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1.4 Stellar Multiplicity
Gravity is a long range force. So concept of isolated star or binary systems or multiple systems are somewhat complicated. In many cases the closest neighbour of a star is situated at a distance much closer than the average separation between stars in a typical neighbourhood. Life time of such combination of stars is comparatively very long. Perhaps there may be seen the existence of some clusters containing even thousands to million stars or a small number of stars. They also live long but less than a binary system. Hence multiple systems are actually the midway between these clusters and binarysystems 11.
Stellar multiplicity comes to be an unquestionable feature of star formation process. The total frequency of binary and multiple systems, distribution of mass ratio and orbital periods are the most important factors of stellar evolutionin binary systems 12.
In the case of spectroscopic binaries, orbital period of a binary system may be easily calculated.The period distribution may be parametrized using a power law as f (P) ? P?, where P represents the orbital period and in most cases ? is taken as -1. A log- normal representation with P and a width for the distribution ?logPis also used by many authors.
The mass ratio q=M_sec/M_prim ?1 can be obtained from the flux ratio. The mass ratio distribution is flat for most of the range of primary masses and has an even weaker dependence on binary separation. The lowest mass ratio can be seen on the cores, in which most of the angular momentum is thrown away. As we go further into the lowest mass systems, steepness of the mass ratio distribution appears to be increasing. It acts as a restriction to the formation of the lowest mass systems 13.
Since most configurations of three body systems have inherent instabilities, there is greater probability for their break up into a binary and a third body. The theory which describes the three body break up process states that the probability of a final state is proportional to the volume of the phase space that allows this particular final state. This results in the expression, f (e) = 2e, where e is the eccentricity and f(e) is the distribution of eccentricity of the remnant binaries 12. Hence eccentricity is another important parameter in stellar evolution.
Multiplicity frequency of main sequence stars is a steep, monotonic function of stellar mass.Multiplicity frequency is seen to be increasing with increase in primary mass implying that high mass cores produce more fragments on average, because initially they carry more jeans masses, where multiplicity arises due to breakup 13.
The statement that “most stellar systems formed in the Galaxy are likely single and not binary” (Lada 2006) is not yet confirmed. But due to the greater number of low mass stars, most field stars are treated as single stars. Hence these fall in a region of less dense low mass star distribution 14.
In going from brown dwarfs to solar type stars multiplicity seems to be a smooth function of primary mass. By avoiding the case of short period spectroscopic binaries the above sentence is applicable to intermediate and high mass starstoo 13.

1.5 Initial Mass Function
The most important parameter describing the structure and evolution of a star is its mass. Distribution of stellar masses during birth is known as the Initial Mass Function (IMF) 15. IMF can be defined as the distribution of stellar mass formed during a star formation process in a given volume of space. Since masses of stars differs from each other, it is important to calculate the number of stars in a particular mass range to study the variation of IMF. Unfortunately mass of a star is very difficult to calculate 16. So it is calculated through an indirect way. Using mass – luminosity relation, conversion is possible from a single star luminosity function to a mass function. The number of stars formed in a certain range of mass and amount of mass accumulated in a star can be inferred from the conversion. The distribution of stellar systems and the importance of binary stars in star formation events can be gained from the comparison of single star luminosity function with system luminosity function 17.
IMF can be defined as the number of stars per unit volume per unit logarithmic mass,
n(m)dm=cm^(-?)
From simple power law,
?(m)dm=Cm^(-?)

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EdwinSalpeter was the one who put forward the concept of IMF in 1955.
In terms of logarithmic mass,
?(logm)dlogm ~ m^(-?)
According to Salpeter,
dN=?(logm)dlogm?m^(-?)
?(logm)=dN/(d(logm))?m^(-?)
Where ?=?-1
m: mass of a star
N: number of stars in the logarithmic mass range log (m) and log (m) + d (log (m))
Hence,
?(logm)=dN/(d(logm))?m^(-?)(1.1)
Salpeter derived the mass function of Galactic field stars of masses 0.4M?

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1.1 Introduction

The aim of this paper is to discuss and analyze the cause and impact of locus of control personally and in the organization.
Locus of Control (LOC) is one of the important aspect of personality within psychology. The concept was originally developed by Julian B. Rotter in the 1950s, an American psychologist, as he defined LOC as “Generalized belief that a person can or cannot control his own destiny or a person’s perspective on the events whether he able to control behavior that happened to him or not.”

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1.2 Types of Locus of Control
There are mainly two types of basic Locus of Control (LOC): Internal Locus of Control and External Locus and Control. People with Internal LOC believe that he or she can influence events and their outcomes (by their own personal decisions and efforts), whereas people with External LOC blames outside forces (such as fate, luck, or other external circumstances) for almost everything.
Internals tend to believe that every action they do has its own consequences, things happen depends on how they manage and want to control them – the opposite of what externals believes in. Externals tend to believes that the world has its own complexity which one could not possibly predict and control its outcomes (for example getting diseases such as cancer even though the person has no medically history causes, and thus he believes that it is his fate to have it. Or that the government controls everything and a mere citizen would not be able to change the outcome of what the politicians have previously decide).
Clear differences between External and Internal Locus of control can be seen as follows:
Those with an External Locus of Control Those with an Internal Locus of Control
• Mostly blames outer forces for their circumstances.
• They credit luck or chance for any successes.
• Tend to not believe that they can change their situation through their own efforts.
• Frequently feel hopeless or powerless in the face of difficult situations
• Are more prone to experiencing learned helplessness • Are more likely to take responsibility for their actions
• Tend to be less influenced by the opinions of other people
• Often do better at tasks when they are allowed to work at their own pace
• Usually, have a strong sense of self-efficacy
• Tend to work hard to achieve the things they want
• Feel confident in the face of challenges
• Tend to be physically healthier
• Report being happier and more independent.
• Often achieve greater success in the workplace
Another type of control that contains a mix of internal and external types is referred as Bi-locals. People who have Bi-local characteristics are known to be able to cope and handle their stress and diseases more efficiently. Also, they could take better personal responsibility of their actions and thus consequences.

1.3 Causes of Locus of Control
Main factors which heavily affect the development of Locus of control in people are education, age, cultural background, ethnicity, gender and health (mental and physical).
Education – more education generally leads to increases in internal locus of control.
This can be proofed by the statement cited by Kirkpatrick, Stant, & Downes, 2008, p. 486: “High scoring students identify effort and ability as causes of their success, whereas those performing poorly are more likely to cite test difficulty and bad luck as causes”.
And as cited in Grimes, Millea, & Woodruff, 2004, para. 8: “Students with internal locus of control are more likely to process information with “deep or strategic learning approaches”.

Age – Age has a strong relationship with locus of control.
Schieman S. (2001), determined that an individual’s locus of control morphs as they age: as an individual gets older, they lose their sense of control.
He suggests that retirement, widowing, and deteriorating health all contribute to a low sense of control, whereas education, marriage, financial satisfaction, and religious association can all help maintain an internal locus of control.

Cultural Background and Ethnicity – Both can also contribute to one’s locus of control, as Lefcourt pointed out in 1982 that,
“Minority groups who do not enjoy as much access to opportunity as do the predominant Caucasian groups in North American society, are often found to hold fatalistic, external control beliefs.”
Gender – Woman are less likely to possess an internal locus of control than men.
However, the gender gap in regards to locus of control is changing:
As according to Slagsvold, B. ; Sorensen, A. (2008), “As gender inequality in education and life chances decline, we should expect to see gender difference in sense of control to decline as well, because women’s and men’s life courses are converging.”

Health (Mental ; Physical) – A direct relationship can be seen between an individual’s locus of control and their health, both mental and physical.
A study explains that college students who experience ‘severe stress make more behavioral attributions to chance’, in which in a way it means they possess an external locus of control. Overall, those with an external locus of control have a more difficult time dealing with stress, including the stress that develops as a result of deteriorating health, which can then lead to worsening health conditions (Lefcourt, 1982, p. 103).

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1. There is not a single organ in the human body that is not destroyed by alcohol.
2. All alcoholic “products” necessarily contain ethyl alcohol.
3. Loss of intelligence, memory, absent-mindedness, schizophrenia, all sorts of psychopathology are typical of drinking people and children of drug addicts and alcoholics.
4. The average life expectancy of female alcoholics is 10%, and that of male alcoholics is 15% less than non-drinkers.
5. Alcoholism leads to early aging.
6. There are many countries where alcohol consumption and alcohol selling is illegal.
7. Norway has introduced a system for recording the amount of alcohol consumed by each citizen.
8. The strongest beer in the world is Brewmeister Snake Venom, at 67.5 % of alcohol.
9. The most popular beverage in the world is vodka.
10. In 0.5 liters of beer, a glass of wine or a shot of vodka contains approximately the same amount of alcohol.
11. Almost 20% of suicides are attributed to people in a state of intoxication at the conclusion of forensic medical examination.
12. More than 75% of all rapes, murders, robberies are committed by illegal drunken acts.
13. The survey among adolescents addicted to alcoholic beverages revealed that 69.3% of them study badly, 24.5% are mediocre and only 6.2% have ratings above the average.
14. Alcohol poisoning is the third most popular cause of death.
15. Women develop liver diseases faster than men due to overconsumption of alcohol.
16. A glass of dry wine can adversely affect intellectual abilities, suppressing the process of thinking for 12-15 days.
17. If you drink a couple of times a month on a regular basis, the intellect will have understated indicators constantly.
18. Women absorb alcohol faster than man and metabolize slower than men.
19. Excessive alcohol consumption by men can cause impotency.
20. Pregnant women who drinks alcohol regularly, risks the babies with fetal alcohol syndrome.
21. 4 out of every 5 students have consumed alcohol by the end of their high school.
22. Bad decisions, poor judgments and emotions are natural outcome when you are drunk.
23. There are many countries which allow alcohol consumption from age 16.
24. There are traces that alcohol was produced 12,000 ago.
25. Czech Republic, Germany, and Ireland have the highest beer consumers.
26. There is no fat or cholesterol in alcoholic beverages but it contains lots of calories.
27. on one of the French vineyards the soil has such a value that the workers must clean the shoes before leaving so as not to accidentally carry the soil on the sole.
28. sometimes doctors recommend drinking alcohol because of its diuretic effect with kidney stones;
29. scientists has proved that for faster removal of alcohol from the body it is better to stay awake than to “sleep off”;
30. people with a large muscle mass have better resistance to alcohol
31. one of the most famous nondrinkers was Adolf Hitler.
32. The speed of champagne corks leaving the neck reaches 95 km / h.
33. annually 5 billion liters of vodka is consumed in the world.
34. During the flu epidemic in Mexico, patients who were ill because of a lack of antibiotics were recommended to drink tequila with a snack in the form of lemon and salt.
35. In Russia more than 1 million people die each year due to alcohol abuse.
36. fast falling asleep after drinking alcohol is directly related to the toxic effect of alcohol on the brain.
37. in small concentrations, alcohol is found in most vegetables and fruits;
38. inside the closed bottle of champagne the pressure is 3 times more than in automobile tires;
39. the average life expectancy of an alcoholic woman is less than that of a non-drinking woman by 10%.
40. the average life expectancy of a male alcoholic is less than that of a non-drinking man by 15%.
41. 30-40% of women who regularly drink alcohol lose their ability to breast-feed.
42. All 13 trace elements that are necessary to maintain human life can be found in alcoholic beverages.
43. the Germans eat red meat and bananas for breakfast to get rid of hangover.
44. According to studies, at any time, 0.7 percent of the world’s population is drunk.
45. A muscular person has a better tolerance of alcohol than a person with a lot of subcutaneous fat.
46. One of the most popular drinks in Cambodia is brandy with a killed tarantula.
47. The most expensive vodka “Billionaire” is worth 3.75 million dollars.
48. In Utah, at wine tasting, it is illegal to swallow a drink and is punished with a fine.
49. It is a common myth that tequila lifts the mood and wine makes you romantic.
50. Archaeologists found pitchers of the Neolithic era, which suggested that the purposefully fermented beverages existed, in the Stone Age (about 10,000 years BC).
51. 8% of women drink alcohol during pregnancy.
52. The scientist Nikola Tesla drank whiskey every day, he thought that this would prolong his life to 150 years.
53. The first sign of alcoholism is increased resistance to alcohol.
54. In some cases, alcohol abuse causes epilepsy.
55. Adolescents can develop diabetes from the abuse of alcoholic beverages.
56. The spinal cord is the last area of the brain affected by alcohol.
57. In the mouthwash there is more alcohol than in the wine.
58. During the “dry law” in the 1920s and 30s, the US government poisoned alcohol, killing more than 10,000 people.
59. Alcohol is considered an important risk factor for more than 60 different disorders.
60. In Argentina, 68% of domestic violence is associated with alcohol.

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1.1 INTRODUCTION TO FERRITE:
Magnetic materials play an important .It has many technological and electrical applications in the present civilization .1Ferrites have relevant value in the class of ceramic oxides which exhibit magnetic and electrical properties .2Ferrites are ferromagnetic material which have double oxide of iron with other materials.(K).Ferrites have widely used in modern civilization .The main cause of widely used of ferrites in the magnetic field is the ability to the outfitter material with outstanding magnetic properties which compared to bulk system because of their construction. 1 The characteristics of ferrites depend on the chemical composition cation distribution and the formulation of preparation method. Ferrites are significant branch of ferromagnetic which are most important material both application and theoretical view of point. Ferrites have high resistivity which varies from 102 to 1010 ohm-cm which are 15 times higher than that of iron. Because of these magnificent properties of ferrites ,it make them more demandable for high frequency application .(K) Ferrites have high frequency , low heat resistance, high corrosion resistor ,which make them more demandable for electromagnetic devices .The ferrites which behave as soft magnetic materials due to their exchange interaction among the cation of polyhedral sites. The rare earth cation have 4f orbital totally screened by 5s and 5p orbital these play an important role to explain electrical and magnetic properties of ferrites. The rare earth substituted ferrites have an important contribution in modern communication and electronic devices.3Nano-crystalline ferrites are most important because of their unique electric, dielectric, magnetic and optical properties which have a remarkable application both theoretical and technological sides. In ferrites strong degrease in the saturation magnetization (Ms ) and of coercivity (Hc ) in comparison to the bulk modulus have been studied. Ferrites nanoparticles are widely used in electronics, bioprocessing magnetic resonance imaging Ferro fluids. Spinel soft ferrites are specially important because they are relatively inert and their properties can be tailored by chemical multiplication .In recent years number of chemical and physical methods include mechanical milling, severe plastic deformation consolidation and inert gas condensation .4 Spinel ferrite have a significant application in electrical components such as memory devices and microwave devices and these ferrites have wide range frequency because of their high resistivity and loss behavior .5 Ferrites are used as high purity metal oxide which are prepared by ceramic technology .In these method the ferrites which are prepared are bulk material .In the modern nanotechnology, by using many different methods ferrites have been made Nano size particle.(Chapter 7,5).
1.2: IMPORTANCE OF FERRITES
Ferrites have many important application in magnetic materials at higher frequency, lower price, greater heat resistance and higher corrosion resistance. These materials have many technological importance at variety of areas ,the use of ferrites have increased day by day .Because of their good magnetic properties and high electrical resistivity over a wide range frequency which start from a few hundred Hz to several GHz , polycrystalline ferrites have great importance in magnetic field . Among the soft magnetic materials .They have high magnetic permeability and low magnetic losses so that spinel ferrites are used in many electronic and magnetic devices. 6
Ferrites have many importance in magnetic materials .These are-
1. High resistivity
2. Wide frequency range (10kHzto50MHz)
3. Low cost
4. Large selection material
5. Shape versatility
6. Economical assembly
7. Temperature and time stability
8. High Q/small package
In magnetic circuit ferrites are intended for both low level and power application because they have high frequency act of other circuit components continues to develop .They have advantageous arrangement of low cost ,high Q ,high stability and lowest volume so that these are finest core material choice for frequencies from 10KHz to %0MHz .In magnetic and mechanical considerations ferrites deal unmatched flexibility .7In recent years ,many consideration has been paid to Nano magnetic materials that response many magnetic properties .Ferrites have many promising characteristics .The important properties of High quality factor such as brilliant magnetic and electrical enactment ,low sensitivity to difference in the ambient temperature ,good sensibility with time ,satisfactory performance over the vital frequency band ,large number of controllable parameters i.e, their electrical magnetic properties can be organized by changing the relative percentage of numerous can constituents of cautions and they are cost effective. 8
1.3: APPLICATIONS OF FERRITE
Ferrite materials technology is in an on new aged now, in which the design engineers control the properties to enormous amount, to uniform the particular device .In recent year technology depend a lot to ferrites industry .Ferrites have great impact on ranging from the very ordinary radio sets to the complex and extensive hardware’s involved in computer .The first attraction of ferrites which is outstanding property is their very high electrical resistivity as compared to that of other metals .Eddy current losses are negligible at high frequency application ,in ferrites necessary materials telecommunication and in electronic industry where frequency range 103 to 1011 .Around 1950 ,new magnetic material was urgently need for telephone industry which was used as load coils of their long distance lines and magnetic in band pass filters .For these necessity ferrite introduce new requirement .Another important use of ferrite is in resonance circuit .For inductors ferrite core was used .As it control and minimize the various loss factor ,ferrite core become very efficient inductor which have high initial permeability and reduced physical size .Ferrite cores have high saturation induction and low hysteresis losses for these case core are used as power transformers . 8To control microwave transmission path ,frequency ,amplitude ,and phase microwave signals ,spinel ferrites are broadly used .To contribution in the production of ferrite ,perfect dielectric and magnetic property measurement at the operational frequency and temperature ranges are required for elevated improvement of theses metal . 9Magnetic materials have many possible application from information technology to biotechnology so that the structure of these materials are interesting field of study .9Magnetic materials have many possible application from information technology to biotechnology so that the structure of these materials significant field of research .10Now a days for development of the fabrication of multilayer chip inductors MLFCI as surface mount devices for miniaturized electronic products such as cellular phones ,digital diaries ,video camera recorders ,floppy drives, etc are greatly used of Ni-Cu-Zn spinel ferrites substituted rare earth iron .11To manufacture multilayer chip inductors thin sheets made of ferrite or special ceramics are used on which coil patterns are printed with metal paste .A spiral shape electrode pattern is designed by organizing these sheet in multiple layers .The coil was formed by using multilayer technique which is in a three dimensional space without the need to wind wire on a core and its facilitates miniaturization and mass production .At the time of flowing current through the coil magnetic flux is formed .The number of magnetic lines is known as inductance which is the intensity of the flux .The number of coil windings squared proportionally increased with the increased of inductance and proportionally to the cross section area. For higher magnetic permeability ferrites are used as a core results in higher inductance. The concentration of magnetic field lines are affected by higher magnetic permeability of core. As Ni-Cu-Zn ferrites have lower sintering temperature rather than other ferrites, these are potential material for the MLCIs. Different types of ferrites have been used In audio and visual tools such as liquid crystal TV set, head phone stereos, computer and telecommunications devices such as personal wireless communication system and automobile telephones.

1 M. Kaiser, “Effect of rare earth elements on the structural, magnetic and electrical behavior of Ni-Zn-Cr nanoferrites,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 719, pp. 446–454, 2017.
2 “Ferrie: structure, properties and applications.”
3 M. A. Khan, M. U. Islam, M. Ishaque, and I. Z. Rahman, “Effect of Tb substitution on structural, magnetic and electrical properties of magnesium ferrites,” Ceram. Int., vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 2519–2526, 2011.
4 S. Gubbala, H. Nathani, K. Koizol, and R. D. K. Misra, “Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Zn, Zn-Mn, and Ni-Mn ferrites synthesized by reverse micelle technique,” Phys. B Condens. Matter, vol. 348, no. 1–4, pp. 317–328, 2004.
5 R. S. Yadav et al., “Structural, magnetic, optical, dielectric, electrical and modulus spectroscopic characteristics of ZnFe2O4spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized via honey-mediated sol-gel combustion method,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids, vol. 110, pp. 87–99, 2017.
6 T. Giannakopoulou, L. Kompotiatis, A. Kontogeorgakos, and G. Kordas, “Microwave behavior of ferrites prepared via sol-gel method,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater., vol. 246, no. 3, pp. 360–365, 2002.
7 R. Srivastava and B. C. Yadav, “Ferrite materials: Introduction, synthesis techniques, and applications as sensors,” Int. J. Green Nanotechnol. Biomed., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 141–154, 2012.
8 G. Aravind, D. Ravinder, and V. Nathanial, “Structural and Electrical Properties of Li – Ni Nanoferrites Synthesised by Citrate Gel Autocombustion Method Structural and Electrical Properties of Li – Ni Nanoferrites Synthesised by Citrate Gel Autocombustion Method,” vol. 2014, no. October 2014, 2015.
9 G. Magnetic, “Introduction to Ferrite,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater, vol. 319, pp. 116–120, 2014.
10 D. Bahadur, J. Giri, B. B. Nayak, and T. Sriharsha, “Processing , properties and some novel applications of magnetic nanoparticles,” vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 663–679, 2005.
11 M. A. Gabal, “Effect of Mg substitution on the magnetic properties of NiCuZn ferrite nanoparticles prepared through a novel method using egg white,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater., vol. 321, no. 19, pp. 3144–3148, 2009.

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1. Market Research and its use in a marketing plan. This means sourcing an example that demonstrates the use of market/marketing research to determine marketing objectives, strategies or tactics.
In order to be a successful business, one must first understand the nature of the marketplace, including competitors, target markets and consumer needs. Having a marketing plan allows businesses to control their operations by solving problems more easily, identifying opportunities and threats, generating more ideas for future plans and understanding how to create and communicate offerings to consumers. This ensures that they are constantly in tune with societies changing trends, wants and needs, clients and partners. (Elliott, 2017, p. 79) An example of market research within a product is evident in Virtual Reality made by Sony for the Play Station 4 video game console as it successfully implements the strategies and objectives of the company. The market size is valued at 960.0 million USD in 2016 and is expected to grow rapidly by 2025. Virtual Reality and Facebook have invested $2 billion into 360-degree video technology in order to capture the interest of consumers. (Virtual Reality Market Size Growth & Analysis, 2017) As not everyone has 3D goggles within their household, Virtual Reality has found a different approach by marketing their product through accessible mediums such as the Console within a desktop and apps such as Facebook and YouTube. These formats allow the viewer to watch their screens come to life, feeling a part of the experience of Virtual Reality. Market research has been using Virtual Reality as a way to measure customer experience. Researches have brought virtual stores right to the consumers, so they can experience firsthand what the product is like. This also gives market researchers the capacity to analyse consumer habits such as branding, price, product placement and most importantly how consumers interact with products around the store. Ultimately, this research focused on consumers enables businesses to receive consumer information and feedback, thereby improving their products and services.
2. Who are the competition for your favourite product? This means sourcing an example that demonstrates the impact competition (an external factor) has on Page 4 of 6 your favourite product and thus influences marketing objectives and strategies.
For a business to be successful they must firstly focus on the consumer and be aware of opponents in order to become aware of any changes within the marketplace. This allows the business to make adjustments that will ultimately benefit the consumers, while also gaining a larger market share. Magnums new line of ice-cream known as the Crackable Tub is an innovation that has been through three years of development and research. This development has resulted in a product where each tub provides consumers with an “experience in every spoonful.” The new take home tubs have proved to be successful as a result of consumer-based loyalty. Competition for Magnum, such as popular brands Movenpick and Gelatissimo also offer take home tubs of ice cream with more flavour options. However, with Magnum ice cream, the consumer is paying for quality within the ingredients used. Therefore, the price of the product will be more expensive in comparison to a less high-end product. A comparison would be Magnum Crackable tub ice cream which is 440ml for $6.00 versus a Peters Original Vanilla 2L tub for $5.60. Peters is a popular brand among many consumers as the value is good although not a high-end product. Essentially, it is up to the consumer and their individual reasoning when determining whether to buy a certain product.
3. PESTEL and how this affects the introduction of a new product or service. This means sourcing an example of a new product or service first, and then explaining how each factor in PESTEL affects entry into the market.
A business must ensure they are aware of the impact of the macro environment. This can be achieved through a political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legislative analysis which ensures that the business is aware of factors that may affect their product or service. Nike Fly Leather mimics premium leather however is more sustainable in a world where climate change is beginning to impact decisions. Political changes affect how Nike produce goods and the amount of profit they make from an item. Political conflicts have the ability prevent imports and exports, thereby affecting their ability to sell products around the world.
A market collapse could lead to consumers switching to lower-end products as they are cheaper in comparison. This is Nikes downfall as the Nike Fly Leather is a high-end product. However, through this leather Nike believe that they are innovating a low-carb economy.
Social – Based on abrasion testing, Fly Leather shoes are lighter and five times stronger than typical leather shoes. These shoes have the ability to improve sports like football and basketball as sportspeople look for lighter, stronger shoes with performance engineered materials. In addition, sports stars have the ability to influence societies purchases to better the planet due to their level of social significance and public appeal.
Technological – Technology gives Nike the ability to innovate by interacting with consumers in order to design new products like the Nike Fly Leather. The use of social media allows Nike to build their brand and advertise this new form of leather. They then have the ability to use this valuable information regarding metrics to optimise their target market and production of this new innovative shoe to maximise their revenue.
Environmental – 50% recycled natural leather fibre with water power. The reason for this invention is because leather is the second highest environmental impact on emission and water usage. Fly Leather uses 90% less water and 80% lower carbon footprint than manufacturing traditional leather, with half the carbon footprint in comparison to other leather shoes. It has the ability to improve efficiency and create less waste, thereby presenting a sustainable environmental impact.
Legislative – Nike has its shoe reputation since the 70’s and just as any successful business it must follow legislative requirements. However, Nike have violated labour laws and contracts in the past. Therefore, China and Vietnam have developed regulations aimed at protecting working rights, ensuring better pay and improving working conditions. This means that the Flyleather will be a product with great quality and production.
4. SWOT analysis and its use in the marketing plan. This means sourcing an example that demonstrates how SWOT is used by a company to guide decisions related to the marketing mix or other elements of the marketing plan.
As many factors can affect a business, it is important that there is a distinct focus on developing and understanding opportunities within the market, threats for the future, strengths and weaknesses. SWOT analysis allows businesses to create a frame focused on maximising their strengths and minimising their weaknesses. This can be controlled within the industry (micro) as well as within the marketplace (macro). Through the use of a SWOT analysis Tesla can ensure they maintain their position within the global automotive market. However, to improve their probability they must address their competition while also investing in research and development to produce technologically advanced products within their market place. Internal strategic strengths within Tesla include their strong brand and control on their process of production alongside their sustainability of energy. Although it is a strong brand, weaknesses within the internal company include their limited market presence, supply chain and extreme pricing on vehicles which then limits growth within the business. Therefore, Tesla need to reform their strategies in order to grow and expand globally. This growth can be achieved by taking on external opportunities to improve performance, financial standings and competitiveness through global sale expansion, global supply chain expansion and business diversification. For example, by capitalising on areas of economic growth such as Asia, Tesla has the ability to expand their supply chain for the support of global expansion of production and sales operations. Although having shown considerable probability, the external threats have the ability to minimize opportunities and strengths as they propagate aggressive competition, fluctuations in material prices and dealership regulations. Therefore, must Tesla remain profitable amongst their competition.
5. Segmentation, targeting and positioning in marketing (STP): Current trends in the industry of your choice. This means first choosing an industry that you are familiar with or interested in. Source an example that describes a current trend in that industry. Explain how STP could be used to take advantage of the trend.
It is essential for a business to follow the STP framework within the marketplace as it aligns the product and purchaser, ensuring that the product is being sold to the right segment. Due to their technical innovation, minimalistic design and creative advertisements, Apple has become one of the most valuable and influential brands in the world. A recent product within apple known as Airpods works almost as an extension to the iPhone, having dominated the market for wireless headphones and emerging as a competition for Samsung. Consumer reaction towards apple Airpods was left with 98 percent satisfied customers, with the earphones targeting the high-end headphone market with the “Bluetooth-like” chip and low power technology. The core of Apple’s segmentation, targeting and positioning comes from their marketing efforts and is essential in the production of their brand. This multinational technology company represents itself as a premium brand and their products which include the Airpod are targeted to the segment which comprises of individuals who are willing to pay more for a product as it provides innovative services, advanced designs, functions and capabilities.
6. New product/services launches or brand management: A success and failure. This means sourcing 1 example of a new product/service success and 1 example of a new product/service failure; OR 1 example of successful management of a brand and 1 example of failed management of a brand. Whichever option chosen, you need to consider how internal and external factors may have impacted the success or failure.
Kendall Jenner, a TV reality star and model worked with Pepsi Cola to create a commercial which involved her and people of various backgrounds protesting on the streets. The model is seen leaving a photoshoot and handing a Pepsi to a police officer. The police and protesters begin to celebrate. The tactic of emotional marketing was used by Pepsi in order to target their audience. The elements within the ad were right and included the influence of a famous person, short storyline, diversity and current events as part of their protest. However, the execution was not. It was controversial for Pepsi to create this add considering the low success rate for companies and brands that mix their product with a social and political matter. Ultimately, mixing a product with politics through protest was the downfall for Pepsi as it degraded the sacrifice and suffering people have endured over history, coming off as offensive.
There is a constant change in society and am immense influence through technology, LEGO have done its best at creating a product that incorporates the digital world of programming with traditional LEGO bricks in order to stimulate and create fun for children. LEGO BOOST was awarded a winning product of 2017 from ToyAwards, for their innovative and successful product. This product helps teach younger generation how to adapt with new demands that will be set in the future. LEGO BOOST is successful as it combined fun and education within their product. This captures attention for parents as the LEGO can brand their product as beneficial for a child as they learn the language of block-based programming. Enhancing their creativity while bringing their images to life.

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