1.1 and given the totally different type

1.1 Define person-centred valuesPerson centred is about providing the correct care and support that is centred or focused on the service user’s individual needs. We are all individual and just because two people might have the same medical conditions for example, Dementia, it doesn’t mean that they require the same care and support. The main principles of person centred approaches include: individuality, choice, rights, independence, privacy, dignity, partnership & respect.• Individuality: People have their own identity, needs, wishes, choices, beliefs and values.

• Choice: Each individual should be supported to make choices about their care and the support, which they are required. The service users should be given information in a way that they can understand so they are able to make their informed choices. For example if a service requested a certain food and care worker didn’t give their choice of food and given the totally different type of food. When we working with service users who can’t express their wants and needs, wishes and therefore you need to find other ways of communicating.• Rights: The service user’s rights are very important. The human rights Act 1998 is the main legislation, which sets out of the rights of people within the UK. You have the right to speak your own mind and kept from safe from harm, as well as the right to respect, Dignity and also equality.

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You have to be able to make sure that the service users rights are respected not by yourself but by the other people who are involved in a certain service user’s care. • Independence: promoting the individuals independence means to look at what they can do for themselves empowering them to do as much as possible for themselves. For example it doesn’t mean that leaving someone to cope alone but agreeing to the support which the service user wants.

• Privacy: everyone has the right to his or her own private space and time when they are required. Privacy affects how and where cares support is given, especially when it involves their personal hygiene or the any other intimate procedures. For example privacy includes not talking to anyone about any service users private information unless they give their permission and it is on a need-to-know basis to improve their care and their support. • Dignity: Treating somebody in a dignified way means to treat the service users respect, valuing their individuality and their ethical and moral beliefs.

In order to provide dignified care you need to have open positive attitudes. For example taking time to their things in their own way. Care workers not making assumptions about how they want to be treated and aware how the personal care could may affect the service user’s dignity.• Partnership: working with the service users you have to be able to involve their family and work alongside of the care workers. Good communication and trust and valuing the respecting what others have to say.

• Respect: respecting the service users means believing that they have importance as n individual, it means that they have their own opinions and the feelings even though the care workers may not agree with but you have to be able respect the wishes of the service users.1.2 Explain why it is important to work in a way that embeds person-centred values The care provided it is important to work in a which embeds a person-centred values, working together with certain service users to plan their care and support to meet their required needs. This cuts down the risk of the negative, unfair and harmful care. The service users are put at the centre and able to choose and control how they would want their care and how they are supported by it. 1.3 Explain why risk taking can be a part of a person-centred approachRisk can take part in helping them from right to wrong, we all do take many risk in our daily life but they can empower us, it teaches us the consequences of the actions we take therefore these are positive risks.

It can be a part of the service users choice to take risks so long as the risk doesn’t endanger and hurt others. Influence is another way of talking in away the rights of the individual to make informed choices. For example if your informing a service user of how bad it is to eat unhealthy food such as Greggs everyday you can give them suggestions of alternative foods such as more healthier foods, but whatever the service user decides, after the information you have informed it has to be respected.

To deny the service users choice is taking away their rights and freedom as they wish. You have a responsibility to listen to the service users and hear what they are saying.1.4 Explain how using an individual’s care plan contributes to working in a person-centred wayThe service users care plan contributes to working in person-centred way because it is important to recognise the changes and how the support is provided will also need to be reviewed regularly to see if there are any changes or adjustments in the care plan. You have the responsibility to listen to individuals, to hear what they are saying, write down any information about change in the care or support plan and contact your supervisor or manager if this is likely to have an impact on the level or type of care and support that is provided.Making sure that care workers are able to work in person centred way by using the servicers care plan by communication with the service users, ensuring that the needs of the individual are met and apply person-centred values.

Learning outcome 3 Be able to establish consent when providing care or support 3.1 Explain the importance of establishing consent when providing care or support The word ‘consent’ is the informed agreement to an action or a decision. Permission for something or an agreement to do something. The importance on of gaining the consent when working with a certain service user it very important to uphold their rights to be fully engaged in their own care, while observing to their legal requirements. It is also the service users right to refuse care for example when I attended a clients house they didn’t require anything so they refused the care they didn’t want anything. It is also important that people not only give you their consent but therefore understanding what they are consenting to and the implications of this. Gaining the contest protects not just the career but the individual receiving the care and support also.

If there isn’t any contest given then you cant process any further with the care. It is illegal to pressure the service user into anything to individuals choice to take risks as long as those risk don’t hurt others and that they will result in a consequences negative or positive but it’s the down to the individuals to make the choice. However the abiding the legal requirements we must act in the best interest of the service users work towards solving conflicts, with the extra support for example family if necessary. When needed to the contract the person who has legal responsibility. Also if you cant give consent you can stop doing the task involved and we must also record this information and report to your supervisor or manager whichever is available.

1. million lakes, about three thousand rivers, one

1. The name ‘Alaska’ is derived from an Aleutian word alaxsxaq which means the “object toward which the action of the sea is directed.”2. Alaska is the largest state of all the states of United States and is one-fifth of the entire land area of the US.3. On July 7, 1958, the U.

S. Congress declared Alaska as the 49th state. 4. The total area of Alaska is as twice as Texas. 5. The capital of Alaska, Juneau, can be accessed only by sea or by air6.

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Alaska was discovered by a Danish explorer, Vitus Bering in 1741. 7. In 1784 Gregor Shelekhov, a fur trader established the first settlement on Three Saints Bay on Alaska’s Kodiak Island.8. It was sold by Russian in 7.2 million dollars but Russian rulers regretted later when gold deposits were found in Alaska.

9. The distance between the extreme points of Russia and Alaska does not exceed 3.5 km!10. Alaska has more than three million lakes, about three thousand rivers, one hundred thousand glaciers and about seventy active volcanoes.11. Alaska is the most popular state for flying in the U.

S.12. One third of Alaska is in the Arctic Circle. It’s very cold in Alaska.13. The lowest temperature was recorded -62.2 degree Celsius in 1971.14.

In one of the cities in Alaska, the mayor for more than fifteen years was a cat.15. In spite of the fact that bears are allowed to hunt, it is forbidden to wake sleeping bears in order to photograph them.

16. The flag of Alaska was drawn by a thirteen-year-old boy who took part in the competition for the best state flag and he won.17. Golden stars on the blue flag of Alaska represent the constellation of the Big Dipper and the North Star, which enters the constellation of the Little Ursa. 18. Earthquake is very common in Alaska. The second strongest in the history of the earthquake occurred here, in 1964.

19. The 1964 earthquake was so powerful it was even heard in Africa. 20.

The highest tsunami in the world was recorded in 1958 in Alaska, when the glacier hit the lake, causing a wave more than half a kilometer in height.21. Alaska is considered the richest state of the United States.22. The population of Alaska speaks 22 different languages.23. Alaska has the lowest population density in comparison to all the other states.

24. Alaska has a pizza restaurant that delivers pizza on airplane. 25. There is a variety of frogs in Alaska that freezes in winter, the heartbeat stops, and the frog doesn’t breathe. But as soon as spring arrives frog return to the normal condition. 26. In Alaska, there is only one railroad that connects the cities of Seward and Fairbanks.

But it’s special: a passenger can take a train from anywhere. All you have to do is show white scarf or handkerchief. 27. The coast of Alaska goes to three different water bodies – the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Bering Sea.28. Alaska has about a fifth of all US oil reserves.29.

There are 20 highest peaks in the United States and 17 are in Alaska.30. In 1897 during the Klondike Gold Rush, potatoes were so highly valued for their vitamin C content, that miners traded gold for them.31. Interior Alaska is known for its many natural geothermal hot springs.32. Alaska has no plants poisonous to the touch such as poison ivy or poison oak which are found in all other states.33.

Pribilof Island is home to about 1 million seals.34. English and 20 other indigenous languages are official language of Alaska. 35.

Alaska has more coastline than the other 49 states combined.36. Because of their long summer days, Alaska is capable of producing some unusually oversized produce. Some notable specimens that have been harvested in recent years include a 35-pound broccoli, a 65-pound cantaloupe, and a 138-pound cabbage.37. Tongass National forest, Alaska is the largest forest of US.38.

There are 107 men for every 100 women in Alaska, the highest male-to-female ratio in the United States.39. Many hotels in Alaska offer Northern Lights wake-up calls upon request.40. The Northern Lights can be seen 243 days a year in Fairbanks.41. The largest salmon caught in Alaska was on the Kenai River. It weighed in at 97.

5 lbs.42. Barrow, Alaska has the longest and shortest day. When the sun rises on May 10th, it doesn’t set for nearly 3 months. When it sets on November 18th, residents don’t see the sun for nearly 2 months.43.

It is illegal to whisper in someone’s ear while they are moose hunting in Alaska.44. Dog mushing is the state sport of Alaska45. Most of America’s salmon, crab, halibut, and herring come from Alaska.46. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline transports up to 88,000 barrels of oil per hour on an 800-mile journey to Valdez.

47. In year 2001, a drunken man fired at an oil pipeline, he has to pay 17 million dollars fine and received 16 years of jail. 48. Three groups of natives lived in Alaska: Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians.

49. Animals such as reindeer and moose are the property of the state.50. If any accident happens then citizens are required to report this to the state authorities. Special services then take the animal, and its meat is distributed to poor families.

51. In Alaska, there is 1 bear for every 21 people.52. In 1865, the Western Union Telegraph expedition, led by William Dall, surveyed the interior of Alaska for the first time, revealing its vast land and resources53. Alaska is one of the few states that do not depend on production.

The largest branches of private entrepreneurial activity are fishing and the seafood industry.54. The economy of Alaska is maintained on the extraction of oil, gas, copper, gold, zinc, iron, reindeer, tourism and fishing.55. In 1913, women in Alaska were granted the right to vote—six years ahead of the 19th Amendment56.

The Red Dog zinc mine in northwest Alaska is the world’s largest zinc producer.57. The Adak National Forest in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, is the smallest National Forest in America, with only 33 trees58. A company in Alaska has developed a powdered beer for backpacking59. There is a mile-long zip line in Hoonah, Alaska, that starts 1,300ft above sea level and reaches speeds of up to 60mph60.

Alaska’s largest lake, Lake Iliamna, is roughly the size of Connecticut.

1.0 well. Job stress is a chronic

1.0 INTRODUCTION Occupational stress is a growing problem in present-day organizations, it is a frequent problem crossways over the occupations and it influences directly on the job performance.

The problem of occupational stress is particularly relevant for developing countries and regions undergoing enormous economic and social changes (Leka and Jain, 2010). It does not have emotional impact on work life only, but has far reaching impact on worker’s family life as well. Job stress is a chronic disease that caused negatively affects an individual’s performance. Job stress is directly related to performance. The higher the rate of job stress, the lower the job motivates a worker to performance it. On the other hand, work is inevitable in today’s life and it forms the focal point of almost all human life (Kortum, 2014).

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The performance of employees, as well as managers, determines to a large extent, the quality of employee as expressed by Hellriegel and Slocum (2007) that low job motivation can result in costly turnover, tardiness, absenteeism and even poor mental health. This is further argued by Kreisman (2002) that the most valuable and volatile asset of any organisation is a well-motivated and a stable workforce is competent, dedicated and productive. It is expressed by Lawler (2003) that in the twenty-first century, treating people right is not an option but a necessity.

The main purpose of this study is to analyse the phenomenon of occupational stress and employee motivation in the mining industry of Zimbabwe having a deeper look into Ayrshire Mine in the year 2017. This study is worthy pursuing because occupational stress is an area which is being overlooked by many organization especially mining, yet it has a great negative impact to employee motivation. The present study addresses the specific relation of the two variables of job related stress and motivation since these constructs have not been comprehensively explored in the mining sector of Zimbabwe.

This also would be informative to enhance performance on the part of employees. This is also related to the improving of job satisfaction and job performance by reducing occupational stress.1.

1 BACKGROUND Occupational stress has been defined by Cox et al (2003) as the response people may have when presented with work demands and pressures that are not matched to their knowledge and abilities and which challenge their ability to cope. Stress is frequently considered as the most common disease of the modern age. It is a pattern of negative physiological states and psychological responses that occur in an individual. When stressed, individuals feels that their well-¬being is threatened and at the same time unable to handle it (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984; Hill, 2001). Occupational stress has its umbilical cord in the middle of the 19th Century where Friedrich Engels first described in detail the physical and psychological health problems suffered by workers in many trades (Barling and Griffiths, 2011). With time through the cross insemination of ideas from continent to continent, occupational stress became widely recognized especially in the developed nations.

Several theories have been brought forward by many scholars in an effort to try and explain how stress rises or how it results in attrition of motivation among employees. A job demand-control model by Karasek (1979), states that products of stress such as strain emanate from the consequences of high job demand, low social support and low autonomy. The job characteristics framework, another theory by Hackman and Oldham, (1980) state that employee motivation depends on job characteristics such as skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. The theory states that motivation and job satisfaction depend on the fit between the employee’s abilities or needs and the job and the organizational characteristics.

Lazarus and Folkman (1984) introduced the transactional theory of psychological stress and coping. One of the most prominent theories in the field of stress (Babatunde, 2013). This theory suggests that an imbalance of greater environmental demands than resources to cope with these demands produces strain. These are some of the well-known models which have gained dominance over years in guiding stress research and practice despite their variance in popularity and empirical support.

Rapidly changing global scene is increasing the pressure of workforce to perform maximum output and enhance competitiveness. Indeed, to perform better to their job, there is a requirement for workers to perform multiple tasks in the workplace to keep abreast of changing technologies (Cascio, 1995; Quick, 1997). The ultimate results of this pressure have been found to one of the important factors influencing job stress in their work (Cahn et al., 2000).

A study in UK indicated that the majority of the workers were unhappy with the current culture where they were required to work extended hours and cope with large workloads while simultaneously meeting production targets and deadlines (Townley, 2000).


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