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February 24, 2019 Critical Thinking

1. Introduction The compounds which are used to color the different products in industry are complex organic dyes. These industries are might be of the textiles, cosmetics, paper, rubber, printing, food, and leather industries. The major cause of water pollution is the dye which containing effluents. There are basically three types of dyes and these are named as anionic dyes, cationic dyes, non-ionic dyes have acidic properties, they are bright in color strongly micisible in water and because of that it is not easy to remove it from water. 10,000 tones dyes used in textile industry every year about 10-25 dyes loose in dyeing processes in all over the world. These effluents can be possible effluent to animal life and marine life. Methods which are being used to remove these effluents from water like physical, chemical, and biological technological methods 1. When it comes to the simplicity of design during the treatment of wastewater adsorption is most convenient method as it is the most efficient physical separation technique because the availability of adsorbent on cheap standards and easy to operate. Since few last decades one method is also gaining attention this is the commercial activated carbon adsorbents and seeks to various cost effective sustainable alternatives. A lot of review articles have been written which are very concerned about the removal of dyes and these articles are much helpful in collecting the date and to compile regarding to the removal of dyes by using different parameters and various adsorbents.The available literature were managed according to the usage of various seperation techniques like biological, chemical, physio chemical. Various physiochemical processes parameters were observed to view the dye adsorption mechanism. Treatment of wastewater observed by the no scientists like Robinson et al, Banet et al, Cooper et al, Pokher viraaghavan, Gupta and Sahas all of these researchers concluded that adsorption is one of the best methods in comparison of all other technique. The exploration of the feasibility of dried banana peel waste as cheap adsorbent. with respect to different parameters such as acid violet dye removal capacity with starting concentration at various doses time and Ph. Banana peel as low cost adsorbent obtained from local fruit stall is main concern now. literature reveals that the banana peel has strong capacity for the removal of dyes from water. A lot of dyes and their break down products may be hazardous for living organism so thats why colour removal of dyes is an important feature of wastewater treatment before its disposal . Acid violet dye Empirical formula C20H16N4Na2O9S2 molecular weight 566.47 Chemical formula of acid violet dye 2.Dyes Dyes are those substance which can impart their specific color to other substances. Good fastness to washing, heat and light dye when applied to a fabric. In 1856 an English chemist Perkin prepare aniline purple, tyrian purple, he observed when it prepare quinine and obtain bluish substance ten synthetic dye manufacturing start. Eighteen year old porcine set successfully production line and this concept spread in no time in market and in result different new dyes were appeared. Water contaminated by high production of the dyes. When applied in aquas solution dyes required a mordant to enhance the fastness on the fiber. Colors are appeared both in case of pigment and dye due to both absorb some part of wavelength or light. Pigment has no affinity for the substrate and generally are imiscible while on the bases of salt used dye get precipitated to Form the pigment like aluminum slake, barium lake and calcium lake pigments. 2.1. Classification of dyes and their sources Dyes are mainly derived from natural sources and no chemical treatment is involve in all 2. Dyes derived from plant sources are and they are indigo and saffron, insects which are basically used are cochineal beetles lac scale insects, animal sources are extracted from some species of mollusks or shellfish, minerals are ferrous sulfate. Dyes are chemicals, and they usually bind with a material who will impart color to them. As dyes have three classes such as ionic, aromatic organic compounds having structures including aryl rings, which have delocalized electron systems. Color of dye is just because of the presence of a chromophore group. A chromophores is a radical configuration containing conjugated double bonds consisting electrons which have delocalization and the chemistry of Chromogen is stated as, aromatic structure usually consisting benzene, naphthalene or anthracene rings, is part of a Chromogen chromophore structure along with an auxochrome. The presence of ionizing groups labeled as auxochromes and it shows its effects in much stronger alteration of the maximum absorption of the compound and provides a bonding affinity. Direct result of the production of the dye arises the colored dyes waste and because of its use in the textile and other industries. 100,000 and more than that dyes are available commercially with over 7 x 10 5 of dyes produced annually worldwide 3-4 Table 1.1 Sources of dye and their uses Group of dyesUses Direct Cellulosic, blends and cotton Vat dyes Cotton, cellulosic and blend Acid dyes Synthetic fiber, leather, wool, silk Azoic Pigments and printing inks Dispersed dyes Synthetic fibers Organic pigments Blended fabrics, paper, cotton, cellulosic Basic Wool, cotton, silk 2.2. Uses and application of acid violet dye Dyes are mostly used inso many industries and they are listed such as textile, rubber, paper, plastic, cosmetic industry etc. Acid dyes are basically used for synthetic fibres, wool, silk. In all of these various industries, textile got first rank in usage of dyes which provide color to fiber. The convectional biological treatment process is observed as less useful in treating a dyes wastewater, due to low biodegradation of dyes. It is mostly treated by physical or it is treated with the chemical processes 5.Acid dyes produced more uniform color because acid dyes containing bright-colored synthetic organic compound. 3. Harmful effects of dyes on living things. 3.1 Effects on human health Acid dyes have usage in textile have severe effects on workers by damaging their health. large amount of water and chemicals observed in usage for wet processing in textile indusrty. The chemical reagents wich are used in textile industry are very diverse in chemical composition like having different composition, ranging from inorganic compounds to polymers and to the organic products5-6. while presence of very least concentrations of dyes in wastewater which containing dyes is highly visible and undesirable 7. The light colored, water soluble reactive and acid dyes are seemed to be problematic, as they can easily pass through conventional treatment systems unaffected while treating 8. Almost 10 of the known 2400 substances are found to textile related declared as the alarming to human health. These textile related substances are all functional chemicals, and they are expected to be present in the final article at relatively high concentrations, and include azo dyes of direct and acid application type and fragrance. There may also be other types of substances that can be of potential risk to living things like auxiliary chemicals and impurities/degradation products. The identified azo dyes of direct application type have properties that are associated with an enhanced risk of cancer and developmental effects, whereas identified azo dyes of acid application type and fragrances also have risk of allergy. The screening study also identified many skin sensitizing substances (skin allergens) and Some substances with sensitizing properties also have harmonized classification, but when it compared with the substances of very high concern they are not as strictly restricted in the current EU legislation. Risk reduction measures for these substances should be taken on serious note, either in the current REACH legislation or new legislation9. 3.3Effects on plants A large number of acid violet dyes have escaped into the environment due to the backwards dye manufacturing dye producing technology. About 384,000 of waste by manufacturing industries generate each year and it lead absorb by the soil. The acid dyes effects the plant growth in so many ways like it can directly interrupt to the photosynthetic rate and decreases its activity. When dye containing water get penetrated by the soil it decreases the soils activity too. 3.4. Effects on aquatic life. Acid dye containing undesired dye colors and toxins to water that have the adverse effects on the microbial life and algal photosynthetic rate by altering the pH and damaging the aquatic life. High concentrations of fabric dyes in water our bodies prevent the reoxygenation potential of the receiving water and cut-off daylight, thereby scary biological activity in aquatic lifestyles and also the photosynthesis procedure of aquatic flowers or algae. The polluting results of dyes against aquatic surroundings can also poisonous effects due to their long time presence in surroundings, accumulation in sediments specially in fishes or different aquatic life paperwork, decomposition of pollution in carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds and also low cardio biodegradability 10. 4. Methods for removal of dye from wastewater. . The synthetic dye elimination become studied in a complete detail with physiochemical strategies including coagulation, ultrafiltration, electrochemical adsorption and picture oxidation. Among all f those physiochemical techniques, adsorption is a widely used for elimination of dyes from wastewater. Activated carbon is considered as the maximum extensively used adsorbent for adsorption because it has a high ability for adsorption of colour however it cannot be used on wide scale because of its high fee 11 when it comes to stipulation of design efficiency of dye separation and total cost each separation method has their own separate limitations . 4.1 Adsorption. In all of the method, for the removal of dyes adsorption is found to be the most effective method and is used mostly in removal methods. In adsorption to produce a thin film over an adsorbents ions molecules and atoms of adsorbate transfer and adhere the surface area of adsorbent in the process of adsorption. physical adsorption is also called physiosorption controlled by physical forces like hydrophobicity, static interaction, dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding, wander wall fprces and polarity12.the intensity of adsorption depends on such as adsorbate molecular structure, polarity, weight, size, concentration. In the adsorption process, surface properties charge, area, particle size also take part. To perform this operation insensitive to toxic substances, design should be simple. Adsorption is the best available methods for the waste water treatment as compared to other methods. In the dyes removal the commercial activated carbon can also be utilized but due to so much it is avoided. Moreover ad.CAC solid waste, Agricultural solid waste based activated carbon and clay agricultural solids are various adsorbents which can be used for dyes removal 13-14.Adsorptionis the process in which that the mass removal of a material (adsorbate) from fluid or gas phase takes place on to the solid boundary (adsorbent) and become adhered by physically or chemically 15. Therefore, nature of adsorption can be physical or chemical and includes both 16. Transfer of electrons is momentary as compared to a chemical bond between the adsorbate and adsorbent. In method the forces of attractions are weak. Adsorption process applications Purifications separations -Removal of organic gases from N2/O2 vent gases – Acetone from vent stream -So2 from vent gases -C2H4 from vent -Ho2 from air, methane, N2, -normal paraffin/iso parrafins -Removal of solvent, odors from air -CO, CO2.CH4,Ar from hydrogen -Nox from N2 -Organic from water solution -normal paraffin from iso parrafins – Water from organic solution -normal paraffin from olefins -Decourization Adsorption methods take place through the following steps (i)Transfer of mass molecules move to the outside of the adsorbent granules of adsorbent. (ii) Particle diffusion molecules moves into the adsorbent pores (iii) Adsorption by physical and chemical method Adsorption ability depends on the properties of both the adsorbent and adsorbate. It also depends upon nature of the adsorbate in liquid solution, and environment like pH of the solution , and time. With respect to its cleanness and high efficiency property adsorption is found as a superior technology. Adsorption processes due to their eligibility are almost used in all industries, and as a result the majority calculated 17. Choice of an adsorbent is the first point in the usage of an adsorption unit. Many other adsorbents will be utilized for the purification of industrial water. Activated carbon is adsorbent and has confirmed to be very effective for the removal of heavy metals. However, the treated carbon for waste water management is not applicable because high price related with the renewal as the losses occured in actual process. McKay and Carvalho used treated carbon to remove impurites from wastewater and other workers reported on the usage of zeolites in wastewater conduct. In addition, the use of different adsorbents such as synthetic polymeric and silica based adsorbents Lam has been reported 18. Methods for the removal of dye from waste water. 4.2 Physical and chemical methods. Physical techniques hooked up on coagulationflocculation of dyes are beneficial for the removal of mainly sulphur and disperse dyes, however they possess very low coagulationflocculation potential for acid, direct, reactive and vat dyes. Along with, the low color amount removal efficiency and large amount of wastes produced limits the implementation of these strategies 20. To make the method more cheap and viable, a few researchers use low cost adsorbent materials like peat, bentonite clay, fly ash, polymeric resins, ion exchangers and many biological materials such as, corn/maize cobs, maize stalks, and wheat straw for the color removal of dye wastewater 21. However, the sensible uses of these adsorbents has been limited with the aid of problems related with their regeneration or disposal, excessive sludge manufacturing, low effectiveness with reference to big variety of dyes and high value 22-23. . 4.3 Filtration methods Methods like ultra-filtration, nano-filtration and reverse osmosis have been applied for water reuse and chemical recovery. In the fabric enterprise, the use of membranes gives powerful opportunities for the separation of hydrolyzed dyestuffs and that at a time lessen the shade, BOD and COD of wastewater, and that they have additionally been set up useful for cleansing it. With this purpose, the choice of the technique and porosity of the clear out based upon the chemical composition of the wastewater and the unique temperature required for the approach 24. 4.4 Chemical oxidation methods. To produce the degradation of dye molecules, special oxidizing agents, including ozone (O3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and permanganate (MnO4) may be used. Adjustment within the chemical composition of a compound or a group of compounds happens within the presence of these oxidizing marketers, and for this reason the dye molecules end up at risk of destruction 25. Another method Ozonation has been executed to be powerful due to its easy and excessive reactivity with many azo dyes, the dearth of alteration of the reaction quantity due to its gaseous country, and desirable coloration elimination efficiencies 26. In superior oxidation procedures (AOP) (photochemical and photograph catalytic), oxidizing sellers like O3 and H2O2 or heterogeneous photo catalysts are utilized with catalysts, along with TiO2, ZnO2, Mn and Fe, in the presence or absence of an irradiation material which produces (OH) radicals for the degradation of hazardous dye pollution 27-28. A brief overview of the various physical/chemical approaches for handling with dye wastewater described above indicates that all of those tactics have a few limitations, which include being economically fallacious, not able to absolutely adsorb the recalcitrant azo dyes and/or their natural metabolites due to the colour fastness, stability and resistance of azo dyes to decomposition 29. producing a huge quantity that may cause other pollution problems increasing the cost of these methods and involving complicated procedures30. 4.5 Biological methods. Bioremediation or the usage of microbial strategies to cope with pollutants is a chief studies portion inside the environmental sciences. In such methods microbes get used to a certain weather themselves to the poisonous wastes and new resistant traces produce obviously, which then exchange various poisonous chemical compounds into less harmful shapes. The process at the back of the biodegradation of those compounds within the microbial unit is hooked up on the overall performance of biotransformation catalysts 31. Many biotechnological methods have advanced interest with relating to handling azo dye pollutants in an powerful way, chiefly with the use of bacteria and often in coupling with physicochemical processes. Azo dyes are sudden in nature and reluctant to biodegradation and using microbial or catalytic remedy approach for the total decolorization and biodegradation of such dyes from fabric effluent. It has the following advantages (1) Eco friendly, (2) Economically feasible (3) Producing less waste, (4) Yielding finished products that are not harmful and (5) Demanding less water usage as compared to physicochemical methods 32-33. 6) can be applies frequently on smaller waste flow. 7) Non reactive dyes and concentrated compounds can be reused. Disadvantages Flux refuse, replacement of modules, regular cleaning, membrane fouling are the disadvantages of this technique34-35. Table. Advantages and disadvantages of absorption process Physical/ chemical methods Disadvantages Advantages Ozonation Half life is short (30min)It is for gaseous stateOxidation Require high energyRapid processPhotochemical High costNo sludge producedElectrochemical High cost electricityNon hazardousIon exchange Used only some dyesNo loss of adsorbentMembrane filtrations Concentrated productUse for all dyesElectro kinetic Very expensiveEconomically feasibleAdsorption Adsorbent requires disposalWide range Why Adsorption Simple Low capital and operating costs Can have good physical properties Adsorbents are easily available Chapter 2 Literature survey Chapter 2 Literature Review. Sivaraj, R et al., (2001) Researched the viability of orange peel in adsorbing Corrosive violet 17 from fluid arrangements and concentrated as a element of disturbance time, adsorbent measurements, starting color fixation and pH. The adsorption takes after each Langmuir and Freundlich. Harmony time stated to be eighty min for 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/L, shade fixation one after the other. A greatest expulsion of 87 was discovered at pH 2.Zero for an adsorbent measurements of six hundred mg/50 ml of 10 mg/L coloration attention.The adsorption limit Q0 become 19.88 mg/g at beginning pH 6.3. Adsorption increments with increment in pH. Most intense desorption of 60 turned into effectively performed in water medium at pH 10.0 36. Namasivayam, C et al., (2011) It is inspected that waste red mud acquired while the handling of bauxite metal has been occurring and utilized for the adsorption of corrosive violet at various beginning color fixations fomentation time, adsorbent measurements and pH (2-11). Adsorption obeyed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. At pH 4.1. was obtaind as quantitative evacuation of color trial thinks about demonstrate that particle trade is principle purpose behind the adsorption 37. Mane, R S et al., (2012) In the paper bio-adsorbents banana and orange peel were utilized for expulsion of shading from squander emanating of material industry. The materials were gotten and treated for the expulsion of shading at various dosages and these materials likewise assessed for the evacuation of shading at various pH and time. The materials are much fit for expelling shading from squander water, their shading expulsion limit with regards to banana peel and orange peel is 87 68 individually at typical pH and temperature conditions. The trial adsorption information obeyed Langmuir and Freundlich 38. Hanafiah, M A et al (2015) The evacuation of Corrosive Violet 7 (AV 7) by adsorption onto chitosan-glutaraldehyde (chitosan-GLA) globules was explored under group adsorption strategy. Primary nearness of working gatherings like presence of amino (- NH2) and hydroxyl (- Goodness) bunches as the dynamic destinations on chitosan-GLA globules was affirmed by Fourier Change Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrometer. Adsorption energy took after the pseudo-second-arrange active model, and the adsorption isotherm think about demonstrated balance information by Langmuir isotherm display 39. Anjaneya, O et al., (2009) Research center examination of the potential utilization of Penicillium sp. as biosorbents for the expulsion of corrosive violet color from watery arrangement was contemplated regarding pH, Temperature, biosorbents, introductory color focuses. Adsorption motor information were tried utilizing pseudo-first-arrange, pseudo-second-arrange and active examinations demonstrated that the biosorption procedure takes after pseudo-first-arrange rate energy with a normal rate steady of 0.312 min_1 Langmuir parameter showed a most extreme adsorption. Limit of 4.32 mg g_1 for corrosive violet and RL estimation of 0.377 40. Gupta, V. K et al.,(2009) Researched the developing interest for productive and minimal effort treatment strategies and the significance of adsorption has offered ascend to ease elective adsorbents (LCAs). This audit features and gives a diagram of these LCAs including regular, mechanical and engineered materials/squanders and their application for colors evacuation. Whats more, different strategies utilized for color expulsion from water and wastewater are likewise gone along in a nutshell. From a far reaching writing survey, it was discovered that some LCAs, notwithstanding having wide accessibility, have quick energy and obvious adsorption limits as well 42 Namasivayam, C et al., (1998) The adsorption of direct red and corrosive splendid blue by squander banana essence was researched by changing the unsettling time, color fixation, adsorbent measurements and pH. The adsorption took after both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption limit was 592 and 442 mg color for every gram of the adsorbent for coordinate red and corrosive splendid blue, separately. Adsorption of color took after first-arrange energy 42. Amela, K et al., (2012) The biosorbent was artificially altered. To specified practical gatherings keeping in mind the end goal to decide their commitment to the adsorption of colors. Fourier change infrared (FTIR) was explored. Active examination is likewise done to watch the impacts of different process parameters. The most extreme estimation of adsorption capacities with respect to actuated banana peel (ABP) was 19,671 mg/g and 18,647 mg/g for characteristic banana peel (NBP) at pH 4 8, 20C 44. Saratale, R. G et al., (2011) A shape of artificial dyestuffs released thru the textile enterprise pose a risk to environmental safety.Azo dyes account for the general public of all dyestuffs, produced because of the reality they will be notably used inside the textile, paper, food, leather-based, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Existing effluent remedy approaches arent capable of do away with recalcitrant azo dyes without a doubt from effluents because of their color fastness, stability and resistance to degradation. Bacterial decolorization and degradation of azo dyes. The enzymatic mechanisms worried within the bacterial degradation of azo dyes, the identification of metabolites through using numerous analytical strategies, and the character in their toxicity has been investigated 45. Rafatullah, M et al., (2010) In this article, its miles studied that using low-price adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from solution . Adsorption techniques are extensively used to remove sure training of pollution from waters, especially the ones which arent with out issues biodegradable. The removal of methylene blue, as a pollutant, from waste waters of fabric, paper, printing and exceptional industries has been addressed with the aid of manner of the researchers. The motive of this assessment article is to prepare the scattered available statistics on numerous additives on a huge variety of doubtlessly low-fee adsorbents for methylene blue removal. These embody agricultural wastes, industrial stable wastes, biomass, clays minerals and zeolites. Agricultural waste substances being quite green, low fee and renewable source of biomass can be exploited for MB remediation. Literature survey of approximately 185 these days published papers that low-price adsorbents have confirmed exceptional elimination capabilities for methylene blue46. Yagub, M. T et al., (2014) In this review article the authors provided up to-date improvement at the application of adsorption inside the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. This evaluation article offers awesome literature data approximately dyes, its elegance and toxicity, diverse treatment methods, and dye adsorption traits by means of diverse adsorbents. One of the dreams of this evaluation article is to prepare the scattered available information on numerous additives on a enormous variety of possibly powerful adsorbents inside the removal of dyes. Dye bearing waste remedy by means of using adsorption using low price opportunity adsorbent is a disturbing vicinity as it has double benefits i.E. Water remedy and waste management. Activated carbon from biomass has the gain of supplying an effected low fee alternative for non-renewable coal primarily based granular activated carbon furnished that they have comparable or higher adsorption on efficiency. The effectiveness of diverse adsorbents beneath different physio-chemical system parameters and their comparative adsorption capability within the direction of dye adsorption has additionally been offered. This review paper additionally consists of the affective adsorption factors of dye along with answer pH, initial dye attention, adsorbent dosage, and temperature 47. Vakili, M. et al., (2014) Chitosan based adsorbents have acquired loads of attention for adsorption of dyes. Various adjustments of this polysaccharide have been investigated to improve the adsorption homes in addition to mechanical and bodily traits of chitosan. This evaluate paper discusses fundamental research subjects associated with chitosan and its derivatives for utility in the elimination of dyes from water. Modification of chitosan modifications the original properties of this fabric in order that it could be more suitable for adsorption of various sorts of dye. Many chitosan derivatives had been acquired through chemical and bodily adjustments of raw chitosan that consist of pass-linking, grafting and impregnation of the chitosan backbone. Better information of these types and their affinity in the direction of specific varieties of dye can assist future studies to be properly orientated to address information gaps in this location.This evaluate affords higher opportunity for researchers to better discover the potential of chitosan-derived adsorbents for removal of a great type of dyes.48. AbduRehman, F.B et al., (2013) Used distinctive approaches to shade the products used in composites knit enterprise. Even at low attention the presence of nowadays are unwanted and visibly as orange peel became used as an adsorbent additionally made it as a general method for waste water remedy in enterprise. Experiment become additionally completed in the laboratory with the c programming language of different doses and after the examines it at specific PH. Results indicates that noteworthy the orange peel capability is low however not lesser then the other to be had adasorbent 49. Hameed, B,H et al., (2008) The capability of coconut bunch waste (CBW), an agricultural waste to be had in big quantity in Malaysia, to dispose of fundamental dye (methylene blue) from aqueous answer by way of using adsorption changed into studied. Batch mode experiments have been carried out at 30 C to look at the results of pH and initial consciousness of methylene blue (MB). Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics have been investigated. The experimental information have been analyzed by using the use of the Langmuir, Freundlich and adsorption isotherm records were prepared nicely to Langmuir isotherm and the monolayer adsorption functionality became decided to be 70.Ninety two mg/g at 30 C. The kinetic records obtained at great concentrations were analyzed using a pseudo-first-order, pseudo-2nd-order equation and intraparticle diffusion equation. The experimental information geared up very well the pseudo-2nd-order kinetic version 50. Ponnusami , v et al., (2009) The capability of coconut bunch waste (CBW), an agricultural waste to be had in big quantity in Malaysia, to dispose of fundamental dye (methylene blue) from aqueous answer by way of using adsorption changed into studied. Batch mode experiments have been carried out at 30 C to look at the results of pH and initial consciousness of methylene blue (MB). Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics have been investigated. The experimental information have been analyzed by using the use of the Langmuir, Freundlich and adsorption isotherm records were prepared nicely to Langmuir isotherm and the monolayer adsorption functionality became decided to be 70.Ninety two mg/g at 30 C. The kinetic records obtained at great concentrations were analyzed using a pseudo-first-order, pseudo-2nd-order equation and intraparticle diffusion equation. The experimental information geared up very well the pseudo-2nd-order kinetic version 51. Immich and ulson et al., (2009) Reviewed that the elimination of dyes observed in business effluent has acquired incredible hobby inside the past few years. This is in part due to developing environmental focus and the implementation of ever stricter environmental regulations. However, a few remedies for shade elimination from those effluents do not guarantee the absence of different secondary toxic materials, often originating from the treatment device itself. The aim of this study is to assess the toxicity diploma of the adsorbent Neem, applied in adsorption techniques for color removal, dye answer earlier than and after the adsorption process.. Thus, its miles endorsed that the leaf extract is eliminated previous to effluent treatment, because the results of this study indicate that this will reduce the toxicity of the effluent and additionally enhance the efficiency of the adsorption method 52. Filho Consolin et al., (2007) The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium of methylene blue (MB) onto reticulated formic lignin (RFL) from sugar cane bagasse become studied. The adsorption manner is pH, temperature and ionic power () dependent and obeys the Langmuir model. Conditions for better adsorption fee and capability have been determined. The quicker adsorption (12 hours) and better adsorption functionality (34.20 mg.G-1) have been discovered at pH 5.Eight (acetic acid-sodium acetate aqueous buffer), 50 C and zero.1 ionic electricity. Under temperature (50 C) control and occasional mechanical stirring it took from 1 to 10 days to reach the equilibrium 55. Malik,P.K et al., (2003) Activated carbons, organized from low-fee mahogany sawdust and rice husk have been carried out as the adsorbents for the removal of acid dyes from aqueous solution. An acid dye, Acid Yellow 36 has been used as the adsorbate. Results show that a pH rate of three is favourable for the adsorption of acid dye. The isothermal records can be properly described by means of the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Kinetic parameters of adsorption collectively with the Langergren pseudo-first-order normal and the intraparticle diffusion fee regular have been determined. For the prevailing adsorption machine, intraparticle diffusion of dye molecule inside the particle has been identified to be charge proscribing. The adsorption capacities of sawdust carbon (SDC) and rice husk carbon (RHC) have been discovered to be 183.8 mg and 86.9 mg in keeping with g of the adsorbent respectively. The consequences imply that SDC and RHC can be hired as low-value alternatives to industrial activated carbon in wastewater remedy for the elimination of acid dyes 56. Gong,R. Ding el al., (2005) Investigated the removal of acidic dye from aqueous solution using low cost biosorbents. Biosorption of the elimination of fundamental dyes have been experimented by means of using organized powder of peanut hull. Optimum experimental condition were decided on experimental values e.G, touch time, particle length, dosage ion power dye concentration and initial Ph. At 2.0 ph the studied dye eliminated successfully. The isotherm records for biosorption cross in the back of Langmuir and frandlich models. It become confirmed that the biosorption manner became pseudo first order charge of kinetics. This observe outcomes indicates that powder peanut hull became an awesome searching applicant for doing away with anionic dye from waste water 58. Shukla, A. et al., (2002) Eliminated contaminants from water the usage of sawdust as an adsorbent material. Organic fabric removes chemical materials, heavy metals, poisonous salts, and dyes very successfully. Articles affords a brief survey of the position of substances in role of sawdust in elimination of waste water contaminants. Adsorption mechanism , favorable conditions, influencing factors , of different pollutants on sawdust changed into also discussed 59. Sharma, P . et al., (2011) reviewed the good adsorption capacity of some treated adsorbents, their adsorption capacities for crystal violet dye, basic red dye, congo red dye, rhodamine B, and methylene blue at high ph dependent conditions. The paper provided the list of easily available, easy to dispose off, safe to handle and low cost adsorbents then on the basis of their availability they are classified into five different classes (1) natural inorganic material (92) plant waste (3) waste material from agricultural waste industry (4) fruit waste and (5) bioadsorbent. Paper also reviewed the adsorbents ecofriendly, applicable easily, naturally available low cost material to remove dyes from waste water by adsorption treatment60. Dulman and Cucu-Manz., (2009) investigated the percentage of color removal of six different dyes named as direct brown, Direct brown 2, Direct green, Reactive red, Basic blue. It was found that by increasing PH the percentage of removal of dye was decreases. Direct brown 2 and direct brown removed maximum at ph 3 but increases ph above 10 decreases the adsorption. Sorption of basic blue was maximum 97 at pH of 4. It was noticed that removal percentage of hydrolyzed dye was high61. Royer, B et al (2009) The Brazilian pine-organic product shell (Araucaria angustifolia) is a nourishment deposit, which was utilized in common and carbonized shapes, as minimal effort adsorbents for the evacuation of methylene blue (MB) from watery arrangements. Compound treatment of Brazilian pine-natural product shell (PW), with sulfuric corrosive created a non-enacted carbonaceous material (C-PW). Both PW and C-PW were tried as ease adsorbents for the expulsion of MB from watery effluents. It was watched that C-PW leaded to a wonderful increment in the particular surface region, normal permeable volume, and normal permeable distance across of the adsorbent when contrasted with PW. The impacts of shaking time, adsorbent measurement and pH on adsorption limit were considered. In fundamental pH district (pH 8.5) the adsorption of MB was positive. The contact time required to acquire the harmony was 6 and 4 h at 25 C, utilizing PW and C-PW as adsorbents, separately. In view of blunder work esteems (Ferror) the dynamic information were better fitted to fractionary-arrange motor model when contrasted with pseudo-first request, pseudo-second request, and chemisorption active models. The harmony information were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Redlich Peterson isotherm models. For MB color the harmony information were better fitted to the Sips isotherm display utilizing PW and C-PW as adsorbents 63. Kalotra S. et al., (2014) Material ventures expend huge measure of water. It delivers exceptionally shaded wastewater. The nature of water is enormously impacted by the shading. Material wastewater needs appropriate treatment before released into the earth. Material colors are harmful, cancer-causing in nature and this makes a significant issue living creatures. Adsorption think about was led for the evacuation of Reactive Black 5 onto Cloisite 15A. Adsorption of RB5 was very influenced by contact time, pH, adsorbent measurements and starting color focus. The adsorbent measurements think about was reached by taking C0 100 mg/l at characteristic pH and T 303 K. The pH contemplate was done in the underlying pH run (pHi) of 3 to 11 at 303K with ideal adsorbent dose (0.35g/l). HCl or NaOH was utilized to modify the pH of RB5 arrangement. To consider the impact of time the harmony tests were performed at different color fixation (C0 50 to 300 mg/l), mad 0.35 g/l and at ideal pHopts. Pseudo first request and second request demonstrate were utilized to contemplate the motor models. It was discovered that all the test information fitted well in the second request dynamic model. Three balance isotherms were examined Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm. The isothermal investigations were performed at various C0 esteems ranges from 50 to 300 mg/L with ideal adsorbent dose and at ideal pH and the outcome demonstrates that the procedure is endothermic in nature 64. pavan F.A et al., 2008. The elimination of colour from aquatic structures because of presence of artificial dyes is particularly important from the environmental perspective due to the truth maximum of these dyes are poisonous, mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this present take a look at, the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. F. Flavicarpa Degener) peel a powdered strong waste, have become tested as an alternative low-fee adsorbent for the removal of a number one dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions. Adsorption of MB onto this natural adsorbent become studied thru batch adsorption isotherms at room temperature. The outcomes of shaking time and pH on adsorption potential were studied. An alkaline pH become favorable for the adsorption of MB. The contact time required to attain the maximum adsorption changed into 56 h at 25 C. Yellow passion fruit peel can be used as an opportunity adsorbent to get rid of MB from aqueous solutions 65. Chapter 3 3. EXPERIMENTAL WORK One of the major pollutants of water is the industrial effluents. Aquatic organism life is affected by many of carcinogenic dyes. Major effluents in the form of azo dyes produced by textile industries are very difficult to remove them. Acid violet dyes are carcinogenic and mutagenic. Reactive dyes are larger in size.The growth rate of acidic dyes are far greater than the conventional dyes throughout the world. They have effectively use for cotton wool, and silk are the class of reactive dyes called vinyl sulfone dyes. But after their trademark name due to which they were introduced they are known as Remazol dyes.The most important factor of Remazol red dyes is that they are not reactive then other dyes and most of the part of same type of dyes are drained with water and remain the part of water. After the dyeing process approximately 30 of dye remains in the dye bath. A lot of pollution in water is created these days by the presence of one of the most effective and cheapest technique is adsorption. Different adsorbents such as orange peel, charcoal, crushed bricks, banana peel and silica are used for the removal of color from water. Banana peel is observed as being most effective natural bioadsorbent for the removal of acid violet dye from contaminated water. 3.1 Material 3.1.1 List of apparatus and instruments used In the experiment glassware (conical flask, pipettes, measuring cylinders, beakers etc.) were used. And all other instruments and apparatus were used are shown below in table 3.1 List of apparatus and instruments used InstrumentsFunction TypeOvenTo dry the sample ShivakiElectronic weight balancETo measure weightSartiousShakerTo shake the samples of dye solutionIncubatorUv/vis spectrophotometerAbsorbance752PH meterTo check pHPicoHot plateAs stand alone applianceStuart 3.1.2 Banana peel as an adsorbent The removal of color from waste water by coagulation, flocculation, photo oxidation , ultra filtration, flocculation, nano filtration, were very expensive. Now a days biological, chemical and physical methods are used to remove textile waste water dyes. But all these methods are not friendly and cost effective. So the adsorption methods were applied from last some years as an alternative technique. It has a number of benefits to other methods while use adsorbent is done according to its availability, its nature, and its environment friendly behavior and cost effectiveness. Low molecular weighted compound, like cellulosic pectin, lignin are present in banana peel. These compounds present in banana peel removes dyes in a very efficient way. Banana peel was used for its non toxicity, its abundance in nature and for its biodegradability. The Banana peel can be used for removal of acid violet dyes from the waste water and increasing use of agro based bioadsorbent can be seen in coming decade for removal of dyes from wastewater. Banana peel have good potential as a low cost adsorbent for improving the effectiveness of waste water treatment. 3.1.3 Activation of banana peel Removal of a acid dye, acid violet dye, from an aqueous solution was studied by biosorption on dried banana peel waste. The biosorbent was chemically modified. To mentioned functional groups in order to determine their contribution to the adsorption of dyes. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was investigated. Kinetic study is also carried out to observe the effects of various process parameters. The maximum values of adsorption capacities for activated banana peel (ABP) was 19,671mg/g and 18,647mg/g for natural banana peel (NBP) at pH 4 8, 20C. The results follow kinetic of pseudo second-order rate equation. The suitability of the adsorbent was tested by fitting the adsorption data with four isotherms, namely Freundlich, Langmuir. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm have been determined. The Freundlich equation represented the best fit of experimental data for activated banana peel (ABP) than the other isotherm equations, and Langmuir equation described the adsorption of natural biosorbent (NBP). It was observed that activated banana peel was a suitable adsorbent than other for removal of acid violet dye from aqueous solutions. Chemical nature of banana peel Banana peels are composed of nutritive chemicals, minerals, and nonnutritive chemicals. Banana peels have both highly beneficial and highly dangerous constituents and can be manipulated to serve both as a remedy and a poison. Figure3.2 3.3 Preparation of adsorbent banana peel flow sheet chart diagram 3.4 sample collection From a local fruit stall orange peel were collected and waste water was collected from a knittinf industry which contain acid violet dye and other dyes. 3.5 Methods 3.5.1 Procedure for stock solution Ce final dye concentration W adsorbent amount V volume of solution 3.6.1 Standard solution preparation A very common dye acid violet dye taken accurately in 100 mg quantity and dissolved in 1L distilled water . if more solution is require it will take from mother solution by diluting it with distilled water. Addition of 0.1 M of acetic acid the Ph was adjusted. 3.6.2 Adsorption study Various effects of contact time , ph values, and amount of adsorbent were studied by batch adsorption technique. In the procedure first of all take 25 ml of sample waste water and an amount of adsorbent was added to sample after that this solution was mixed with the help of a magnetic stirrer to obtain adsorption. By using filter paper adsorbent was removed from solution .by the use of uv/vis spectrometer absorbance of the supernatant solution was measured. 4.1 physical properties of banana peel Table 4.1 physical properties of banana peel Characteristics Assessment Size of particles150Surface area 5.7Pores diameter99.9Pore volume0.105Pores area 2.4Density of bulk0.85PZC3.8 4.1.2 Effect of adsorbate By changing the concentration of dye solution the result of adsorption of dye by adsorbent banana peel will be change. The range of initial concentration of dye(10-50mgL). The result is shown fig. EMBED Excel.Chart.8 s Figure 4.1.2 Removal of acid violet dye for different initial conc, when ph is 7 Particle size was 150 micrometer, contact time was 15 minutes Adsorbent dose was 0.1 and temperature was 25c. 4.1.3 Effect of adsorbent amount Different amount of adsorbent (0.1 to 0.5 g) was added in 10 ppm solution acid violet dye aqueous solution and shake it well for 15 minutes. It was noted that by increasing the amount of adsorbent dye adsorption is increased and at the end reached constant value. Figure. 4.1.3 Removal of acid violet dye for different doseof adsorbent, Particle size was 150 micrometer, initial conc was 10ppm Contact time was 15 minutes, and temperature was25O. 4. 1.4 Effect of contact time The efficiency of adsorbent was checked by time taken for separation of dye from water. 0.1 g of adsorbent was added in acid violet dye at 240c each time and it was found that initially color increases and then decreases after passing some time. This result shows that the active site on adsorbent are occupied and adsorption rate was reduced. This contact time was observed from 5 to 25 minutes and shaked constantly. Fig. 4.1.4 Removal of acid violet dye for different contact time, when Ph was 7, Particle size was 150 micro meter, initial conc was 10 ppm Adsorbent dose was 0.1g and temperature was 25oC. 4.1.5 Effect of temperature The age removal of dye by affect of temperature was studied at different temperature ranges its value was 20 0C to 80 0C. Other parameters kept constant like amount of absorbent, pH, time contact, initial concentration of adsorbate. The results shows that the maximum age removal was 99.26 at 80 0C. By increasing temperature age removal increase. Figure 4.1.5 removal of acid violet dye for different temperatures,When ph was 7 , particle size was 150 mirometer, initial concentration of solution was 10ppm and amount of adsorbent kept 0.1g for each. 4.1.6 Effect of PH Figure 4.1.7 removal of acid violet dye for different ph Temperature was kept 25c, initial conc. Was 10ppm Amount of adsorbent was kept 0.1g Adsorption isotherm By the help of adsorption isotherm we conclude the amount of adsorbate which is adsorbed between two phases liquids and solids during the adsorption process. The Langmuir isotherm is a perfect model which is used to show the experimental values of adsorption process. By this process we can examine of different dye concentration. The maximum adsorption was takes place at 0.6gm of adsorbent amount , ph was 7 and time is 120 min. According to Langmuir monolayer adsorption is taking place at homogenous surface. It is represented by the equation. 1/qe 1/b.qmax ce 1/qmax Where ce dye concentration (mgl-1) Qe dye which is absorbed by adsorbent, mgg-1 Qm and Ka are constant of Langmuir their values can be determined by above equation. A graph was plotted between1/qe and 1/Ce. the constant qm and ka can be calculated by linear plot. The slope of following graph is equival to to (1/qm ka) when it intercepts 1/qm. The Langmuir isotherm get a superior fit for the experiment values. By changing the concentration of equilibrium data the amount of adsorbent was applied to Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. EMBED Excel.Chart.8 s Figure 4.1.8 Langmuir isotherm for acid violet dye on banana peel When initial concentration of dye was 10mg/L , ph was 7, and temperature was 25c. Figure 4.1.9 data obtained from Langmuir isotherm for acid violet dye Adsorbent Dye name R2Qm Mg/gKa Mg/LBanana peel Acid violet dye0.911.80.026 References Gomez, V., Larrechi, M. S., Callao, M. P. (2007). 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Removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption using yellow passion fruit peel as adsorbent.Bioresource technology,99(8), 3162-3165. 66 Pavan, F. A., Dias, S. L., Lima, E. C., Benvenutti, E. V. (2008). Removal of Congo red from aqueous solution by anilinepropylsilica xerogel.Dyes and Pigments,76(1), 64-69. Grounded peels were saved for further utilization Dried banana peels were grind with blender Dried again in oven at temperature of 70 for approximately 5 hours Pieces were washed with distilled water Dried in sunlight for 3 days and cut in small pieces Took banana peel from local market PAGE MERGEFORMAT 50 j5pfUgVYKf-6Ymdv kkk [email protected] vvv9c B B 7KvyiDtvd5 SSSW_V4ZiYCDNNNNSsuF)RTM7U0Dr TJko91cZlUUMyTTTVtZIt-OuWGGBURkMZ.Y.Y.0
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