1. presupposition. PRESUPPOSITION Huang defines presupposition as

Semantics is the line of study that is concerned with deriving meaning that is found in utterances. This involves several concepts including sentence relations to which presupposition and entailment belong. This category involves the following concepts; tautology, synonymy and contradiction. This paper serves to shed light on understanding of sentence relation, paying particular attention to presupposition and entailment, and the differences between these concepts to the effect of trying to clarify the confusion existent in there between.

Words do exhibit relations with one another in a language, sentences also do exhibit relations to one another. This means that sentences also relate in a specific way. You will find that words have relation that cause them to have similar meaning, also with sentences, they have specific relations of which such relations may be led by the reason of the use of particular words. Sometimes these relations may be of certain syntactic structure. But for one to know or be familiar with sentence relations, he or she must understand different concepts that fall under sentence relations. These are; synonymy, tautology, contradiction, entailment and presupposition. Below will be the description of each concept, basing more focus on entailment and presupposition.
Huang defines presupposition as ‘a proposition or an inference whose validity is taken for granted for a sentence to be true or for a speech act to be felicitous’, (Huang, 2007). Presupposition constitute at any given time the communicative background assumed to be known and accepted (Franck 1973). In most cases, people use presuppositions throughout without knowing it. For one to understand presupposition, first they must know the definition of what presupposition is, the types of presuppositions, what they do and how one can identify them. Also, one must be able to know what causes presuppositions, which is referred to as presupposition triggers.
Kroeger defines presupposition as ‘information that which is linguistically encoded as being part of the common ground at the time of utterance’, (Kroeger 2018). With common ground, Kroeger refers to everything that both the speaker and the hearer know or believe, also know that they have in common. This means that during the time of utterance, the hearer has the knowledge of what is being said by the speaker. Examples that are obvious include; knowledge about the world, we all know that there is one moon and one sun. This is a fact that no one can dispute or argue because evidence is already there. This may also continue to include knowledge that is observable in speech situations, the perfect scenario will be what the speaker is wearing or carrying. Also facts that have been mentioned before in that same conversation or discourse. From the above, we can simply say, a sentence is said to presuppose another sentence if its truth and that of its negation both imply that the presupposed sentence is also true.
It is surprising that Magang passed the test.

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Presupposition: Magang passed the test.

It is not surprising that Magang passed the test.

Presupposition: Magang passed the test.

The table below shows how presupposition relate or the structure in which it follows.

T or F?T
P presupposes q if q is part of the assumed background against which P is said. This simply means that q hold the same idea as P.

In pragmatics, entailment can be defined as the relationship that is found between two sentences, where the truth of one sentence requires the truth on another sentence. The truth of sentence B requires the truth of sentence A. This means that entailment can be referred to as a relationship that is found between two propositions that are expressed by two sentences.

Matome is an intelligent student.

Ent: Matome is a student.

Raymond and Lorato flunked.

Ent: Lorato flunked.

Lorato or Raymond flunked.

Ent: Someone flunked.

Mary broke the window.

Ent: The window broke
Tumelo and Ditiro went to the party.

Ent: Ditiro went to the party.

Ent: Tumelo went to the party.

Thabo is a bachelor.

Ent: Thabo is married.

F<T or F
T or F?T
From the above sentences, one can note that there are sentences that are entailed on the other sentences. The “Thabo is a bachelor” entails “he is a bachelor” when the pronoun ‘he” refers to ‘Thabo’. To the hearer, this will make sense because they already know that a bachelor the speaker is referring to is Thabo.

Presupposition and entailment differ. When a presupposing sentence is negated, the presupposition survives as in examples 1 and 2:
I regret studying law
Pres: I studied law
I do not regret studying law
Pres:I studied law

However, in entailment, negating the entailing sentence results in the failure of the entailment as in the following examples:
Peter is my brother.

I have a brother (entailment holds)
Peter is not my brother
I have a brother (we are not sure whether I have a brother or not hence entailment no longer holds)
Between sentence 4 and 5, there is no entailment because sentence 5 cannot be said to be entailed in sentence 4.

Presupposition also holds in questioning, embedding with modals and in conditional clauses:
The king of France is bald.

Pres: There is a King of France.

Is the king of France bald?
Pres: There is King of France.

The King of France might be bald.

Pres: There is a King of France.

If the King of France is bald, then he should wear a hat.

Pres: There is a King of France.

1.0 Acknowledgement All praises to Allah S.W.T

1.0 Acknowledgement
All praises to Allah S.W.T and to Him alone. He bestowed us health and ability to Alhamdulillah, successfully completing this 2000 words assignment. Words are insufficient to describe my gratefulness and appreciation to Him throughout the process of this assignment.

I would like to express my utmost gratitude to my instructor, Dr. Ali Al-Sayed Hassan Al-Halawani for his continuous guidance in the whole process of completing this assignment. Not to mention, my sincere appreciation goes to him, for teaching me this course “Semantics” and for being a true inspiration. I am also very grateful to him for giving a notion to investigate the current knowledge of the younger generation which will be reflected in my term paper.
Additionally, I would also like to express my gratitude to all ten respondents who participated in this study also for their enthusiasm to sacrifice their leisure time to help me in collecting data and information in order to complete this paper.

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Not to mention my parents for supporting me and also my friends who help contribute ideas and also support me in my dire of need. Thank you Ubaidah Suhaimi and Adam Khairi for your support. I am extremely grateful for all the love and guidance from those who were involve in aiding me while conducting this paper. May Allah reward you with his blessing.2.0 Introduction
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful
There are many studies that falls under the English language, however the focus here is on Semantics. According to Cruse (2011) and The Merriam-Webster (2017) dictionary semantics involves the study of meaning of words, phrases and sentences. For example, when one reads the word “crash”, a car accident comes to mind. Nevertheless, the expression can also be used to discuss the sound crated when waves break against a rocky coast. Based on this example it can be said that meaning are conventionalized and convey in various way.

Riemer (2010) stated that Hyponymy is the lexical relation describes in English by the phrase kind etc. A chain of Hyponym defines the hierarchy or elements. For example, a mansion is type of a house, while a house in turn is a hyponym of building since a house is a kind of a building. The study here concentrates on Hyponym in the context where there are certain population that has complication in categorizing superordinate according to its class..
Hyponym is a relation between two words in which the meaning of one of the words include the meaning of various other words. This study here todays focusses on the relationship between the hyponymy in the English and Malay language.
As second language learners, Brown (2010) stated that an adult second language learner has two means for internalizing the target language. The first means is learning acquisition, here it refers to leaners who subconsciously construct the system of the language. In simpler terms, second language learners acquire language through intuitive process that they are not aware of. The second means is known as language learning or conscious learning in which learners are generally aware of their own learning and the process of the language. They are able to configure the rules of the language and also attempt to form what they have learned. Most the residents in Malaysia acquire their second language which is English through their education in school. As learning English is a must in every institution in Malaysia. The study here focuses on the younger generation aged from ten to twelve years old and I would like to investigate on their knowledge on their acquired second knowledge. I would have the benefit to test their knowledge on their second establish and understand if they are utilizing their knowledge at a proper scale. This is because they are there are future leader and the torch bearers of the Ummah. Thus it would worrisome if the current generation are not able to identify the superordinate terms.

2.1 Problem Statement
Certain younger generations today have complications in categorizing the superordinate according to class. In other words, they are having difficulties in understanding the meanings of terms in English language due to the fact that the Malay language is their mother tongue. Even though there are being taught in school some are not skilled to comprehend certain terms in which it may lead to different interpretation and meanings. The acquisition of Malay language affects the students’ understanding of certain English terms.

2.2 Research Questions
Can the younger generation today classify the superordinate terms into hyponym (class) accurately?
2.3 Purpose of The Study
The purpose of this study was to identify whether interpretation of superordinate terms based on schema theory of first language and second language acquisition. Furthermore to investigate the factors contributing to the different interpretation towards superordinate terms and hyponym.

3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Respondents
The respondents in this study were 10 children whose age range from ten years old to twelve years old and whose first language is Malay and second language is English
3.2 Materials
The method that was chosen for this research was a survey, which falls under quantitative research. The questionnaire consists of four parts. A sample of the survey questions is included in the appendix.

3.3 Research Procedure
The survey questions were prepared and the survey was conducted by distributing questionnaires to samples. A total of 10 samples responded to the research. The survey then was analyzed.
4.0 Findings and Discussion
Based on the survey that was conducted, the respondents tend to have different interpretation of hyponymy towards certain words.

Graph 1
Based on the graph 1, it can be noted that regarding question 1, out of the ten participants, seven of them classify lily, chrysanthemum, rose, daisy as garden because that is what you find when you are in a garden. While the remaining three participants classified the given Hyponyms as flowers which was the accurate and correct answer.

Graph 2
Referring to the graph 2, nine participants characterized the given Hyponyms Trumpet, harp, guitar as a song rather that the correct answer which was musical instrument. Only one out of the ten participants was able to classify that question correctly. The participants were not able to determine what a harp and trumpet was but assume it class should fall under song because of the guitar as guitar was used to make songs.

Graph 3
Graph 3 represents both question 3 and question 4. For this part of the question, all ten participants answered correctly. They were able to classify pen stapler notebook as stationery and doll, yo-yo, control car as toys. Here all ten participants were able to class them accurately as the class for these two examples was straight forward and easy.

Graph 4
Based on graph 4, six out of the ten participants classify eagle, robin, dove as animal while the remaining four participants classified them as birds. The correct answer was birds. Due to the fact that some were not able to distinguish the different types of bird like robin and dove, mostly assume that they were some kind of animal that was not a bird and thus answered animal. Even though the answered can be argued but the accurate answer was birds.

Graph 5
Graph 5 shows that for the final question two are the participants classified Cardigan, dhoti, sari as Indian. This because of the word sari and dhoti clouded their judgement as that is what Indian wear thus is why they answered as so. While the remaining eight participants who answered correctly classified them as clothes.
5.0 Limitations of the Study
Although the research has reached its objectives, there were some limitations to it. Firstly the target population for the respondent for the research was small as it was only limited to ten participants. In order to receive more data and to compare it in order to accomplish the research objectives, the study should have involve more participants with various age range. Also not only focus those whose first language was Malay but also other language besides English. Second is the questionnaire that was given to the participants. Certain question was not up to par with the participant’s knowledge and the number of the questionnaire was little. Therefore if these research is conducted again, the questionnaire should be at a better level and also increase the number of its question. Finally the lack of previous research to help further explain the theory and idea of the current paper.
6.0 Conclusion
In conclusion a chain of hyponymy defines the hierarchy or elements certain class group as mentioned in the introduction. This paper is trying to emphasis the knowledge of the young generation on the English language they have acquired, and to investigate the factors contributing to the different interpretation towards superordinate terms and hyponym. Due to the fact that some of the participants lack vocabulary and knowledge which led them to answer as discussed in the findings above. This proves that not many of the younger generation are not able to classify superordinate terms into hyponym (class) accurately. Even though that all the children are being thought in school about the rules and process of the English language, this study shows that there are some who are not able to process the information accurately
Effective alternatives should be taken by the parents and the education department of the participants in order for them to be able mastered in recognizing or classifying the characteristics classes of certain words or objects. It is worrisome to see that the younger generation aren’t able to see the chain of hyponymy. The best answer for the participants to improve and master in classifying words is to look at the dictionary. The dictionary plays a vital role in helping them in overcoming the issue and help them understand the elements of said word. Teachers should also introduce more vocabulary to students in class and parents should encourage their children to read more. Furthermore thou it may seem a small matter know, you may never know how something small might affect the future.
7.0 Reference
Brown, D. H (2000). Principles of language learning ; teaching (4th ed). New York:

Cowie, A. P. (2009). Semantics. New York: Oxford University Press
Cruse, A. (2011). Meaning in language: An introduction to semantics and pragmatics.

Riemer, N (2010). Introducing Semantics. Cambridge University Press
Webster, M. (2017). The Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster.

8.0 Appendix
Example Hyponyms Superordinate/ Group
Screwdriver, hammer, spanner Tools

Question Hyponyms Superordinate/
1 Lily, chrysanthemum, rose, daisy
2 Trumpet, harp, guitar
3 Pen stapler notebook 4 Doll, yo-yo, control car 5 Eagle, robin, dove 6 Cardigan, dhoti, sari

1. 1-11 is to explain the events

1. Zinn’s main purpose for writing “A People’s History of the United States” is to give people a side of the United States history from another viewpoint, in which there will be no identifying of heroes and victims, and accusing any bad people from the events that occured in the past. He says that he will give people fact informations in a way that they’re supposed to know.
2. Zinn’s thesis for pages 1-11 is to explain the events in which Columbus was included, from the time that he discovered the island where he met the Arawaks. Zinn described Columbus as a violent, cruel, and greedy person instead of recognizing him as a hero.
3. According to Zinn, Christopher Columbus was wrongly portrayed as a hero in traditional history book just because he was the one who discovered America. Despite the fact that Columbus did discover America, he did things that ruined the lives of Native Americans. He was abusive and violent towards them, he made them work excessively away from their family, and he would kill them if they don’t give him gold.
4. Zinn disputes Henry Kissinger’s statement: “History is the memory of states”, because in his opinion, he thinks that “people shouldn’t accept the memory of their nation as their own.” By clearly stating, “Nations are not communites and never been” in his book, it supports his opinion about Kissinger’s statement.
5. Zinn’s basic criticism of historian Samuel Elliot Morison’s book, Christopher Columbus, Mariner was that his way of telling the truth about Columbus in the first part of his book and then burying them by different informations that he thinks is more important to him is basically saying that he’s trying to mislead the readers by hiding the truth from them.
6. In Bartolome da las Casas’ first book, he described how the Indians were living in peace before Columbus still didn’t discover their island. He followed it by his second book, which consist of major issues regarding the Spanish expeditions in the Carribean. Las Casas tells in his book that the Spaniards weren’t considerate of the Indians and that’s why they’ve been really abusive and brutal when it comes to ordering the Indians to work for them. Also, the Indians suffered a lot and eventually died because they were overworked by the Spaniards. Las Casas wrote about how two Spaniards beheaded a native because they thought it was fun.
7. Columbus’ original motive was to find an alternative route to India for the trading of spices and metals. But after he discovered the Americas, his motive became finding gold, which made him greedy and drove him to oppress the native people.
8. The way of living of the Arawak Indians will never be the same again ever since Columbus discovered Hispanola. A lot of people were exploited, injured, and killed during the time that the Spaniards took over the Indians. They didn’t expect to be treated this way, so it was hard for them to defend themselves against the Spaniards.

1. farsightedness. 4. Excessive love for cats is

1. The cat’s heart beats about 140 beats per minute.
2. Cats can produce 100 different sounds.
3. All cats have farsightedness.
4. Excessive love for cats is called Ailurophilia.
5. In cats sweat glands are located only on the pads of the paws.
6. An adult cat has 30 teeth.
7. The cat is the only animal that can survive a fall from a nine-story house.
8. In case of danger, the cat can run at a speed of 48 km / h.
9. The kidneys of the cat can filter the salt.
10. A kitten is able to see a dream within one week after birth.
11. For the movement of the ears, cat has about 20 muscles.
12. In the Middle Ages, on the Feast of St. John’s Day, the cats were burned at the stake, because they believed that they were involved in black magic.
13. In Australia and the UK, a black cat brings good luck.
14. A cat named Stubbs was mayor of the city of Talkeetna, Alaska, for 15 years.
15. Every year in Asia, about 4 million cats are eaten.
16. The cat’s body consists of 517 muscles.
17. The cat 245 bones.
18. The cat hates the smell of tangerines and lemons.

19. A cat lives 6 year of life.
20. Cats are able to anticipate natural disasters, like earthquakes, they leave the building in advance.
21. The cat is capable of bouncing to a height higher than its growth by 5 times.
22. Proailurus is considered the progenitor of cats, which means “first cat”. The animal inhabited the planet 30 million years ago.
23. Only a cat of the breed Turkish Van, loves to swim.
24. Cats cannot chew large pieces of meat.
25. A domestic cat can survive at a temperature of 57 degrees.
26. Every year, about 40,000 people suffer from bites of cats in the United States.
27. The cat can turn its ear 180 degrees.
28. In ancient Egypt, for the smuggling of cats, criminals were punished by murder.
29. The Egyptians worshiped the goddess with a cat’s head.
30. The most popular breed is the Persian cat.
31. The oldest breed of cats is Mau.
32. The cat has 12 pairs of mustaches.
33. In 1871, the first cat show was organized in London.
34. In the US, about 60 million feral cats live.
35. The only animal that cannot be found on the pages of the bible is a cat.
36. The most expensive cat is Little Nicky. Its cost is 50 thousand dollars.
37. For the first-time cats were seen on the territory of Europe in 900 BC.
38. Approximately 95% of people talk with cats.
39. The Japanese believe that after death the cat turns into a spirit.
40. Cats can see in dark.
41. Aspirin is a poison for a cat.
42. The sense of smell in cats is about 14 times stronger than human
43. The weight of the smallest adult cat was 680 grams.
44. In 1 square centimeter, the cats have 20,155 hairs.
45. People who have domestic cats live longer and are much less prone to stress and heart attacks.

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46. The largest wild cat is the Amur tiger.
47. As in humans, cats have a dominant “arm”.
48. Cats eat grass, leaves and young shoots of plants to improve the digestive system, as well as to induce vomiting to purify the stomach.
49. Most cats are able to give birth to one to nine kittens in single delivery.
50. The longest surviving cat ever recorded is Krim Puff, who lived 38 years and 3 days.
51. Cats are one of the laziest mammals. They are able to sleep for 18 hours a day.
52. Cats lick the hairs to clean themselves.
53. Maine-coon cats have high intelligence. This is one of the few breeds that can be trained
54. Cats are the only animals allowed to enter the mosque.
55. The nose of the cat is unique, it has a unique imprint like humans’ fingerprints.
56. Cats, if not sleeping, spend one third of the total time on caring for themselves.
57. Cats also protect books from mice and other relics of the British Museum.
58. In Austria, a cat who served in the protection of warehouses for several years, was put a lifetime pension of milk, meat or broth.
59. Domestic cats are the only cats, capable of keeping the tail upright when walking
60. Cat give birth to more than 100 kittens in its entire life.
61. The cat’s eye with respect to body size is larger than that of most mammals.
62. About 10% of all bones are on the tail
63. Wild cats are not able to lift their tail up.

64. Giraffe, camel, horse and cat are the only pacer animals that go with their left legs first, then the right ones.

65. Cats have 80 million olfactory receptors in the nose.
66. The color of the eyes in kittens can change as they grow.
67. At birth, kittens are deaf and blind. They open their eyes in 7-10 days, and sight and hearing develop in two weeks.
68. Cats can see up to a distance of 60 meters.
69. Cats can distinguish some colors.
70. The normal body temperature in cats is about 38 degrees.


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