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May 2, 2019 Critical Thinking

1.0 Introduction
The first substantial computer was the giant ENIAC machine by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania. The full name of ENIAC is called Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator. In Latin world “computer” means to calculate. Computer is an electronic device which need to work under control of instruction by the user to stores the memory or called data. It converts data into information for the user.
Nowadays, computer are more complex than before. Inside of the computer have a lot of component with different purposes. The components need to work together with the computer so that the computer can work. Be a user, we need to know and understanding about the computer so that we can work easier and smarter.

Figure 1.0.1 ENIAC computer

1.1 What is computer systems?
A computer system is a basic, complete and functional computer which is including all hardware and software required to make it functional for a user. A complete computer made up of the CPU, memory and related electronics. All the peripheral devices connected to the computer and its operating system.
A computer system is a computer combined with various peripheral equipment and software so that it can perform desired functions. Without these peripheral devices a computer is not fully functional. However, these are typically connected to a computer through cables.

Figure 1.1.1 Computer components
1.2 Hardware
Computer system may also refer to a configuration of hardware and software designed for a specific purpose such as manufacturing control system or an accounting system. Computer hardware is the collection of all the parts you can physically touch. Example of hardware in a computer are the keyboard, the monitor and the central processing unit (CPU). A computer’s hardware is comprised of many different parts but the most important of these is the motherboard. The motherboard is made up of even more parts that the power and to control the computer.

Figure 1.2.1 Examples of hardware

1.3 Software
Beside that computer software is not something that you can touch, it is a set of instructions for a computer to perform specific operations. Software commonly known as program or applications. It consists of all the instructions that tell the hardware how to perform a task. These instructions come from a software developer in the form that will be accepted by the platform which call operating system and CPU that they are based on. For instance, a program that is designed for the Windows, operating system will only work for that specific operating system. In software, there have two categories which is operating system(OS) and application system(AS).

– Operating system(OS) of a computer is a set of specialized programmes that manages all the operations of the computer such as CPU, memory, keyboard, floppy disks and VDU. Form small personal computer to super computers, the operating system operates in all the computer systems. The operating system is responsible for the communications between the computer and its peripheral.

Figure 1.3.1 Examples Operating Systems (OS)

– Application software(AS) is allowing users to accomplish one or more tasks. It includes word processing, web processing and any other task which you might install software. Application software is specific to the task it is designed for and can be as simple as a calculator application or as complex as a word processing application.

Figure 1.3.2 Examples of Application Software (AS)

1.4 Output ; Input Devices
Computer devices have two categories which is output device and input device. An output device is any peripheral that receives data from a computer. It usually for display, projection or physical reproduction. For examples, monitor and printers are the two most common output devices used with a computer.
• Monitor is an electronic visual display for computers. The monitor comprises the display device, circuitry and an enclosure.
• Printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent human-representation of graphics or text on paper.
• Loudspeaker is an electroacoustic transducer which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.

Figure 1.4.1 List of output devices
Well, an input device is a piece of computer hardware equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as computer or information appliance. For examples, the most commonly used input devices on a computer are keyboard and mouse.
• Keyboard is an input device, which is use to input data by typing and
• Mouse is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface.
• Trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball held by a socket containing sensors to detect a rotation of the ball about two axes like an upside-down mouse with an exposed protruding ball.

Figure 1.4.2 List of input devices

1.5 Microsoft Word
Microsoft Word or often called Word is a graphical word processing program that user can type with. It was a word processer and was developed by Microsoft. Microsoft Word was purposed to let users to type and save documents. It was first released on October 25,1983 under the name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix system. Microsoft Word is similar to other word processors, it has helpful tools to make documents such as spelling and grammar checker, word count, insert with pictures, graph and table. Word is a component of the Microsoft Office suite of productivity software but can also be purchased as a stand-alone product.

The first version of Microsoft Word was developed by Charles Simonyi and Richard Brodie, former Xerox programmers hired by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in 1981. Bravo, who is the first graphical writing program was gave many ideas and features in Microsoft Word. Bravo program was bought by computer company Microsoft.Then, Microsoft changed Bravo program to Microsoft Word. When it first came out, it was not as popular as other writing programs like Word Perfect but it had a feature called WYSIWYG which is What You See Is What You Get. It meant that users can change the visual style of writing just by clicking buttons.

In 1989, the first Windows version was released with a slightly improved interface. It caused Word became a huge commercial success. Word for Windows 1.0 was followed by Word 2.0 in 1991 and Word 6.0 in 1993. It was renamed to Word 95 an Word 97, Word 2000 and Word for Office XP. In 2016 Microsoft Word was released. It is the latest version of the word processing application.

Word is not just made for Windows but also can use for Mac. In 1997, Microsoft formed the Macintosh Business Unit as an independent group within Microsoft focused on writing software for Mac OS. Users could choose the menus and keyboards shortcuts to be similar to either Word 97 for Windows or Word 5 for Mac. In 2000, Word 2001 was released with added a few new features including the Office Clipboard which allowed users to copy and paste multiple items. Word X released in 2001 which is the first version to run natively on and required Mac OS X and introduced non-contiguous text selection. Word 2004 was released in May 2004. It included a new Notebook Layout view for taking notes either by typing or by voice. Word 2008, released on January 15, 2008, included a Ribbon-like feature, called the Elements Gallery, that can be used to select page layouts and insert custom diagrams and images. Word 2011, released in October 2010, replaced the Elements Gallery in favor of a Ribbon user interface that is much more similar to Office for Windows and includes a full-screen mode that allows users to focus on reading and writing documents, and support for Office Web Apps.

1.5.1 Advantages of Microsoft Word
Microsoft Word can easily to correct the mistakes by just hitting the backspace or delete button. There are the templates for any type of document and mail merge from a database so that you can easily send out the letters to multiple people at a time. Besides that, you can align the text whether at the centre, right or left margins or justified takes just one click. Other than that, spelling and grammatical mistakes are pointed out instantly , you can correct any mistakes which are made easily. The bullets and numbers are done automatically and there is always an option to ask for help. In addition, the images and the figures can be attached and laid out easily. Copying the documents is fast and easy and the copies can easily be made which saves on printing and it is much easier to do.

1.5.2 Disadvantages of Microsoft Word
In spite of Microsoft Word is available practically everywhere but it need a computer. Without computer, you can’t do anything. Some symbols aren’t easily accessible, which makes typing in different languages that use a different alphabet is difficult. Also, some complex mathematical equations would be easier to hand write.
1.6 Windows Movie Maker
Windows Movie Maker is a video editing software by Microsoft. It is a part of Windows Essentials software suite. It offers the ability to create and edit video as well as to publish on One Drive, Facebook and YouTube. Movie Maker first released is in 2000. Movie Maker was officially removed for download on January 10, 2017. Now, it is replaced by Windows Story Remix in Windows 10’s Photo App.
1.6.1 Advantages of Windows Movie Maker
Window Movie Maker is free to the users of Microsoft Windows. It designed for the people who didn’t have any experience with editing video because it is very easy to learn and it is fun. There are over 130 effects, amazing transitions, titles and credits available. After the capture, we able to drag and drop any video, pictures and clip anywhere on he timeline. Window Movie Maker is the perfect tool for the photo slide shows.
1.6.2 Disadvantages of Windows Movie Maker
Windows Movie Maker can freeze and crash. It need to make sure to save often before quit. It cannot create a complex video. It just can make one video track and one audio track at any instance. Windows Movie Maker also needs the patience of a saint since it is very crash prone. The video reversing requires more effort and time to do. You can cut up the clips to the smallest and put them backwards. It is frustrating for the advanced users.

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Task 2

2.0 Conclusion
As a conclusion, computer is very popular in our daily life. Computer become our good helper in the field which has been applied with computer. In this modern era, computer is an indispensable technology. It helps us to be more effective in our work no matter in business or education. Besides that, it helps us to simplify a complex tasks. It makes our life and work become more easier. The advantage of computer has not just made our society be more recent but has also established a milestone in the history of mankind. Last but not least, the computer lets us entered a technological age and a major discovery in the science and technology world.