooregu 1.8 3.3
Adaboya Sadugro 1 0.14 1.83
Adaboya Sadugro 2 3.2 5
Adaboya Binadoore 3.4 4.5
Soe Tamoriga 0 2.5
Soe Tuorey 0.1 2
Soe Amanga 1 1.1 2.5
Soe Amanga 2 0.5 2
Soe Amanga 3 0 2
Soe Ayeribea 1 2.19 4
Soe Ayeribea 2 1.6 2
Soe Azordana 1 1.3 3
Soe Azordana 2 0 2
Soe Azordana 3 4.7 3

Fig. 5.1 shows map of the static water levels

Table 5.2 Summary of the water depth
COMMUNITIES WATER DEPTH (m)
Beo Kasengo 1.56
Beo Nayiri 8
Beo Waliga 7.15
Beo Sapooron 9.85
Soe Sanabiisi 4
Soe Yidongo 7.25
Akunka 1 8.5
Akunka 2 7.97
Akunka 3 7.51
Soe Asooregu 5.49
Adaboya Sadugro 1 3.68
Adaboya Sadugro 2 5.41
Soe Tamoriga 6.35
Soe Tuorey 7.37
Soe Amanga 1 7.57
Soe Amanga 2 7.49
Soe Amanga 3 7.24
Soe Ayeribea 1 9.48
Soe Azordana 1 6.06
Soe Azordana 2 6.35
Soe Azordana 3 5.88

Fig. 5.2 shows map of the water depth

Fig. 5.2 shows the map of the water depth

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‘EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON HAND-DUG WELLS IN THE BONGO DISTRICT’

TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, UDS NAVRONGO CAMPUS

NAME: BUAH ANTOINETTE
ID: FAS/5250/14
NUMBER: 0208697474/0554289841

SUPERVISOR: MR SAMUEL ABANYIE

Climate change is one of the challenges facing mankind today. Several definitions of climate change have been put forward by a number of scientific bodies. One such definition by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) refers to climate change as, ‘a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods’.
There is growing evidence that global climate is changing. According to International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC,2001a), global mean temperatures have risen 0.3-0.6oc since the late 19th century and global sea levels have risen between 10 and 25cm (McCarthy et al.,2001) noted that global temperatures will continue to rise by between 1.4 and 5.8oc by 2100 relative to 1990 due to the emissions of greenhouse gases. As the warming process continues, it will bring about numerous environmental problems, among which the most severe will relate to water resources (Loaiciga et al., 1996; Milly et al.,2005; Holman,2006; IPCC,2007).
Temperature increase also affect the hydrological cycle by directly increasing evaporation of available surface water and vegetation transpiration. Consequently these changes can influence precipitation amount, timing and intensity rates and indirectly impact the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs (i.e. lakes, soil moisture, groundwater)(Toews,2003).
Water is one of earth’s most precious resources that is indispensably and intricately connected to life. Good drinking water is not a luxury; it is one of the most essential amenities of life. Safe drinking water is a priority for all.

This is the reason for which water must be given the necessary attention at all times. Although water is essential for human survival, many do not have sufficient potable drinking water supply and sufficient water to maintain basic hygiene. Globally, 748 million people lack access to improved drinking water and it is estimated that 1.8 billion people use a source of drinking water that is feacally contaminated (WHO/UNICEF, 2004).
Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking and irrigation in low rainfall arid and semi arid areas where are no significant surface waters sources. This is because groundwater is slow to respond to changes in precipitation regime and thus acts as more resilient buffer during dry spells. In fact worldwide, more than 2million people depend on groundwater for their daily support (Kemper, 2004). Furthermore groundwater forms the largest proportion (? 97%) of the world’s freshwater supply. By maintaining surface water systems through flows into lakes and base flows to rivers, groundwater performs the crucial role of maintaining the biodiversity and habitats of sensitive ecosystems (Tharme, 2003). The role of groundwater is becoming even more prominent as the more accessible surface water resources become less reliable and increasingly exploited to support increasing population and development (Bovolo et al., 2009).
The effects of global warming on water resources, especially on groundwater, will depend on the groundwater system, its geographical location, and changes in hydrological variables (Alley, 2001; Huntington, 2006; Sophocleous, 2004).
Knowing how climate change will affect groundwater resources is thus important as it will allow water resources managers to make more rational decisions on water allocation and management (Sullivan,2001) and enable the formulation of mitigation and adaptation measures.
Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water. The modern civilization, industrialization,
urbanization and increase in population have lead to fast degradation of our ground water quality.
The occurrence of groundwater depends primarily on geology, geomorphology and rainfall – both current and historic. The inter-relationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, quality, reliability, ease of access and sustainability. Climate change will superimpose itself by modifying rainfall and evaporation patterns, raising questions about how such changes may affect groundwater availability and, ultimately, rural water supplies.The quality of water from dug wells is largelydependent on the concentration of biological, chemical land physical contaminants (Musa et al., 1999).
The main drinking water sources, most especially in African countries are from boreholes, pipe borne, deep and shallow wells, dug outs, streams and rivers which are mostly of poor quality. Water quality is a growing concern throughout the developing world (UNICEF, 2013) and sources of drinking water are constantly under threat from contamination. In Ghana, 62 to 67% of the people depend on groundwater (GEMS/Water Project, 1997) and many cities and towns have problems with the quality of waterused in homes and work places (Nkansah et al., 2010; Obiri-Danso et al., 2009).

1

1.1 History
Electric Vehicles
Electric vehicles, as the name suggests, run at least partially on electricity. Instead of fossil fuel-driven internal combustion engines, these vehicles are powered by electric motors for propulsion. The electric motor, in turn, derives energy from rechargeable batteries, solar panels or fuel cells.
Historically, electric cars have been around for more than a century. Interestingly, the first known electric car was built in Aberdeen, Scotland way back in 1837. Exhibited at the Royal Scottish Society of Arts Exhibition in 1841, the vehicle, weighing seven tons, could carry a load of six tons at speed of around four miles per hour over a distance of one and a half miles.
Its arrival coincided with the growing status of electricity as one of the preferred methods for vehicular propulsion. Additionally, with the invention of rechargeable batteries in 1859, innovations around EVs slowly, but steadily, started emerging. Incidentally, towards the end of the 19th century, battery-powered electric cabs started plying on the streets of London and New York.
The first known electric car was built in Aberdeen, Scotland way back in 1837.
In London, for instance, Walter C. Bersey built a fleet of electric taxis, called “hummingbirds”, which became operational in 1897. Around the same time, New York-based company, Samuel’s Electric Carriage and Wagon Company, designed around 62 electric cabs.
Despite its early popularity, however, electric vehicles witnessed a decline globally in the first half of the 20th century. Lack of proper charging infrastructure and simultaneous improvements in road infrastructure resulted in the dwindling popularity of EVs. At the same time, with the advancements of the automobile industry, car owners were increasingly looking for vehicles with greater range and speed than electric cars.
However, by the 1960s, EVs once again started garnering the interest of automakers. In 1959, for instance, the American Motor Corporation entered into a joint research agreement with Sonotone Corporation to develop an electric car powered by a “self-charging” battery.
In the decades since then, numerous electric car concepts have been showcased around the globe, including the Scottish Aviation Scamp (1965), the Electrovair (1966), the Electron (1977). Tracing the history of electric vehicles, we found that the first modern version of the electric car, as we know it today, was built in the early 2000s.
In 2004, Elon Musk-founded Tesla Motors started working on the Tesla Roadster, which was the first highway-legal all-electric car running on lithium-ion batteries. Over the years, most carmakers have jumped on the EV bandwagon, with Tesla, Ford, Nissan, Hyundai, Toyota and others leading the race.

Hybrid Vehicles

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it was none other than Dr. Ferdinand Porsche who built the first car to combine an internal-combustion engine with electric motors. The car, which was constructed in 1898, featured a gasoline engine that was used to power a generator that fed four electric motors, one per wheel hub. The car’s range was 40 miles.
By 1905, however, Henry Ford had begun mass-producing inexpensive cars with gasoline engines, hammering the first nails into the coffin of the early hybrid models.
By 1905, however, Henry Ford had begun mass-producing inexpensive cars with gasoline engines, hammering the first nails into the coffin of the early hybrid models.
Commonly considered to be the company that popularized hybrids, Toyota had its first hybrid prototype on the road in 1976. Two decades later, the first Prius was introduced to the Japanese market in 1997, the same year that Audi introduced the Audi Duo, a hybrid based on the A4 Avant, to the European market. Though Audi and Toyota mass-marketed the first modern gas/electric hybrids in Europe and Asia, it was Honda that brought hybrid technology to Americans with the introduction of the 1999 Insight. A year later, the Toyota Prius went on sale in the U.S.

1.2 Overview of electric and hybrid vehicle

Electric vehicles touted as the future of mobility, are fitted with onboard batteries which, unlike conventional fuel tanks, can be charged using electricity. These batteries, in turn, store and use the energy needed to power a set of electric motors, which ultimately propels the car forward.
Because an electric car is devoid of clutch, gearbox and even an exhaust pipe, it is significantly quieter and offers a smoother ride than conventional gasoline-driven vehicles. When fully charged, a standard EV is capable of covering somewhere between 150 km to 170 km before it needs to be recharged.

One of the chief features of electric vehicles is that they can be plugged into off-board power sources for charging. Essentially, there are two types of EVs: all-electric vehicles (AEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). AEVs, in turn, consist of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel cell electric Vehicles (FCEVs). Both BEVs and FCEVs are charged from the electrical grid and are also usually capable of generating electricity through regenerative braking.

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1.1 INTRODUCTION TO FERRITE:
Magnetic materials play an important .It has many technological and electrical applications in the present civilization .1Ferrites have relevant value in the class of ceramic oxides which exhibit magnetic and electrical properties .2Ferrites are ferromagnetic material which have double oxide of iron with other materials.(K).Ferrites have widely used in modern civilization .The main cause of widely used of ferrites in the magnetic field is the ability to the outfitter material with outstanding magnetic properties which compared to bulk system because of their construction. 1 The characteristics of ferrites depend on the chemical composition cation distribution and the formulation of preparation method. Ferrites are significant branch of ferromagnetic which are most important material both application and theoretical view of point. Ferrites have high resistivity which varies from 102 to 1010 ohm-cm which are 15 times higher than that of iron. Because of these magnificent properties of ferrites ,it make them more demandable for high frequency application .(K) Ferrites have high frequency , low heat resistance, high corrosion resistor ,which make them more demandable for electromagnetic devices .The ferrites which behave as soft magnetic materials due to their exchange interaction among the cation of polyhedral sites. The rare earth cation have 4f orbital totally screened by 5s and 5p orbital these play an important role to explain electrical and magnetic properties of ferrites. The rare earth substituted ferrites have an important contribution in modern communication and electronic devices.3Nano-crystalline ferrites are most important because of their unique electric, dielectric, magnetic and optical properties which have a remarkable application both theoretical and technological sides. In ferrites strong degrease in the saturation magnetization (Ms ) and of coercivity (Hc ) in comparison to the bulk modulus have been studied. Ferrites nanoparticles are widely used in electronics, bioprocessing magnetic resonance imaging Ferro fluids. Spinel soft ferrites are specially important because they are relatively inert and their properties can be tailored by chemical multiplication .In recent years number of chemical and physical methods include mechanical milling, severe plastic deformation consolidation and inert gas condensation .4 Spinel ferrite have a significant application in electrical components such as memory devices and microwave devices and these ferrites have wide range frequency because of their high resistivity and loss behavior .5 Ferrites are used as high purity metal oxide which are prepared by ceramic technology .In these method the ferrites which are prepared are bulk material .In the modern nanotechnology, by using many different methods ferrites have been made Nano size particle.(Chapter 7,5).
1.2: IMPORTANCE OF FERRITES
Ferrites have many important application in magnetic materials at higher frequency, lower price, greater heat resistance and higher corrosion resistance. These materials have many technological importance at variety of areas ,the use of ferrites have increased day by day .Because of their good magnetic properties and high electrical resistivity over a wide range frequency which start from a few hundred Hz to several GHz , polycrystalline ferrites have great importance in magnetic field . Among the soft magnetic materials .They have high magnetic permeability and low magnetic losses so that spinel ferrites are used in many electronic and magnetic devices. 6
Ferrites have many importance in magnetic materials .These are-
1. High resistivity
2. Wide frequency range (10kHzto50MHz)
3. Low cost
4. Large selection material
5. Shape versatility
6. Economical assembly
7. Temperature and time stability
8. High Q/small package
In magnetic circuit ferrites are intended for both low level and power application because they have high frequency act of other circuit components continues to develop .They have advantageous arrangement of low cost ,high Q ,high stability and lowest volume so that these are finest core material choice for frequencies from 10KHz to %0MHz .In magnetic and mechanical considerations ferrites deal unmatched flexibility .7In recent years ,many consideration has been paid to Nano magnetic materials that response many magnetic properties .Ferrites have many promising characteristics .The important properties of High quality factor such as brilliant magnetic and electrical enactment ,low sensitivity to difference in the ambient temperature ,good sensibility with time ,satisfactory performance over the vital frequency band ,large number of controllable parameters i.e, their electrical magnetic properties can be organized by changing the relative percentage of numerous can constituents of cautions and they are cost effective. 8
1.3: APPLICATIONS OF FERRITE
Ferrite materials technology is in an on new aged now, in which the design engineers control the properties to enormous amount, to uniform the particular device .In recent year technology depend a lot to ferrites industry .Ferrites have great impact on ranging from the very ordinary radio sets to the complex and extensive hardware’s involved in computer .The first attraction of ferrites which is outstanding property is their very high electrical resistivity as compared to that of other metals .Eddy current losses are negligible at high frequency application ,in ferrites necessary materials telecommunication and in electronic industry where frequency range 103 to 1011 .Around 1950 ,new magnetic material was urgently need for telephone industry which was used as load coils of their long distance lines and magnetic in band pass filters .For these necessity ferrite introduce new requirement .Another important use of ferrite is in resonance circuit .For inductors ferrite core was used .As it control and minimize the various loss factor ,ferrite core become very efficient inductor which have high initial permeability and reduced physical size .Ferrite cores have high saturation induction and low hysteresis losses for these case core are used as power transformers . 8To control microwave transmission path ,frequency ,amplitude ,and phase microwave signals ,spinel ferrites are broadly used .To contribution in the production of ferrite ,perfect dielectric and magnetic property measurement at the operational frequency and temperature ranges are required for elevated improvement of theses metal . 9Magnetic materials have many possible application from information technology to biotechnology so that the structure of these materials are interesting field of study .9Magnetic materials have many possible application from information technology to biotechnology so that the structure of these materials significant field of research .10Now a days for development of the fabrication of multilayer chip inductors MLFCI as surface mount devices for miniaturized electronic products such as cellular phones ,digital diaries ,video camera recorders ,floppy drives, etc are greatly used of Ni-Cu-Zn spinel ferrites substituted rare earth iron .11To manufacture multilayer chip inductors thin sheets made of ferrite or special ceramics are used on which coil patterns are printed with metal paste .A spiral shape electrode pattern is designed by organizing these sheet in multiple layers .The coil was formed by using multilayer technique which is in a three dimensional space without the need to wind wire on a core and its facilitates miniaturization and mass production .At the time of flowing current through the coil magnetic flux is formed .The number of magnetic lines is known as inductance which is the intensity of the flux .The number of coil windings squared proportionally increased with the increased of inductance and proportionally to the cross section area. For higher magnetic permeability ferrites are used as a core results in higher inductance. The concentration of magnetic field lines are affected by higher magnetic permeability of core. As Ni-Cu-Zn ferrites have lower sintering temperature rather than other ferrites, these are potential material for the MLCIs. Different types of ferrites have been used In audio and visual tools such as liquid crystal TV set, head phone stereos, computer and telecommunications devices such as personal wireless communication system and automobile telephones.

1 M. Kaiser, “Effect of rare earth elements on the structural, magnetic and electrical behavior of Ni-Zn-Cr nanoferrites,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 719, pp. 446–454, 2017.
2 “Ferrie: structure, properties and applications.”
3 M. A. Khan, M. U. Islam, M. Ishaque, and I. Z. Rahman, “Effect of Tb substitution on structural, magnetic and electrical properties of magnesium ferrites,” Ceram. Int., vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 2519–2526, 2011.
4 S. Gubbala, H. Nathani, K. Koizol, and R. D. K. Misra, “Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Zn, Zn-Mn, and Ni-Mn ferrites synthesized by reverse micelle technique,” Phys. B Condens. Matter, vol. 348, no. 1–4, pp. 317–328, 2004.
5 R. S. Yadav et al., “Structural, magnetic, optical, dielectric, electrical and modulus spectroscopic characteristics of ZnFe2O4spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized via honey-mediated sol-gel combustion method,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids, vol. 110, pp. 87–99, 2017.
6 T. Giannakopoulou, L. Kompotiatis, A. Kontogeorgakos, and G. Kordas, “Microwave behavior of ferrites prepared via sol-gel method,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater., vol. 246, no. 3, pp. 360–365, 2002.
7 R. Srivastava and B. C. Yadav, “Ferrite materials: Introduction, synthesis techniques, and applications as sensors,” Int. J. Green Nanotechnol. Biomed., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 141–154, 2012.
8 G. Aravind, D. Ravinder, and V. Nathanial, “Structural and Electrical Properties of Li – Ni Nanoferrites Synthesised by Citrate Gel Autocombustion Method Structural and Electrical Properties of Li – Ni Nanoferrites Synthesised by Citrate Gel Autocombustion Method,” vol. 2014, no. October 2014, 2015.
9 G. Magnetic, “Introduction to Ferrite,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater, vol. 319, pp. 116–120, 2014.
10 D. Bahadur, J. Giri, B. B. Nayak, and T. Sriharsha, “Processing , properties and some novel applications of magnetic nanoparticles,” vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 663–679, 2005.
11 M. A. Gabal, “Effect of Mg substitution on the magnetic properties of NiCuZn ferrite nanoparticles prepared through a novel method using egg white,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater., vol. 321, no. 19, pp. 3144–3148, 2009.

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1. After Asia, Africa is the second largest continent, and it covers the area of about 22% of the entire land area of the planet.
2. The total area of Africa is around 30 million kilometers square.
3. Africa is second driest continent in the world.
4. Africa is the hottest continent in the world.
5. There are 54 total countries in Africa.
6. Sudan is the largest country in Africa and the smallest country is Seychelles.
7. Africa’s most populated city is Cairo, capital of Egypt.
8. Africa is world’s largest diamond producer, approximately more than 50 %of world production.
9. Africa has the largest hot desert in the world called, Sahara desert.
10. The Sahara desert covers as many as 10 countries of Africa.
11. The richest country in Africa is Equatorial Guinea.
12. At the starting of 20th century almost entire territory of Africa was colonized but Ethiopia and Liberia were independent.
13. During second Congo War, more than 5.4 million people died- second highest causalities after World War II.
14. Between 15th and 19th centuries, around 7-12 millions of Africans were kidnapped and sold to slavery in America.
15. Many countries of Africa are in the list of top 25 poorest and underdeveloped countries in the world.
16. The people of Africa follow Islamic or Christianity religion.
17. Nigeria is the fourth largest oil exporter in the world and the largest oil producer in Africa.
18. Africa has more than 30% of total earth’s mineral resources.
19. The world’s longest river, Nile flows in Africa.
20. The biggest African island is Madagascar.
21. Victoria Lake is the largest lake in Africa and second largest freshwater lake in the world.
22. Africa population is more than 1 billion and is second most populated continent.
23. According to researches the human civilization started in Africa.
24. The total population of Africa is about 16% of total earth’s population.
25. In African countries half of the population has not reached the age of 25 years.
26. There are over 25 million HIV positive people in Africa and more than 17 million people have already died from it.
27. About 90% malaria cases occur in Africa and about 3,000 children die from it every day.
28. Approximately 40% of population of Africa lacks secondary education.
29. The people of continent speak approximately 2000 languages.
30. Arabic is the most spoken language, other languages like English, Swahili, French and Hausa are second most popular languages.
31. Africa has the lowest life expectancy rate, men- 50 years and female- 48 years.
32. There are many rare species of plants and animals found in Africa like, hippos, giraffes and many others.
33. Hydnora africana, insectivorous plant grows only in Africa. The local people consume fruits of this plant.
34. More than 25% of bird species are in Africa.
35. The world’s largest land animal – an African elephant lives in Africa. It can weigh from 6 to 7 tons.
36. Lake Malawi, located in East Africa, contains the largest number of species of fish.
37. The world’s fastest animal, cheetah lives in Africa.
38. Some African tribes hunt hippos and serve it as food.
39. Africa is crossed by equator and Prime Meridian, so it is most centrally located continent in the world.
40. Africa and Europe are separated by only 8.9 miles of ocean.
41. The sand dunes of Sahara Desert can be as high as Eiffel Tower.
42. More than 90% of African soil is not suitable for agriculture.
43. Around 240 million of Africans suffers from malnutrition.
44. The highest mountain in Africa – Kilimanjaro, it is a volcano.
45. Africa’s most deadly animal is hippopotamus.
46. A country of Africa, Tanzania has the highest albinism rates. Albino children are attacked by the witchdoctors and cut their body parts to make tonics that they believe can heal diseases.
47. Africa’s most famous tourist destination is Egypt.
48. Africa’s most popular sports are soccer and cricket.
49. Females of African tribe, Mursi wears plates on their lips.
50. Africa has the world’s oldest university; University of Karaouine, it is in Morocco.
51. Around 40% of population of Africa is illiterate.
52. There is tribe in Africa called “Kalenjins”; most of the fast runners come from there.
53. Wangari Maathai was the first African woman who was rewarded Noble Prize for peace.
54. Sudan has the highest number of pyramids in the world.
55. Experts say that there are at least 3,000 distinct ethnic groups in Africa.
56. There are more than 1 million Chinese citizens in Africa.
57. South Africa is the second largest fruit export in the world.
58. 40% of African children between the ages of 5 and 14 are forced to work.
59. People have to walk on an average 4 kilometers daily to get water.
60. Everyday around 96 elephants are killed on the continent.

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