1. OVERVIEWWorld’s total energy needs are increasing day by day and energy becomes the most strategic value.2 Therefore, energy efficiency studies have become essential situation because of the increased energy costs all around the world.
Reducing these cost through energy efficiency at universities has also given an advantage to both universities and students. The reduction of energy costs helps protect the college budgets and allow the universities to invest their students.The place where computer and internet technologies are spreading in our lives day by day3. Thanks to developing smart products, energy consumption can be effectively monitored in universities and smart products provide universities a solution in case of high energy consumption. With a surveillance system that works every hour of a day, universities can take the necessary precautions about energy consumptions and energy costs. For this reason, both group members made researches and calculations to contribute the Bahçe?ehir University’s budget and increase the energy efficiency. As a result of researches and calculations, the best products that will increase energy efficiency for BAU are explained.1.
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1. Description of the Project The aim of this project is to reduce energy consumption and increase energy efficiency of existing buildings and facilities at BAU. There are two components to the project. The first component of the project is that investigate the existing buildings and facilities, their energy use, potential causes of energy losses. The second component of the project should a comprehensive assessment result of existing building and facility performances, and recommendations for better sustainability via decreased energy consumption, enhanced energy efficiencies, use of alternative energy sources.41.2. Literature ReviewOne of the most important features of eco-friendly buildings is energy use and efficiency.
Energy efficiency for buildings is reduced systematically by heating and cooling demand. The most appropriate architectural design of the building, reducing the energy consumption burden, energy adopting the optimization of all-consuming systems separately and integrated with the architecture.”Integrated design understanding” is the method used in the design of contemporary high-performance buildings.
With the balanced design of the components associated with the integrated design, cost benefits, as well as great returns on the economic benefits are provided.1)Competition in economics is greatly bounded to the cost of energy which is increasing.2)Turkey is not independent of energy sources. Therefore, imported energy sources are increasing year by year.
Under these circumstances, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources hold an important role to overcome fossil fuel dependency and fluctuating energy costs. On the other hand, energy efficiency shows as simplest, cheapest and fastest solution1T00815.pdf1.3. Goals The goals of this project are:a)Reducing energy consumptionb)Increasing energy efficienyc)Contribute to the BAU’s budgetd)Reducing emissions at BAU Buildings and facilities.e)Ensure that BAU does not lose anything from the comfort while trying to increase energy efficiency 2. TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS2.1.
Technical Limitations 1)Budget and Equipment-The equipment and devices were very expensive to buy and try.In addition,budget and equipment limited us on our calculations. 2)Time-There are a lot of ways to increase energy efficiency and we have to decide best choices.Therefore,time was a limitation for us.
3)Data-Data is the biggest limitation for us.We were unable to collect BAU’s energy data.Therefore,we used the energy data of other universities with the recommendation of our advisor.2.2 Facilities and ComponentsWe used software programs to calculation and see our progress.Besides, we needed energy efficient materials; 1)Lighting Bulbs(Led 20 W) 2)Heat pump 3)Wind Energy 4)Solar Energy2.3.
Technical Problems1)Some data are missing while we are doing our calculations.We could solve this problem by looking at the data of other universities.2)In some calculations,we could not calculate energy consumptions and CO2 emissions.Therefore,we searched software programs and internet tools(calculators)3. WORK PLAN 3.1 Deliverables and Division of Tasks a)Research Due to our project position, we have researched similar projects on energy efficiency in the buildings. We observed various “energy efficiency in buldings” articles about this topic because of the seeing different thoughts on this subject. b)CalculationFirstly, we collected the data that contain energy consumption and energy efficiency.
Then, according to these datas, we calculated the energy efficiency of the Bahçe?ehir University buildings. After, these calculations will demonstrate us which materials should be used in this project. Finally, we integrate whole studies that concludes this topic and we will be ready to presentation of this project. c)RecommodationsAccording to our calculations,we offered equipment which is highly energy efficient and these equipment can contribute BAU’s budget.Briefly,we explained why we recommend these equipment.In addition to that,we gave information about these equipment. 4.PRODUCT SPECIFICATION 4.
1. LED Lighting BulbsEnergy efficient lighting installations including light-emitting diodes(LED) can not only help universities reduce their energy consumption and costs, but also the lighting arrangements can make a protected environment for students. They decrease energy costs and satisfy students. They minimize running costs and satisfy students and universities need for green energy and eco-friendly recommendations. They also provide optimal resistance in physical environments that can region intense stresses on lights fixtures and standards. Because of their higher energy efficiency over more traditional lighting fixtures systems, LED lighting lets in schools to store full-size amounts of operating and maintenance costs5. An LED bulb would possibly consume less half the energy as a common bulb while producing the identical or higher quality light.
LED light bulbs are highly energy efficient and long-lasting and a LED bulb can decrease energy consumption by over 80% when compared to other light bulbs and can last up to 25% longer6.To specify a few advantages of LEDs;• LEDs consume less energy than other traditional lights.• LEDs are more durable and efficient than other traditional lights sources.They also have long a life span with 50,000-100,000 hours.
• LEDs provide extreme energy savings and they have no need for maintenance.• LEDs emit light directly.4.2. Heat Pumps A heat pump is an electrically powered system based on the principle of transferring heat energy from one place to another. When the necessary conditions are met, high amounts of energy can be used at low cost. It is the environment in which the source of heat energy is received by the heat pump. The sources are air, ground, and water.
Air source heat pumps are most commonly used heat pumps in Turkey. Air-source heat pumps can also take the form of air to water or air to air. Heating systems often use air-to-water heat pumps.
The air source heat pump operates at variable coefficient of performance(COP) values due to the fact that the source is not stable. In other words, the electricity consumed by changing the air temperature (source) is decreasing or increasing.4.2.
1.Working PrincipleA heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from one source to another source. The sources are air, ground, and water. An air conditioner’s working principle is similar to heat pump’s working principle. It “extracts” heat from indoors and pumps it to the outside.
The indoor side, you have cool air blowing out of the vent, after passing through a heat exchanger. On the outdoor side, you have warm air blowing out of another heat exchanger. The heat exchanger on the indoor side is called an evaporator and the heat exchanger on the outdoor side is called a condenser.
4.2.2. Advantagesa) Heat pumps are cheaper to operate.b) Heat pumps require less maintenance than the combustion heating systems.c)Heat pumps are safe and healthy.d) Heat pumps do not out any harmful gas such as CO2e)Heat pumps have a long life-spanf)Heat pump systems are sustainable systems.g)They provide cooling during summers.
4.3. Wind EnergyWind is a form of solar energy. Winds are caused by the unbalanced heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earth’s surface, and rotation of the earth. Wind flow patterns are modified by the earth’s terrain, bodies of water, and vegetative cover. This wind flow, or motion energy, when “harvested” by modern wind turbines, can be used to generate electricity.
7The terms “wind energy” or “wind power” define the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power to convert electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. This mechanical power is converted to electricity.
After that this power is distributed to homes, businesses, schools, and the like. 7Modern wind turbines work on aerodynamic lift principle. The wind does not “push” the turbine blades, but instead, when the wind flows across and past a turbine blade, the difference in the pressure on either side of the blade produces a lifting force, causing the rotor to rotate and cut across the wind. In theory, the max. power that can be extracted by a wind turbine is 59.
6% of the power in the wind (Betz’s Limit). Most wind turbines can extract about 40% or less(Capacity Factor). 74.
3.1. Background of Wind Energy in Turkey Turkey has a very advantageous position at wind energy because it has a very serious potential in terms of wind energy. The estimated potential is about 115,280 MW. The wind power plants, which were first built in 1998, were 8.7 MW in total installed capacity.
By 2005, this table was very stable and almost no investment was made in this area because it did not see enough interest. However, in 2005, the legislation passed the general assembly of the parliament, which introduced renewable energy sources in electricity generation. Between 2005 and 2009 an increase of about 500 MW has been observed. In 2010, the YEK law, which will open these investments further and direct investors to this area, has entered into effect.
8The total installed power of 172 Wind Power Plants is 5,789,39 MW. In 2016, 15.369.548.
000 kilowatt-hours of electricity production was made with Wind Power Plants.9 Over the past few years, investments have accelerated and total wind capacity exceeded 5,000 MW as of 2017. The total installed capacity of Turkey is now 78,530 MW and the share of the wind is around 7.54%. By 2023, the target is to reach 20,000 MW in wind power. 10 Wind energy has many advantages for Turkey. First of all, the carbon emission of the wind, which is a clean and renewable energy source, has no disadvantages such as environmental pollution.
The increase of wind power in our country means the decrease of energy dependency at the same time the development of this sector will create employment area. 104.3.2. Advantagesa) Wind power is cost-effective.
Land-based utility-scale wind is one of the lowest-priced energy sources available nowadays, costing between two and six cents per kilowatt-hour, depending on the wind resource and the particular project’s financing.b) It’s a clean source. Wind energy doesn’t pollute the air like power plants that rely on combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, which emit particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide.
c) It’s sustainable energy.4.4. Solar EnergySolar energy is provided the energy from the sun. This energy is in the form of solar radiation, which makes the production of solar electricity feasible. 11Electricity can be produced directly from photovoltaic, PV, cells. These cells are made from materials which exhibit the “photovoltaic effect” when sunshine hits the PV cell, the photons of light excite the electrons in the cell and cause them to flow, generating electricity.
11Solar energy produces electricity when it is in demand – during the day particularly hot days when air-conditioners drive up electricity demand. 11 Solar energy does not generate emissions in using position. One megawatt hour of solar electricity offsets about 0.75 to 1 tonne of CO2.
11PV panels are being used increasingly, both in the city and in remote locations, to produce electricity for houses, schools, and communities, and to supply power for equipment such as telecommunication and water pumps. 114.4.
1. Background of Solar Energy in TurkeyAccording to the Solar Energy Map (SEM) of Turkey prepared by the Renewable Energy General Directorate, it has been detected that the total annual insolation time is 2.737 hours (a total of 7,5 hours per day), and the total solar energy derived per year is 1.527 kWh/m2 per year (total 4,2 kWh/m2 per day). 12The total installed solar collector area in Turkey as of 2012 was calculated as being close to 18.640.000 m2. The annual production of planary solar collectors was calculated as 1.
164.000 m2 and vacuum-tube collectors were 57.600 m2. 50% of the planary collectors and all of the vacuum-tube collectors which are produced are known to be used within the country. 12In 2015, close to 811.000 TEP Tonnes Equivalent to Petrol) heat energy was produced using solar collectors. The use of the heat energy produced in 2015 was calculated as 528.
000 TEP in homes, and 283.000 TEP for industrial purposes. 12As of the end of 2016, it has been given the pre-license 34 solar power plant whose installed capacity is 402 MW and the license 2 solar power plant whose installed capacity is 12,9MW. Also, at the end of 2016 with the establishment of unlicensed power generation plants the number of solar power plants is 1043 and the total installed power of these plants is 819,6 MW. Total installed power of solar energy-based power generation plants is 832,5 MW.
124.4.2. Advantagesa) Solar energy is not only sustainable, but also renewable energy and this means that solar energy will never be runned out.
Solar energy is about as natural a source of power as it is possible to generate electricity.b) The creation of solar energy requires little maintenance. Once the solar panels have been installed and are working at maximum efficiency there is only a small amount of maintenance required each year to provide they are in working order.c) PV panels are a silent producer of energy.
There is absolutely no noise made from photovoltaic panels as they convert sunlight into usable electricity.d) There are continual advancements in solar panel technology which are increasing the efficiency and lowering the cost of production, thus making it even more cost effective.e) Solar power plants do not produce emissions during the operation.
5.METHODOLOGYEnergy consumption of a building is associated with physical houses concerning thebuilding certain so characteristics concerning building envelope, HVAC regulation or equipment installed in the buildings, sources regarding inward warmness gain then losses, outdoor or indoor climatic conditions or close importantly process sketch about the HVAC13.This project aims to evaluate the energy performance of BAU buildings with the use of lighting bulbs, heat pump, wind energy plant and solar energy plant to provide energy conservation. For this purpose, annual energy consumptions and costs, efficiencies, CO2 emissions and payback periods are calculated.As a result of these calculations, the efficient products which have the minimum energy costs are suggested for BAU.For the heat isolation calculations, TS 825 which is the obligatory procedure in Turkey was used.Internet tools(calculators) were used energy calculations13.
5.1. TS 825 Standard TS 825 “Thermal Insulation Requirements for Buildings” is an official mandatory standard of Turkey. This software program prepared by IZODER;”TS 825″ and based on Turkey’s meteorological data in the last 20 years.TS 825 has been operating since 2000 which is changed in 2008, reducing the total heat transfer coefficient. TS 825’s main purpose is to limit building’s energy demands according to area to volume(A/V) ratio.13 An adequate level of heat insulation in a building, the heating period, the internal environment in a specific internal temperature required to provide a portion of the heat energy from internal resources and is provided by the solar energy.
The remaining amount by the heating system must be running the internal environment. TS 825 as defined in the accountusing the method of the heating system requires that the internal environment can be determined by the amount of heat energy required. Annual heating energy is defined as the need for this amount of the total losses of the solar energy gains and calculated by subtracting the internal gains. The account defined in the method, annual heating energy needscovering the period monthly heating energy is located in the collection of needs.14 5.1.1.Calculation of Annual Heating Energy Demand-Heat demand is calculated monthly in terms of specific heat loss,efficiency factor,internal and solar gains from Figure 1 and Figure 2-H is the building’s specific heat loss, Hi is the ventilation’s specific heat loss and Hh is the conductive specific heat loss.
RETScreen software program is the best Clean Energy Managament Software for energy efficiency, renewable energy, feasibility analysis and on going project analysis.155.2.
1. Main Activities• Building a large and evolving global database of project input parameters (including data on benchmarks, facilities, prototypes, costs, products, and finances)• Creating an expert system decision-engine within the software that will mine this database relative to the user’s project location• Gathering publically available data for multiple areas, based on the existing climate data in RETScreen• Link to open data sources and energy resource maps such as NASA’s satellite weather data, streaming dynamic near real-time data into the software• Using the above to support the creation of a Virtual Energy Analyser, a Smart Project Identifier, Financial Risk Assessor and project lifecycle Performance Tracker• Creating training material• Conducting beta testing/pilot project in a REEEP priority country Internet tools were used to find out how much the products consume energy. These internet tools can also be called “internet calculators”.
After the desired data are entered,the results were obtained by the internet calculators. Additionally, annual energy costs, annual energy savings and payback periods can be calculated via internet tools.In this project measurements are divided into three parts for every product; energy consumption, energy efficiency, CO2 emission and payback period data.5.4.1 Energy Consumption Data Energy consumption of BAU Buildings are measured by internet tools and software programs. Table-2 shows how much the BAU Buildings’ equipment consume energy..
4.2. Calculation of Annual Energy Savings and Energy Costs Based on the energy consumption data, annual energy savings, and annual energy costs of products were calculated.• 1Kwh = 0.4641 TL • Annual Energy Saving = BAU’s Annual Energy Consumption – New Product’s Energy Consumption• Annual Energy Costs = Annual Energy Consumption x 0.
4641 TL5.4.3 Calculation Of Energy Efficiency, CO2 Emissions and Simple Payback Period In order to protect the livability of the world, it is necessary to reduce the carbon emissions produced by mankind. However, it is not so easy to say that it is possible to achieve this result. Because for a such a result both countries and the business world need to implement a long-term disciplined approach that is coordinated with each other. There are four basics areas which need serious initiatives to reduce carbon emissions• Increasing Energy Efficiency• Increasing the efficiency of land use and prevent to the reduction of forests.• Prioritizing energy production technologies to reduce carbon emissions• The use of energy that does not generate carbon emissions in transportation.• Energy Efficiency = (Useful Energy Output / Energy Input) x 100• Simple Payback Period = Installation cost / Annual Savings• 1 Kwh = 0,44 kg CO2 6.
RECOMMENDATIONSBased on the findings and calculations in this project, the following recommendations are made 6.1. LIGHTING1. As you can see in the calculations section,we have shown that LED light bulbs consume less energy than traditional light bulbs and we have mentioned LED’s advantages. Therefore, we strongly recommend LED lighting bulbs to improve energy efficiency and budget of BAU.2. Daylight should be used as much as possible.
3.BAU should use smart technologies to control energy data.Thanks to smart technologies, lights can be turned on and off automatically when no classes are used by anyone or when classes are used.4. Energy waste is prevented by the smart technologies.6.2.
HEAT PUMPS1. Heat pumps are sustainable energy systems. They can use heat, water and ground.
However, we recommend BAU to use Air-source heat pumps because of Istanbul’s climatic conditions.2. Air is the easiest energy source to find. Air source heat pumps use outside air or waste air as an energy source for heating, cooling or hot water.3. Heat pumps are very useful equipment because they can do heating and cooling. They may be sufficient for the heating and cooling needs by themselves.4.
Heat pumps can be used in difficult climatic conditions by increasing COP values thanks to developing the technology.6.3. WIND ENERGY Another recommendation to increase energy efficiency in existing buildings and facilities of Bahçe?ehir University is wind energy.The wind energy power plant project will make a significant contribution to the existing energy consumption in terms of compensating or reducing the energy usage in Bahçe?ehir University buildings and facilities.
In addition, this project will have a extraordinary observation field for university students in practice.The universities and their installed powers, which may be good examples in this topic, are as follows:1. Bo?aziçi University Saritepe Campus – 0,9 MW (Istanbul)2. Gediz University – 0,1 MW (Izmir)3. Katip Celebi University – 0,020 MW (Izmir)Thanks to RETScreen Expert software, a suitable wind energy power plant study for Bahçe?ehir University are as follows:6.4.
SOLAR ENERGY Another recommendation to increase energy efficiency in existing buildings and facilities of Bahçe?ehir University is solar energy.The solar power plant project will make a significant contribution to the existing energy consumption in terms of compensating or reducing the energy usage in Bahçe?ehir University buildings and facilities. In addition, this project will have a extraordinary observation field for university students in practice.The universities and their installed powers, which may be good examples in this topic, are as follows:1. Yeditepe University – 1,00 MW (Istanbul)2. Karamanoglu Mehmet Bey University – 0,46 MW (Karaman)3. Ozyegin University – 0,35 MW (Istanbul)4.
Van Yuzuncu Yil University – 0,35 MW (Van)5. Dicle University – 0,24 MW (Diyarbakir)6. Katip Celebi University – 0,20 MW (Izmir)7. Amasya University – 0,20 MW (Amasya)8. Hasan Kalyoncu University – 0,17 MW (Gaziantep)9. Mugla University – 0,12 MW (Mugla)10. Hacettepe University – 0,050 MW (Ankara)Thanks to RETScreen Expert software, a suitable solar power plant study for Bahçe?ehir University are as follows:6.
5. Thermal Insulation Thermal insulation is preferred in order to live in a more comfortable environment by reducing the energy we use to warm up in winter and cool down in summer. For this reason, heat insulation gives the desired result when it is applied to walls, roof, flooring, glass, joinery and installations that look out to buildings or to unheated parts like garage, warehouse.
In other words, thermal insulations are used in order to extend the life of the building by protecting the building from internal and external factors and to reduce environmental pollution.Therman insulation helps to;• Thermal insulation is one of the most efficient ways to save energy since insulation keeps buildings in winter and cool in the summer.• Thermal insulation helps to save money on your energy bills• Thermal insulations reduce your energy use and decrease CO2 emissions• Reliance on heating and cooling systems are reduced by thermal insulations• Thermal insulations improve your comfort at home.World’s total energy needs are increasing day by day and energy becomes the most strategic value.Therefore, it was very crucial point to reach our goals. As a result of our researches and calculations in the direction of our aims, Less fossil fuel burnout thanks to energy saving, undesirable emissions and the global warming effects caused by carbon emissions will be reduced.Additionally, energy savings will contribute BAU’s budget which means more invesment opportunities for students.We can not include much more equipment in our project,which will increase the energy efficiency of our university.Therefore,it might be a part of our project that we have failed.The energy performance of the university can be better with a analysis of energy audit by professionals or a seminar to be given to the students can reduce energy consumption