1. keep the group headed toward the

1. There is an example of formal group that can be seen which is formed by a manager to help the organisation to accomplish its goals. The group development process wasn’t finished and ended on the second stage-storming. Analysing the group member roles, in our situation Jose is the initiator of the meeting, information giver, opinion seeker and orienter. Mariana preus has a role of initiator and information giver, because he insisted on the not redesigning of the product. The other members seem to serve just as passive audience-followers, because they all agreed to the Mariana’s suggestion, and didn’t give any other opinions.

Also, there was no group cohesiveness, a “we feeling” binding group members together to accomplish their goals.2. The diverse nature of the group affected the Committee’s action by not understanding and participating of all members in the meeting.3. If I was in Jose’s position, I would try to keep the group headed toward the stated goal better, and not to agree with the suggestion of one member, but to count the opinions of every member of the group.

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Also, it wasn’t right to adjourn the meeting before getting the result that would approach to the goal of the whole meetin

1. body. 12. White Blood Cells in

1. 5-8% of our body’s weight is of blood. 2.

To suck all the blood from an adult, you need 1,120,000 mosquitoes.3. The first blood bank was opened in 1937, in Chicago.4. A human contains 4.7 to 5.5 liters of blood.5.

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Most often, heart attacks occur on Mondays – 21% of cases and 2nd place takes Friday.6. To maintain the transparency, cornea have no blood vessel.it get nutrients from aqueous humor and from tear fluid.7. There are 4 types of blood groups- A, B, AB and O. 8.

Each blood group can be Rhesus+ or Rhesus-. 9. O negative is the universal donor and AB is the universal recipient.10. The blood has several components- RBC, WBC, Platelets, Plasma and many others.11. Red blood cells transport oxygen to all the part of the body.

12. White Blood Cells in blood have defense mechanism. 13.

Platelets have clotting function, it prevents the blood loss.14. The function of blood includes providing nutrients to the cells and collect wastes from the cells and of course oxygen transportation.15. Every blood cell has a certain life span, for example, RBC circulates in the system for 120 days.16.

Approximately 100 billion RBC are produced every hour to replace the dead RBCs.17. Plasma makes 55% of total body’s blood volume.18. A healthy human has 20-30 trillion RBCs at any time.19.

The detoxification of blood is performed by liver.20. All types of blood cells are produced in our bone marrow.21. The blood plasma can be stored for 1 year in frozen sate.22.

One pint of blood you donate can save 3 lives.23. AB- is the rarest blood type O+ is the most common blood type, but it may change according to countries.24. Baby is born with about a cup of blood.25.

The blood is filtered by kidneys. Everyday, our kidney can filter 400 gallons of blood.26. For 42 days hospital can store donated RBCs.27. Platelets cannot be stored for more than 5 days.

28. An adult human has 60,000 miles of blood vessels spread in the body. 29.

People who donate blood don’t get paid, they are volunteers.30. There is a huge blood market, the blood is sold in millions to the patients.31. You can live with artificial heart, but there is no replacement for blood.32. The heart of a healthy adult person is able to pump up to 12 liters daily.

33. Every heart beat contributes to the release of an average of 130 ml.34. Donated blood is tested for Hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis. 35. 1.3 million pints of blood is wasted every year because its expired.

36. A special diet for blood groups is a myth.37.

The first ever successful blood transfusion was performed in 1600s on dogs.38. With the loss of one quarter of the blood develops a condition that threatens human life.39. It is a popular myth that blood donation is not good thing and it makes you weak.40. The anemic patients are transfused with blood to increase the level of plasma and RBCs.41.

In order to circulate the blood around the body, the heart creates such a pressure that it can release a blood stream 9 meters high.42. James Harrison have rare blood group type, he had saved about 2 million of babies till now.

43. The blood is 90% water and 10% is other proteins, electrolytes, hormones, enzymes etc.44. In a relaxed state, 25% of the blood moves through the muscle tissues and kidneys.

45. The red color of blood is due to presence of hemoglobin.46. Japanese scientists have identified some relationship between the blood type of a person and their character.

47. Lungs performs the oxygenation of blood.48. In the body of a pregnant woman, by the 20th week, 50% more blood is produced than the blood formed before fertilization.49. There are studies suggesting that coconut water is identical to the blood plasma.

50. A Russian scientist tried to attain mortality by transfusing the blood but he died when he accidentally transfused the blood with malaria. 51. Fish that inhabit the waters of the Antarctic have colorless blood. It lacks hemoglobin and erythrocytes.

52. About 0.5 mg of gold is distributed in the human body through blood.53. In Japan, a whole industry of individual products for each blood group like food, cosmetics, personal care products. 54.

In late 90s, Saddam Hussein ordered to write the Quran with his blood. But now Muslim leaders don’t know what to do with this Quran.55. Ireland has a tradition- in returned to the half a liter of donated blood, half a liter of Guinness beer is offered.

56. In the car of US president there is always supply of blood in case of emergency.57.

The famous soccer player, Cristiano Rolando have no tattoo on his body so that he can donate blood.58. The ancient Egyptians did not drink wine because of the color resemblance of wine with blood.59. Blood donors in Sweden receive thank you message after donating blood and they also receive message when their blood is used for someone.

60. The blood performs the thermoregulatory function.

1. and anywhere between 30,000 and 60,000


Problem Statement: Presently Quetta city is bereaved from the designed Architectural remains of 1935, the purpose of this research is to examine the reasons of reshaping or transforming Quetta’s Architectural identities. The research will further explore the reason that why the architectural remains were not restored and rebuilt in their original form. Quetta city had attained an exclusive character with its British architecture and indo-Saracenic architectural style. In the wake of 1935 the structures were demolished and once rebuilt after decades where their vocabulary had been changed or transformed, Prior to 1935 earthquake the city was transformed by Britishers by giving it a specific identity.The Quetta city suffered devastation on 31 May 1935 between 2:33 am and 3:40 am. The earthquake had a magnitude of 7.7 Mw and anywhere between 30,000 and 60,000 people died from the impact.

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This seismic tremor ranked as the deadliest earthquake that hit South Asia until the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Quetta and its neighboring towns lie in the most active seismic region of Pakistan which includes the Chaman and Chiltan faults. Initial dispatch drafts issued by the Government evaluated an aggregate of 20,000 individuals covered under the rubble, 10,000 survivors and 4,000 injured. The city was severely damaged and was immediately sealed under the military monitor with medical advice. All the villages between Quetta and Kalat were destroyed and demolished. It is the historical and instrumentally recorded data since 1905.

Between 1851 and 1935 about 15 severe earthquakes have occurred in Baluchistan which has caused damage to the structures. Many destructive earthquakes have been related to known as active faults. On the basis of studies, Quetta area has been divided into two seismic zones which are the high seismic risk zone and very high seismic risk zone. Generally, about 5km strip parallel to the fault traces has been considered with in very high seismic risk zone. Fig:01: The Quetta Earthquake 1935, Government of India press. Simla 1935.The study of identities prior to 1935 in south western post which were completely destroyed and rebuilt in different style or in new fashion.

Buildings now are projecting different identities which are divided by time and natural disaster and in its result Quetta has lost its British colonial landscape prior to 1935. The case study includes: Sr. no Building Year of construction Year of Rebuilt 1 Quetta Club 1895 Reconstructed after 19352 Railway station of Quetta 1896 19383 Civil Hospital 1877 19354 Sandeman hall 1890-1935 Not constructed again5 Roman catholic church 1898 19706 Balochistan Governors House 1911 Reconstructed after 19357 DC office Anscomb road office 19398 Mutton Market 1930-1935 Rebuilt 9 Monument of sphinx 1880 Destroyed in 199210 High court Quetta 1930 1993 Fig:02 Picture source is Memories of Quetta (before earth quake 1935) by Abdul Hameed Baloch and picture Relief: Photographic archive from the Jean s. and Frederic A. sharf collection at wolfsonian- FIU library.Fig:03 Photograph Albums British Raj in North-West Frontier Province Balochistan and Sindh Pre -Independence Pakistan 1925This thesis seeks to create an environment that encourages the heritage value and emotional attachment with the spaces.

The author wants to describe the relationship of Architectural styles and ideas of Quetta prior to 1935 with their present states. The heritage values worth preserving instead of molding a new form or shape of a building or to encourage the movement of eclecticism instead. A town or a city region represents the ethnicity, history, religion and social status while primary focus of architecture is its satisfaction through its appealing views and the design which is based on the history, religion, culture, social values and the elements.

2. Objectives: • To study the British contributions to Quetta’s architectural legacy for example Addition of indo-saracenic and European styles. • To demonstrate that Quetta has clearly defined different eras of Architectural Activities.• To explore British ideologies and identities as expressed in Architecture produced before 1935.• To examine the transformation in Architectural landscape of Quetta after 1935 earthquake. • To formally analyze the selected case studies in their original state prior to 1935 and compare it to their present reconstructed state.• To find the reasons behind the change in style.

3. Literature Survey (Brief survey of past work done on the topic and any related work with reference, developing need for present study). • Memories of Quetta (Before Earthquake 1935) by Abdul Hameed Baloch:Abdul Hameed Baloch, a craftsman from Kalat, has executed 35 artistic creations in oils on Quetta scene and design that existed before the earth-Quake of 1935, which claimed 30,000 lives within 30 seconds.

Mr. Hameed with meticulous endeavors some way or another assembled all the disintegrating stuff from daily papers, old reports and different sources. The vast majority of the pictures were excessively ambiguous and detached, making it impossible to be replicated detail by detail. So, Hameed needed to recreate them utilizing his very own creative energy. Thus, with a diligent work of 5 years he has painted the sketches of verifiable critical both for the analysts and workmanship. These artistic creations were inaugurated on the 71st commemoration of Quetta Earth Quake (Abid Husain Qureshi, Asst. Prof.

Expressive arts, University of Balochistan). Living countries keep in mind their tragedies however learn exercises to get by on the world guide. Craftsman Abdul Hameed yet of 40 years set out to reproduce in his oil compositions the greatness of Quetta and what it looked preferred before 1935. It will be a compensating knowledge for individuals to take a look at his works • Baluchistan Architecture craft and religious symbolism by Mohsen kelany:This exploration work investigates the living custom of Baluchistan and gives a more profound comprehension of its religo-cultural aspects. The architectural and artistic traditions are well archived in this book. The material exhibited on prayer rugs, tents, and aspects of the nomadic and semi-nomadic architecture is entirely unique.

The examination initially focuses on the social condition of Baluchistan, in order to comprehend the contribution of neighborhood culture and tribo-religious impacts and influences of local architecture. The Baluchi way of life is investigated on a wide plane, considering native Architecture including mosques and representative minarets as key components, together with their designs, characteristics, social contextualization and techniques for production.• Making Lahore modern by William J Grover:In Making Lahore Modern, William J. Glover researches the customs that formed provincial Lahore.

Specifically, he centers around the conviction that both British and Indian on-screen characters who actualized urbanization came to share: that the material texture of the city could prompt social and good change. This confidence in the intensity of the physical condition to shape individual and aggregate assumptions, he contends, joins the pioneer history of Lahore to nineteenth-century urbanization around the globe.Glover highlights three features of Lahore’s history that demonstrate this procedure unfolding. At first, he looks at the ideas through which the British comprehended the Indian city and imagined its change and transformation. Second, through a thorough investigation of new structures and the adaptation of existing structures, he investigates the role of planning, designing, and of reuse. At last, he investigates the transformations in urban imagination as proved in Indian writings on the city in this period. Over all, Glover emphasize that colonial urbanism was not just forced or imposed; but it was a done with a collaboration between Indian citizens and the British.

• Ideologies of Raj by Thomas medcalf:Thomas Metcalf’s investigation examines the traditions and ways the British wanted to legitimate their rule over India. He demonstrates that the standards and principles the British devised incorporated opposing the dreams of India, yet together they made the expert of the Raj lawful. Ideologies of the Raj is constantly clear and flutent’, Metcalf emphases on two areas in his study of British rule in India: the resemblances and transformations in Britain and India as seen by the British.Metcalf claims that Britishers used ideologies to convince themselves of their right to govern India. The similarities and differences between the Britain’s self-perceptions and India’s characteristics, counting India’s supposed despotism, the cultures, and India’s social hierarchy system contrasted with the dominant social system in which Britain was familiar, all information gave Britishers plenty of examples to use the growth of empire and their conviction to rule India. The differences became the lasting over a long period of legacy.• Master plan for Quetta (QDA) by CRP, U.E.

T Lahore:• Heritage Trail Peshawar Latest Completion || Special Report on Peshawar Heritage Trail Project (ghanta ghar, ghor kachi, mahala sethiyan, bazar e kalaan, chowk yadgar façade lifting and renovation of old city of Peshawar started in Dec 2017.)o Human psychology regarding exterior and interior environment.o Quetta Gazetteerso Quetta Bylawso Cantonment Bylaws4. Methodology:The method going to be used will be field survey that is used to gather initial information, the use of pre-1935 images of colonial buildings. The study will be based on Thomas medcalf scholarship as departure point for the study of architectural identity prior to 1935.The research will be conducted through reconnaissance survey and analysis of the collected data. The old and new philosophies and architectural styles will be documented and collected in pictures and report or book format. • Collection of Primary Data: Primary data will be collected from all the relevant sources which includes:o The data will be collected from the authority QDA (Quetta development Authority), and old reports and maps will be studied.

o Plans and photographs of the buildings.o Will draw the maps of buildings.o Survey of the buildings.o Get maps from the architects.o To carry out the research work, a thorough literature review will be conducted on the buildings of Quetta which relates to structures before 1935 earth quake and its surrounding ; its historical background.

• Collection of Secondary Data:Secondary data will be collected from all the relevant sources which includes:o The relevant books.o The relevant thesis reports.o Articles, journals and from internet.

o Information through internet Libraries.o Information through interviews.o Discussion with the historian, planners and architects a) Brief description of how research will be conducted:It is important to document the existing buildings in order to identify their architectural style and construction. An inventory will be developed to collect the data of existing heritage buildings in Quetta. Most of the existing structures were built during British period and can be related with architectural styles and movements of that time such as Raj Architecture, Colonial Architecture etc. Similar buildings were constructed in many other cities of Pakistan, this will be helpful to understand the styles, patterns and construction details. Building plans/ will be drawn as per the existing situation and actual plans (if possible).

Pictures will be taken for documentary evidence. Literature review will be done from such practices and related studies and results will be concluded with recommendation for future adoption of architectural styles and design patternsb) Experimentation:The study is based on field survey and literature review.c) Experimental set up: As mentioned in (a).d) Theoretical Studies: As mentioned in (a) study of architectural styles, patterns of ideas which are mainly related to colonial architecture and indo-Saracenic architecture. This study reflects upon the transformation of colonial architecture to local architecture. The heritage of the city is vanished and had been converted into local and modern architecture.

Post 1935 era activity regarding Architecture and reconstruction of the same structures in different ways and how it relates with the architectural style of 1935 which are departed from initial structure and if few are constructed then their typology has been changed totally. The major concern in this research will be the representation of elements of architectural styles and study of architectural ideas and concepts used in Baluchistan before 1935 and after the disaster which includes the study of Eclecticism in Architecture (A mixture of elements from previous historical styles to create something that is new and original). This research is done as the citizens are discovering that older buildings and neighborhoods and are important ingredients of the identity and special character of a city.e) Results expected and method of the Analysis:The study will provide a unique inventory and details of heritage buildings, architectural design and styles of buildings before and after 1935. It will be first of its kind to document such heritage buildings.

The study will further help in order to revive the historical architectural heritage and styles of Quetta’s past and create better urban design plan for future which emphasize on past design and practices. 5. Utilization of research results:The objective of the research is to explore the heritage of Baluchistan and the formations, the planning, the destruction and then the transformation and development of the city of Quetta with reference to the architecture and the social character of the city. The study tries to explore the architectural characteristic, the elements, the philosophies before the destruction and the understanding about the pattern of planning and design after the earthquake that is from 1935 to date.

1. of the liver and is also


AbstractLiver cancer is a malignant tumor that starts in the cells of the liver and is also the one in the fifth most cancers in the world 1, in most cases liver cancer starts in hepatocytes, the cells which make up the body of the liver. Cancer treatment using stem cells is a fast-growing method to treat many cancers. At present the most common method to treat liver cancer is by surgical approach to remove the affected portion of the liver. But in many cases the cancer spreads very fast and cover most portion of the liver where surgical approaches fail, in this situation treatment by injecting the stem cells becomes significant. In liver cancer, the cancer stem cells (CSCs) is the main reason for the formation, invasion, metastasis, and recurrence of the tumor, this can be identified by using markers, many drugs have been developed to control it. The mechanism of liver cancer treatment, the advantages and disadvantages of this treatment and moreover the recent advancements in the treatment of liver cancer is addressed in this paper.

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Stem cell treatment improves the outcomes of liver diseases and also helps in development of new drugs. OPINION PAPER: Stem Cell Therapy in Liver Cancer2. IntroductionThe main objective of this opinion paper is to discuss about liver cancer and the treatment of it using stem cell therapy. Liver cancer or hepatic cancer is one of the most often cancers in the world 1, which is caused due to cirrhosis, aflatoxin, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver flukes, with the symptoms like lump or pain in the right side below the rib cage, yellowish skin, weight loss, swelling of abdomen etc. The most common approaches for the treatment includes surgery, targeted therapy and radiation therapy 4.Stages of liver cancer Source:http://debuglies.com/2018/07/31/liver-cancer-the-newly-discovered-switch-controls-the-activity-of-two-proteins-and-improve-future-therapes/Mechanism of liver cancer Source: http://tgc.amegroups.

com/article/view/90/96OPINION PAPER: Stem Cell Therapy in Liver CancerA normal liver has a very low cell turnover, but when any abnormalities occurs, a rapid regeneration of cells takes place, the actual mechanism is that the injury activates a facultative stem cell compartment present I the intrahepatic biliary tree, which produces cords of biopotential transit amplifying cells which has the capacity to differentiate into hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells 2. Hepatocytes are the functional stem cells of liver which normally helps in the regeneration of liver. The isolated hepatocytes are first tested in vivo and ex vivo cell therapies but hepatocytes do not survive in in vitro culture and another limitation is the scarcity of donor livers from which hepatocytes are usually isolated leads to the development of the technology called stem cell therapy 6. The capacity of stem cells for differentiation and renewal provides unlimited number of hepatocytes. There are different stem cell sources for the treatment and they are liver- derived stem cells, bone marrow -derived stem cells, annex stem cells, embryonic stem cells(ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells(iPSCs) 3.Stem cells in liver disease. Source:http://biol1020-2012-2.blogspot.

com/2012/08/stem-cell-therapy-for-liver-diseases.htmlThe main benefits of stem cell therapy are that it improves liver function after resection and the advantage of the graft-versus-tumor effect that is mostly seen in allogeneic transplants. In many cases, stem cell therapy can be used prior to surgical removal of the tumors in liver, which improves liver function and avoid complications, stem cells also help in vitro screening OPINION PAPER: Stem Cell Therapy in Liver Cancerof new antitumor drugs by providing cellular targets of the tumor’s mutations in cancer patients. Stem cell therapy works by improving the regeneration of liver by modulating liver’s own regeneration process, helps in down- regulate immune mediated liver damage, provides hepatocyte-like cells(HLCs) derived from stem cells and helps to use stem cell derived HLCs for cell transplantation to replace hepatocyte function 6.

Source: http://www.ncrm.org/media/timesofindia20oct11.htmlOPINION PAPER: Stem Cell Therapy in Liver Cancer3. Search strategyThe information gathered in this opinion paper is from different sources. The core source for the paper was web searching or so called online information, that includes articles, review papers, journals. The sites like google scholars, NCBI, PUBMED provided the access to most of the research papers for reference. In some cases, some research papers were not accessible completely, where the abstract was the only source of information.

Most of the information in this opinion paper is gathered from online sources. At certain point I was not clear about some terminology and some mechanism of the disease, in that situation all my doubts and clarifications were answered by my friends and seniors, so a verbal way of information gathering also helped me. The images used in the opinion paper was taken from some research papers and with the help of google. The basic knowledge on the mechanism of the disease was provided by the sites like Wikipedia. Gathering data based on clinical trials and the recent advancement in the technology was little tough compared to other information, it was mostly done with the help of recent research paper.OPINION PAPER: Stem Cell Therapy in Liver Cancer4. Discussion Hepatocyte transplantation is a proven alternative approach to liver transplantation, but limited due to availability of organ, failure of donor engraftment and weak viability in cell culture etc.

Transplantation of stem cells is effective according to the recent experimental and human studies 11. The stem cells function by improving the microenvironment through paracrine effects, and the replacement of functional hepatocytes 11. The stem cells derived from adult livers are bipotent and can differentiate into hepatocytes or bile duct cells, these cells play a vital role in liver regeneration. The main limitation is that their number within a normal liver is very low, thus isolation is not practical.

The hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow are multipotent progenitor cells which are easily accessible and isolated. They also have immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive properties that down regulate T cell, B cell, and NK cell functions, thus they induce tolerance after liver transplantation. ESCs are totipotent cells which can colonize the liver after injury 3. But the limitation of this is that their procurement involves the destruction of embryos and there will be immune incompatibility between donors and recipients. iPSCs are like ESCs, and they offer possibility for autologous use. The origin of the iPSCs play an important role in their capacity to differentiate.

Adoptive immunotherapy, with the transfer of naturally occurring T cells is an effective method for cancer treatment, this same technique can be performed using iPSCs, which is able to supply highly reactive antigen specific cytotoxic T- lymphocytes that can target, infiltrate and eradicate tumors when transferred into patients 7. Using all these different stem cells the liver cancer can be treated, thus stem cell therapy is an emerging field for cancer treatment. The clinical studies documented that there where improvements in liver function and enhanced liver regeneration after portal vein embolization, it is a radiological approach to block the venous flow to affected part of the liver and after surgical removal of the affected area of the liver. The most common treatments available for liver cancer is surgery (liver resection and liver transplant), Trans arterial chemoembolization (TACE), ablation therapies (Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), targeted therapy and radiation therapy 12.OPINION PAPER: Stem Cell Therapy in Liver Cancer5.

Future Directions Progenitor cell lines derived from normal human liver will be a source of hepatocytes, there are further improvement going on the isolation, cultivation and propagation techniques. The studies done in rodents shows that human fetal liver progenitor cells have proliferated, and this could be done in humans in future. More researches are needed to identify the inside and outside of the liver which can form hepatocytes in vitro and functional liver tissue after transplantation in vivo 48. The preliminary results of the clinical trials are positive, but the safety and efficacy of the adult stem cell therapy is a major concern. Regenerating medicine involving the stem cells is rapidly growing and many researches is done in this field and clinical trials are carried out. In future the exploration of this method for the treatment of liver cancer will happens, which benefits the patients suffering from liver diseases mostly who are in the end stages. Before using this therapy in clinical applications, different aspects must be taken into consideration which include, efficient differentiation into mature hepatocytes should be done without the help of viral vectors to avoid tumorigenicity 6.

An efficient and reliable method for rapid and large-scale production of cells need to be developed. Significant progress has seen in liver stem cell studies in the last few years 9. The need to study the normal liver cells and the cancerous liver stem cells are clear and studies are going on. Tumor initiating stem- like cells(TISC) that occur during liver injury share expression of signaling pathways, which include those organised around TGF-And ?- catenin, surface markers with normal LPC. Researches on role of TISC in hepatocellular carcinoma provides details about the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of hepatocarcinogenetic 10. The focus is on new markers of normal LPCs which may be useful for further fractionation of heterogeneous TISC populations.

And in the same hand the role of signaling pathways and transcription factors regulating TISC characteristics in noncancerous liver regeneration is studied in detail. Overall, treatment of liver cancer with the help of stem cells will be a promising strategy, and more advancements will happen in this field.

1. father’s death, King Philip of Macedonia.

1. Alexander was a disciple of Aristotle.2. Alexander had the eye of different colors, brown and blue. 3. At the age of 16, Alexander used to replace his father on the throne when he left on state affairs.

4. The first victory was won by him when he was 18 years old.5. He became the ruler at the age of 20 after his father’s death, King Philip of Macedonia.6. Alexander was the founder of more than seventy cities, and he named twenty cities after himself.7. He led a successful military campaign for 15 years, conquering many countries, including Turkey and Iran.

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8. Alexander is considered to be a descendant of the Greek hero Hercules from his paternal side and Achilles from his maternal side.9. Alexander had a tall face and a sharp voice.10.

Alexander the Great was the king of Ancient Macedonia, the pharaoh of Egypt, the king of Asia and the Persian king.11. According to historical documents, he was known for his love of cleanliness and always carefully observed personal hygiene.12.

It was under Alexander the Great that a whole historical period began, known as the Hellenistic era.13. Alexander the Great is considered the greatest conqueror in the history of mankind.14. The army of Alexander the Great had only 15,000 soldiers.

15. Death of Alexander remains one of the greatest mysteries of the ancient world.16. Alexander was particularly violent and impulsive in character.17.

Alexander of Macedon was epileptic.18. Tactical schemes of Alexander teach in military academies and universities all over the world.19.

Alexander the Great when died had the most expensive funeral of all time. The entire funeral amounted to the US $600, 000,000 in today’s currency.20. The exact date of birth of Alexander is unknown.

Historians only know year – 356 BC.21. Alexander the Great had two sons – illegitimate Hercules from the Barsina and Alexander from Princess Bactria Roxana.

22. Alexander the Great’s real name is Alexander III of Macedon.23. Alexander the Great is known for his greatest military strategists of all time, he did not lose a single battle. 24. When Alexander died, his entire kingdom collapsed, and his land was divided into new kingdoms.

25. Alexander simply did not care about its future, either. He didn’t bother to father an heir to his throne.

26. After Alexander’s sudden death, all his blood relatives were killed.27. There are still disputes about the sexual orientation of Alexander the Great. Nevertheless, he had three wives: Roxana, Stateira II, and Parysatis II. 28. After the victory over the Persians, Alexander adopted their style of clothing.29.

Alexander named one of the cities on the name of his beloved horse, Bucephalus.30. When Alexander sat on the throne he ordered for all of his rivals to the throne to be killed to ensure no-one would try to take his new position.31. Alexander considered Hercules his idol.32.

Alexander employed Persians to his army while he was invading Persia. 33. The base for the conquests of Alexander the Great was laid by his father, Philip II of Macedonia.34. In this battle against Persia, the army of Alexander the Great lost about 1000 people and killed 30,000 Persians army.35. The first wife of Alexander the Great was Bactrian princess Roxana, who was only 14 years old at the time of her marriage.

36. In 326BC, Alexander the Great invaded India, in greed of conquering the entire world. However, many people died and his army decided to turn back.37. Many studies show that he was excessive alcoholic drinker.38.

On the day of Alexander’s birth, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, the temple of Artemis was burned down.39. Alexander liked to read Homer’s Iliad; he even kept a copy of Homer’s Iliad with him. 40. In the headquarters of Alexander, with thousands of army, there were also scientists and historians.41. It was believed that whoever untied the Gordian knot would rule over Asia. Alexander cut the knot with his sword.

42. After the achieved goals in Asia, Alexander the Great made a series of campaigns against Syria, Egypt, Persia, and India, adding new lands in his territory.43.

In addition to Aristotle, Alexander maintained contact with other well-known philosophers of the time. One day he approached Diogenes in the town square and asked: “Can I do something for you?” “Yes,” Diogenes answered, “step aside. You are blocking the sun.” Alexander was delighted with the answer.44.

In total, Alexander the Great led his army 11,000 miles and created an Empire that covered over 20 million square miles.45. Alexander died when he was just 32 years old.

46. It is known that Alexander’s grave was visited Julius Caesar, Mark Antony, Octavian and the Roman Emperor Caracalla.47. Immediately after his death in 323 BC began the collapse of the great empire of Alexander the Great.

48. During his Indian campaign, Alexander the Great found a tribe that hadn’t discovered fire yet. 49.

Alexander’s body was buried in Alexandria.50. After death, his body was stored in a vat of honey.


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