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1.1. Status of Women in society.
The concept of equal status of women still appears in books and in words. Some recent studies have suggested that the women’s status is the single most considered and comprehending situation in India ( Mirta, 1978, Dyson ). Several previous studies have defined women’s status in its own ways. Education, employment, salary, and nature of work etc (Silpa 1975, Chaudhary 1977, Bhargava & Saxena 1987) are the basic ground for measuring women’s status. However an individual woman’s status in the society can be determined by her composite status which can be identified by her economic conditions ,physical appearance, the knowledge she have and how mush is she educated.
In India, divorce and marital separation are socially disapproved and widows suffer from social discrimination even today. There has been a major increase in divorce rates in India during the last decade. The percent divorced was 0.74 percent in 1991 and 1.01 percent in 2001 (Census of India, 2001).It convey that widows suffers a lot of problems while living in a Indian society ,they pleed to be considered as normal human beings. They say that they don’t want any special consideration from the government or society .They just want to live happily with their children in which ever place they live.
1.2. Situations of Single mothers
Consequences faced by children of single parent families include less support, greater percentage of high school dropout, less parental attention and supervision at home, and less money for their needs. Work is the major cause of conflict and many and various types of stress among single working mothers. It is associated with long, irregular, tough working hours, travel long away from home, and fear of illness, occupation, and loose of patience from work to family and family to work (Pleck, 1985).

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1. Understand leadership styles
1.1. Describe the factors that will influence the choice of leadership styles or behaviours in workplace situations.
1.2. Explain why these leadership styles or behaviours are likely to have a positive or negative effect on individual and group behaviour.

1. Understand leadership styles
A leader is somebody that creates the direction of the group, they lead and empower people and translate the vision into reality.
There are so many different leadership styles and a manager needs to fluctuate between styles to have a successful team, because of the different personalities
Within a team the manager needs to have a flexible approach.

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The ten most spoke about leadership styles are as follows,
? Autocratic leadership
? Bureaucratic leadership
? Charismatic leadership
? Democratic leadership
? Laissez-faire leadership
? People-oriented leadership
? Servant leadership
? Task-oriented leadership
? Transactional leadership
? Transformational leadership

This is my brief interpretation of the ten styles

? Autocratic leadership.
This style of leadership can obstruct a team’s performance, if the team have highly skilled personnel, however if the team are unskilled this style can still be effective.

? Bureaucratic leadership.
This style works best if the team have to conform to regulations and follow procedures.

? Charismatic leadership.
This type of leader believes more in themselves than the team; however they are very good at injecting enthusiasm.

? Democratic leadership.
With this style there is a greater sense of team working, the leaders puts themselves in the middle of the team as being part of the team and not just a leader, and make the team feel in control, however the leader will make the final decision.

? Laissez-faire leadership.
This style is an easy going type of leadership, the leader puts a lot of trust in to the team, this style is more suited to an experienced team that know exactly what they are doing.

? People-oriented leadership.
This type of leader puts a lot of emphasise developing members of the team and is focused on organising, and supporting the team.

? Servant leadership.
This style could be deemed as just doing enough, they are not really classed as a leader and may have inherited a well-established team.

? Task-oriented leadership.
This style is very blinkered in such they are focused on only getting the job done; this can be detrimental to the team in trying to motivate them.

? Transactional leadership.
This type of leadership will focus on reward and punishment, get the job done and you will be rewarded, however get the job wrong and punishment will be on hand.

? Transformational leadership.
This type may be one type all managers are trying to aspire to, they set clear vision as to what’s required and what the teams goals are, they recognise and support individuals and they themselves set high standards.

Lewin’s Leadership Styles.
“In 1939, psychologist Kurt Lewin led a study that identified three core styles of Leadership”
? Authoritarian ( autocratic )
? Participative ( democratic )
? Delegative ( laissez-faire )

1.1. Describe the factors that will influence the choice of leadership styles or behaviours in workplace situations.

Each team that I lead are all different in the scope of work that they do, but I try to manage each team in the same way, I don’t have a different stance for each team, however the different personalities within each team will dictate the way that I manage them.
Circumstances will determine the style of leadership that is required; there are so many factors that will influence the way you deal with situations.
? Mental health.
? Marriage, personal problems.
? Conflict within the team.
? Bullying.
? Stress with hitting targets.
? Influence’s from upper management.
? Not having the correct skill set.
? Sickness.
? New Starters

You wouldn’t apply just one style of leadership on its own in majority of workplace situations, the factors that will influence the style are the same whatever leadership style is applied, whether that would be, Democratic, Autocratic or Laissez-faire.

If we take a new starter for instance, they need guidance introduction to the work place and to the team, they need to know of the rules, have boundaries set,
Know of the company’s policies and procedures, and where to find them, if they ever needed them, be told of the health and safety in the work place, and be shown how to use their IT equipment.
Having a new starter I would adopt the Authoritarian (autocratic) leadership style as it would allow me to demonstrate the expectations I was looking for.
Once the new starter had settled in and became accustomed to the way the team worked and what was expected of them, and I was happy in how they presented themselves and conducted their work I could then have a more relaxed way of managing them, I would then adopt more of a Delegative (laissez-faire) style of leadership.

1.2. Explain why these leadership styles or behaviours are likely to have a positive or negative effect on individual and group behaviour.

There are negatives and positives in each of the styles, and the choice of leadership style is all determined on the type of

workforce within the team,

An Authoritarian ( autocratic ) type of leader Knows how to work within tight time frames and gets the job done, Knows how to make decisions quickly and without consulting others.

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1. East Germany started constructing a wall on August 13th, 1961.
2. After the defeat of Germany in World War II, Germany was divided into 4 zones and it was controlled by 4 Allied powers.
3. West Germany was controlled by France, Great Britain, and America.
4. The Soviet Union controlled East Germany.
5. The capital of Germany, Berlin was also divided into East and West Berlin.
6. The main reason behind the construction of Berlin wall was to stop East Germans moving to West German
7. After construction of Berlin wall, even the subways were divided.
8. Before construction of the wall, the West Germans were allowed to visit East with a permit in advance.
9. In 1961, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev approved the construction of the wall.
10. The east side of the wall was not covered in graffiti but West side was.
11. Despite the construction of the wall, there were several checkpoints that allowed people to visit another side.
12. The Berlin Wall was 155 kilometers long.
13. The wall was about 11 to 13 feet high.
14. The wall divided the Berlin for 28 years and a day.
15. At first, the wall was just a barbed wire fence. Then it turned into a concrete wall.
16. The Berlin Wall was thought as the cruelty of Soviets, they had control over the people of East Berlin and their willingness to shoot at people they thought were traitors.
17. The wall was known as ‘Iron Curtain’.
18. The wall literally divided Europe into democracy and communism.
19. Charlie Checkpoint was the most famous crossing point and is still famous for the museum.
20. After the construction of the wall, about 5,000 people tried to escape.
21. It is estimated that 138 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall.
22. Before the construction of the wall, over two million East Germans moved to West Berlin between 1949 and 1961.
23. Many segments of the wall are given in different institutions around the world.
24. East Germany adopted the currency of West Germany On July 1st, 1990.
25. The construction was started overnight. In the morning when people woke up there was wire fence dividing the Berlin.
26. In 1979, a Swedish woman married to the Berlin Wall.
27. For two years, starting in 2010, a memorial complex “Berlin Wall” was built.
28. About 28 million euros were invested in the creation of the memorial.
29. In 1963, West Germany tried to destroy the wall with a tank but failed.
30. Athlete Usain Bolt, who set his fantastic world record in Germany, received as a gift a piece of the Berlin Wall weighing.
31. There were 20 bunkers and 302 observatory towers on Berlin Wall.
32. The pieces of Berlin Wall were sold on eBay.
33. If West Berliners want to get rid of anything they used to throw it on the other side of the wall.
34. In 1989 the border of Hungary was opened which made the route of escape to Austria for East Germans.
35. The last person who died in process of crossing the wall was escaping in the hot air balloon.
36. November 9th, 1989, was the date known for the demolition of Berlin wall.
37. The barrier between east and west actually consisted of two walls. The space between the massive concrete slabs was packed with trenches, watchtowers, floodlights, patrol dogs and trip-wire guns, and became known as the ‘death strip’.
38. The Soviets added thousands of machine gun inside the Wall to control the people of East from escaping.
39. The demolition of wall started when East German Politburo member Guenther Schabowski, mistakenly announces that we will demolish the wall immediately.
40. David Bowie performed on the West Berlin wall and all the east side people were listening him through wall. He addressed them from the stage: “We convey our best wishes to all our friends on the other side of the Wall!
41. At the fall of the wall, travel restrictions were immediately lifted, sparking an instant mass migration of thousands of people.
42. In the year 1989, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher requested Soviet President to stop the demolition of Berlin wall.
43. One notable escape was in 1963 by Horst Klein, an East German acrobat who used a high-tension cable to tightrope over the wall, well above the heads of the patrolling guards.
44. Actual demolition started on June 13th, 1990 and from 9th November 1989 and June 13th, 1990 the wall was guarded.
45. An East German soldier drove the tank to escape the wall in 1963.
46. In the first two years of the wall’s existence, more than 1,300 desperate guards escaped their oppressed lives and duties by fleeing to the west.
47. 98 people were shot or killed when they were trying to escape through wall.
48. The demolition of the wall also ended Cold War.
49. East and West Germany were reunited On October 3, 1990.
50. Present time, two rows of cobblestones are set along the Berlin wall in the Berlin.

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