1. points. The Romans built mansions for accommodation

1. Introduction:

Globally the tourism and hospitality industry are growing at a steady pace. The history, characteristics and importance of both sectors are going to be described. There will be looked at the different types of business within the hospitality industry, the hotel grading system, the factors that affect the industry and its success. The tourism indicators and patterns of demand, emerging forms of tourism and the importance of transport, accommodation, attractions and events will be described. Tourism and tourist will be defined. The purpose and responsibilities of travel agents and tour operators will be described as well as the responsibilities of a tour guide.
2. Analysis of the hospitality industry:

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2.1. History of the hospitality industry:

In the Middle Ages the Greeks developed thermal baths in villages which were used as rest points. The Romans built mansions for accommodation for travellers on business. The Caravanserais were developed in the middle east as a resting place for caravans. Monasteries, inns, hospices and hospitals were built to offer refuge for travellers. In the 1200s in China and Mongolia, staging posts were built for couriers. (CTH, 2016)

The 16th to 17th centuries are considered the start of the hospitality industry. Laws were introduced to govern hotel accommodation. (CTH, 2016)

During the 18th to 19th centuries the Tremont House in Boston was the first deluxe hotel in a city centre with inside toilets, locks on the doors and an a la carte menu. The Holt Hotel in New York City was the first to provide its guests with a lift for their luggage. Highway inns for stage coaches started to decline as trains began to replace horse-drawn transport. The New York Hotel was the first to be equipped with private bathrooms. In 1890 Le Grand Hotel, Paris was the first entire hotel to be equipped with electric light. The Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City was the first in that period to provide lifts for its guests. In 1880, the Sagamore Hotel in New York was the very first to provide electricity in all its rooms. In 1890 the first school for hoteliers was founded in Lausanne, Switzerland. (CTH, 2016)

“20th Centuries: In 1919 the Barcelona Ritz had bathrooms with hot and cold water. The Ritz and Savoy in London, le Negresco in Nice the P1aza in New York, the Taj Mahal in Bombay were all constructed during this period. 1950s saw Club Méditerranée (G Trigano) develop the club village. In the 1960s new tourist resorts grew up around the Mediterranean: Spain and Greece, etc Yugoslavia thrived with the development of city and beach hotels.” (CTH, 2016. p. 4)

In the 1970s the construction of hotels or business people was witnessed. ‘Black gold’ (oil), attracted business people from all around the world to the Middle-East.

“20th Centuries: The third hotel industry boom (1980’s)
Rise of hotels near airports, hotels for conferences, health hotels, ski holiday hotels, holiday villages and marina hotels. The first Property Management Systems (Fidelio, Hogatex, etc) appeared in the hospitality market. The Far East began developing hotels for business people and tourists began to discover China, South Korea, Thailand and Japan. American and International chains prepared expansion plans to reach into Europe and the Middle- and Far East.”
(CTH, 2016. p. 4)

In the 1990s technology started to make an impact. Environment and energy conservation become important in marketing big chains. Reservation systems become more sophisticated enabling hotels to foster customer loyalty through database systems recording guests. Individual history and individualised marketing programmes, satisfying guests’ personal needs better than the competition. (CTH, 2016)

2.2. Characteristics of the hospitality industry:

The hospitality industry is defined as the friendly reception and treatment of guests or strangers as well as the quality of receiving and treating guests and strangers in a heartfelt, friendly way.
“Service is delivering on your promise. Hospitality is making people feel good while you’re delivering on that promise.” – Danny Meyer.
The industry is for sure one of the largest sectors in the world, that contributes more than 10% to the GDP. The industry also employs 8% of the global workforce.
The composition of the Hospitality industry consists of: Catering, Non-Serviced accommodation, Service accommodation, Education and professional, Trade association and Government related organisations.

“Providing a service to people.
It’s a 24 hours-a-day, 7 days a week industry.
We depend on customer satisfaction – unhappy guests may never return.
We don’t sell a product but an experience.”
(Aandbloem Guesthouse, 2018)

2.3. Importance of the hospitality industry:

“It can provide accommodation at a competitive rate. It is available all over the world even in small towns. It generates foreign income. Contributes towards job creation.”
(Aandbloem Guesthouse, 2018)

2.4. Different types of businesses within hospitality:

There are three main categories of the hospitality industry, none of them are independent of the economy, they all rely on a strong economy. All three of them share the same concept, customer service, which is the backbone of the hospitality industry:

Food and Beverage:
In the hospitality industry, food and beverages are extremely dominant. It is the major element of the hospitality industry and it can be anything from high-end restaurants, fast-food outlets, catering establishments to many other manifestations. The food and beverage trade can be a part of other businesses, such as in bowling alleys or movie theatres. When your restaurant is part of a hotel, food and beverage can dramatically improve the overall guest experience by offering excellent food and first-class customer service.

Hotels, bed and breakfast enterprises and other places offering lodging represent a broad segment of the hospitality industry. There is a range of businesses, from extravagant resorts to hostels and campgrounds. If your business is providing lodging, it should integrate comfort, efficiency and attentive customer service as its foundation. When travellers feel appreciated and catered to, they will tell others about their experience and may become repeat customers. A good word of mouth always benefits the business.

Travel and Tourism:
Another chief segment of the hospitality business comprehends transportation. This includes airlines, trains, cruise ships and the staff for each. For example, flight attendants and cruise staff function as food servers and hoteliers who provide food or drinks and a comfortable experience to customers. Business travellers and vacationers form the basis for this area of hospitality. Travel and tourism requires educated and well-informed employees in information technology, and they are also considered a part of hospitality.
2.5. Hotel grading system:

SA uses the star-grading system to evaluate and grade the accommodation institution / organisations. They assign stars to the organisations from 1 to 5, depending on the amount of points achieved.

star grading TGCSA’s minimum requirement
5 stars Outstanding/ extraordinary quality and luxury accommodation. Comparable with the best international standards.
4 stars Excellent quality in the overarching standard of the furnishings, facilities, and service.
3 stars Very good quality in the overarching standard of furnishings, facilities, and service.
2 stars Good quality in the overarching standard of furnishings, facilities, and service.
1 star Acceptable basic quality in the overarching standard of furnishings, facilities, and service.
(Via Afrika Graad 10 Leerderboek. 2011)

Procedures to follow for grading:

To be graded the owner must:
Step 1. Read and understand the grading requirements.
Step 2. Choose an assessor from the TGCSA’s available list.
Step 3. Apply for rating.
Step 4. Make an appointment with the assessor.

The assessor:
Step 5. Then visit the institution.
Step 6. Discuss the assessment with the owner.
Step 7. Do recommendations at TGCSA and provide photo evidence.
(Via Afrika Graad 10 Leerderboek. 2011)
2.6. Factors that affect the industry and its success:

Internal factors that affect industry: Man; Money; Materials; Machine; Organisational culture; Supply chain; Employee/ staffing levels; Resource availability. External factors that affect the industry: Political; Economic; Social; Technological; Environmental; Legal.

During interviews it was established that guesthouses make use of the PESTEL and SWOT analysis to determine the factors that will affect the business and its success.
3. Analysis of the tourism industry:

3.1. History of the tourism industry:

“It is believed that the tourism industry has a history surpassing 2,000 year. It is evident from the Roman era to the present forms of
tourism. It is evident that different motivators and facilitators have encouraged tourism throughout the years.
History shows signs of sudden drops in tourism related activities that were always followed by an immediate higher demand due to
these different motivators coming to light. For example, during the era of the Grand Tour, aristocratic families often sent young male heirs to Europe to educate themselves in the fields of art and literature as it was a trend that led to higher eligibility in terms of marital proposals.”
(CTH, 2016. p. 14)

Period Constituency Motivation Factors
3000 BC Egypt/ Babylonia Business
1500 BC Egypt Religion/ Leisure
6 BC Egypt Culture
5 BC Greece Religion
4 BC Athens, Sparta, Troy Guided Tours
2 BC Roman Empire Roman infantrymen VFR
Middle Ages Europe Haligdeg – Holiday
16 AD Europe Pilgrimages
17 – 19 AD Europe Culture/ Education
(CTH, 2016)

“Tourism in the middle ages took place mostly among the ruling class. For example, apprentice travelled in search of academies to educate themselves or engage on work. It is also the era, in which the Crusade took place, reflecting the popularity for pilgrimage.
Tourism in the modern age was made popular through industrial revolution that paved the way to the steam engine, steamship and locomotive late 1700’s and early 1800’s that made travelling easier.” (CTH, 2016. p. 15)

This period paved the way for the Grand Tours.
The Grand Tour: The journey was called the right of passage that mainly catered to young sons of British, French, German and Russian aristocrats that would last between 3 months – 6 years. It was mainly meant for education with regards to art, antiquities and architecture. Popular destinations were Florence, Naples, Paris, Rome and Venice. (CTH, 2016)

3.2. Characteristics of the tourism industry:

The tourism industry is characterised by three main areas:
Domestic tourism, Inbound tourism and Outbound tourism.

“UNWTO further classifies three forms of tourism:
Internal tourism = Domestic + Inbound
National tourism = Domestic + Outbound
International tourism = Inbound + Outbound”
(CTH, 2016. p. 13)

The tourism structure consists out of Accommodation, Attractions and Carriers such as tour operators or travel agents, tourists and the direct tourism supply chain. All of these falls under 3 sectors.
Public sector organisations: This involves a government sector or a department that concerns itself with matters relating to the industry. It is done at a national, regional or local level. There are eight main roles to play in the industry: Coordination, Planning, Legislation and regul, Stimulation, Marketing and promotion, Entrepreneurship, Social tourism and Protector of public.
Private sector organisations: These organisations are privately owned, and they don’t include government or public servants. There are different types and they are mainly profit driven entities. They include, tour operators and travel agents, etc.
Regulatory bodies: They are entities that set and regulates standards for destinations that make it acceptable for both tourists and the hosting nations. There are different levels of regulatory bodies. National regulatory bodies, Public regulatory bodies and Supranational regulatory bodies.

3.3. Importance of the tourism industry:

“Tourism industry is important, as it consists of any travel. People travel for both business as well as leisure. Tourism industry is there to assist people.”
(Flight Centre, 2018)

Tourism is also one of the most successful sectors when it comes to the multiplier effect. Tourism can boost the economy of the destinations and increase the number of work available. Tourism also protects the environment as well as the people and their culture, for example, UNESCO.

3.4. Tourism indicators and patterns of demand:

There are several indicators used globally to determine the patterns of demand.

The number of visitor arrivals, the mode of transportation used to arrive at the destination etc.

Different types of transport are: air, ferry, cruise ships and motor coach etc.

Contribution to local economy is measured through visitor expenses. This would include transportation charges, accommodation and dining etc.

Occupancy rate are compiled on a regular, weekly/monthly basis. Higher rates result in the need for extra employment needed and vice versa.

Through surveys conducted by governing bodies, where date and time of arrival and departure are asked, the visitor length of stay is determined. Using this information, a country is able to identify trends and patterns in the length of stay during different times of the year.

Take a count of passengers on domestic and international carriers. This too is useful in identifying travel trends.
(CTH, 2016)

3.5. Emerging forms of tourism:

Access: It involves the process in which a traveller can reach the desired destination. The ease of access is very crucial for the sustenance of the destination. Access involves air travel,
roads, ports, rail, disability and signage.
Attractions: The attractions that are available at a destination plays huge role when attracting tourists.
Accommodation: It is an important element of a destination, particularly when it comes to over-night stays. Accommodations has an impact on the travellers’ attitudes for the next day. If they didn’t sleep well, they will be negative the next day.
Activities: Activities normally differ from one individual to another. It can be active or passive, depending on their needs and wants.
Amenities: Also known as ‘extra services’. It can be found at certain destinations. It includes: public toilet facilities; visitor centre; restaurants and cafes, etc.
Ancillary services: Also known as additional or supplementary services. These are: car-hiring-, catering-, foreign-, laundry- and entertainment services such as a bar.

Health or medical tourism: It can be defined as any kind of travel to make a family member or one’s self healthier. The availability of medical services.
Mass tourism: It is when a large amount of people visits a specific destination at more or less the same time.
Culinary tourism: It is for the food and drink experience.
Dark tourism: Travels are associated with death and suffering.
Disaster tourism: To see sites that has experienced natural disasters.
Ecotourism: When the sites benefit the economy, environment and community.
Heritage or culture tourism: When the sites represent historical significance.
Space tourism: Tourism in space.
(CTH, 2016)

3.6. Importance of transport, accommodation, attractions and events:

Transportation is very critical in the tourism industry. Depending on your destination and client preferences, your transport will differ. If the tour is international, it will more applicable to use air travel for getting to your destination. Land transport is the most common way to travel if you have time and want to enjoy the journey. Waterborne transport is time consuming, unless you want it to be, for example using ferries to enjoy the ride. But no matter where, transportation makes the destinations more accessible and that increases the number of tourists.

Accommodation is a basic need of tourism. If there was no accommodation, the tourism industry would struggle to grow and expand. Even the most beautiful places in the world needs accommodation. Accommodation’s importance can be realised by imagining what would happen if all the accommodation facilities are removed from the tourist destinations.

Attractions is the core of tourism. It is classified into two categories, man-made and natural-made. Man-made attractions can be categorised according to the following two ways: Built attractions adapted for visitor’s purposes and Built attractions designed for visitors. Natural attractions consist of anything from beaches, fauna and flora, to mountains. It is about the natural beauty. Without any attractions, there wouldn’t be tourism, your only reason to travel would be for friends or relatives.

Events can boost the tourism industry and economy. Events and festivals attract people to a destination for a specific time and reason. It ensures income for community and is a bonus for already-made tourism businesses. For example, in SA there is the Voortrekker Monument and its there for historical and cultural tourists but from time to time they host music festivals and have a cycle track on their premises which boosts their income and increases their number of visits.

3.7. Definition of tourist and tourism:

“Tourism contains the activities of people travelling and residing in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other purposes.” (CTH. 2016. 34)

A tourist can be defined as:
“People who travel and stopover in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.” (The World Tourism organisation (UNWTO) – 2003)

3.8. Purpose of travel agents and tour operators and responsibilities of travel agents, tour operators and tour guides:

According to Flight Centre: “The purpose of Travel Agents is to assist clients with all their travel needs, we are here 24/7 and make sure all travel arrangements go smoothly. We are the people making travel dreams come true. The purpose of Tour Operators is to assist the agents. Travel Agents make use of them to book accommodation, transportation and tours. They don’t deal with the travellers directly.” (Flight Centre, 2018)

According to Flight Centre: “The responsibilities of Travel Agents is to make travel arrangements easier for the travellers. Booking their flights, travel insurance, accommodation and tours. We can advise on visa’s and travel documents. The responsibilities of Tour Operators are to assist the Travel Agent to book accommodation, tours and day tours. But they deal directly with the hotels and land operators. The responsibilities of Tour Guide are to guide travellers on their journey. They know the destinations in depth and share their knowledge with the travellers. They are on the trip with the travellers, making sure everything runs smoothly.” (Flight Centre, 2018)

4. Conclusion:

Globally the tourism and hospitality industry are growing at a steady pace. The history, characteristics and importance of both sectors were described. The different types of business within the hospitality industry, the hotel grading system, the factors that affect the industry and its success, was looked at. The tourism indicators and patterns of demand, emerging forms of tourism and the importance of transport, accommodation, attractions and events was described. Tourism and tourist was defined. The purpose and responsibilities of travel agents and tour operators was described as well as the responsibilities of a tour guide.


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Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/three-categories-hospitality-industry-58524.html
Accessed 27 April 2018

LinkedIn. 2016. The importance of transportation to tourism development. Online
Available at: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/importance-transportation-tourism-development-fda-ba-itc-mba-emba/
Accessed 27 April 2018

Pathania, A. 2018. Emerging Trend of Tourism. Online
Available at: https://www.scribd.com/doc/52711943/Emerging-trend-of-tourism-t-p
Accessed 27 April 2018

Answers. 2018. What is the importance of accommodation in tourism industries. Online
Available at: http://qa.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_importance_of_accommodation_in_tourism_industries
Accessed 28 April 2018

BestAcademicExperts. 2016. Importance of Events and Festivals in Tourism. Online
Available at: https://www.bestacademicexperts.com/importance-events-festivals-tourism/
Accessed 28 April 2018

aysconsulting. 2012. Brief History of the Hospitality Industry. Online
Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/aysconsulting/brief-history-of-the-hospitality-industry
Accessed 29 April 2018

Aandbloem, J. 2018. Company information: Aandbloem Guesthouse Interview
(08 May 2018)

Stickling, L. 2018. Company information: Flight Centre Interview
(08 May 2018)

CTH. 2016. 7.Exam Support Manual. CTH. 2016

1.1: were produced at limited scale for promotions.

1.1: Introduction.
Almost every one grows up in the world which is flooded with the mass media e.g. television, advertising, films, videos, billboards, magazines, movies, music, newspaper, and internet. Of all marketing weapons, advertising is renowned for its long lasting impact on viewer’s mind, as its exposure is much broader. Advertising is a subset of promotion mix which is one of the 4P’s in the marketing mix i.e. product, price, place and promotion. As a promotional strategy, advertising serves as a major tool in creating product awareness in the mind of a potential consumer to take eventual purchase decision. Advertising, sales promotion and public relations are mass-communication tools available to marketers. Advertising through all mediums influence audiences, but television is one of the strongest medium of advertising and due to its mass reach; it can influence not only the individual’s attitude, behavior, life style, exposure and in the long run, even the culture of the country. The evolution of advertisement dates back into the ancient times. Societies used symbols, and pictorial signs to attract their product users. Over centuries, these elements were used for promotion of products. In the early ages, these were handmade and were produced at limited scale for promotions. Later on, this phenomenon gained strength more intensively for promotional purposes. Today’s modern environment, advertisements have become one of the major sources of communicational tool between the manufacturer and the user of the products. A company cannot make dream to be a well-known brand until they invests in their promotional activities, for which consumer market have been dominating through advertisements. As the primary mission of advertiser is to reach prospective customers and influence their awareness, attitudes and buying behavior. They spend a lot of money to keep individual’s interest in their products. They need to understand what makes potential customers behave the way they would like. It also appears that advertising may have the potential to contribute to brand choice among consumers. The major aim of advertising is to impact on buying behavior; however, this impact about brand is changed or strengthened frequently in people’s memories. Memories about the brand consist of those associations that are related to brand name in consumer mind. These brand cognition influence consideration, evaluation, and finally purchases. The principal aim of consumer behavior analysis is to explain why consumers act in particular ways under certain circumstances. It tries to determine the factors that influence consumer behavior, especially the economic, social and psychological aspects. When young people choose advertising information and characters as their role models, they may not only identify with them but also intend to copy them in terms of how they dress and what they are going to buy. Traditional hierarchy-of-effects models of advertising state that advertising exposure leads to cognitions, such as memory about the advertisement, the brand; which in turn leads to attitudes, i.e. Product liking and attitude toward purchase; which in the end leads to behaviors, like buying the advertised product. As the market is surplus with several products or services, so many companies make similar functional claim; so, it has become extremely difficult for companies to differentiate their products or services based on functional attributes alone.
Differentiations based on functional attributes, which are shown in advertisement, are never long lasting as the competitors could copy the same. Therefore, the marketers give the concept of brand image. Like by creating the character of the caring mother, the marketer injects emotion into the consumer’s learning and process of advertisements. Doing so advertiser creates those types of advertisements, which carry emotional bond with consumer. Therefore, that consumer is more likely to associate with advertisements of those brands, which have emotional values and messages. Because, positive emotional appeals also provide a strong brand cue and stimulate category-based processing. If the categorization process is successful, then the affect and beliefs associated with this category in memory are transferred to the object itself. Consumers are not only at first confused and disordered in mind, but they also try to categorize the brand association with their existing memory, when thousands of products are faced by them, and they might reposition memories to outline a brand image and perception / concept toward new products. They can categorize latest information into particular brand or product group label and store them accordingly. This procedure is not only associated to consumer’s familiarity and information, but also attachment and preference of brand. It is also suggested that consumer can disregard or prevail over the dissonance from brand extension. In today’s dynamic world, it is almost impossible for advertisers to deliver advertising message and information to buyers without use of advertising. Certainly, this may be because of the globalization and accessibility of hundreds of channels for the viewers of this modern era. Now a day, due to globalized economy, this made available a bulk of marketing stimuli to the modern consumers. More often consumerism describes the way of equating personal happiness, with purchasing material possessions and consumption in excess of one’s need.
In the latest decades, one of the essential problems of Companies is the knowledge of how the consumer will respond to various things that will be used for achieving their ultimate goal. The study of consumer behavior became a concern for marketers, as they may learn how consumers choose their goods and services required to meet multiple needs, which are the factors that are influencing their choice. For this purpose Companies now attracts towards online advertising because online advertising has grown rapidly in the last decade.
By 2000 online advertising spending in the United States reached $8.2 billion dollars (Hollis 2005). These numbers have increased to $12.7 billion as more people are connected and spend more time online. Additional devices (such as mobile phones and televisions) are able to provide further internet connectivity. The rapid technology development and the rise of new media and communication channels tremendously changed the advertisement business landscape. However, the growing dependency on internet as the ultimate source information and communication, make it a leading advertisement platform.
The beginning of online advertising was in 1994 when Hot Wire sold first Banner on the company’s own site, and later online advertising evolved to become a key factor in which companies achieve fair returns for their products and services. Online retail is attracting an increasing numbers of consumers as well as companies. Every year more businesses set up their own web sites to reach internet users. By the year 2005, revenues from just managing web sites are predicted to reach $35 billion in the US (Cimillica and Bliss, 2000). At present, Amazon.Com and CD Now are among most successful online companies as reflected by their stock market capitalizations (Zwass, 1999). On the consumer side, Travel Industry Association of America (TIA) reports that in 1998, 25% of Americans used the internet to plan their travel or a vacation versus 10% in 1996 (Kate, 1998). Overall, future internet sales forecasts are very encouraging. The Forrester Research study predicts that in the US e-commerce will grow from between $7 to $15 billion in 1998 to approximately between $40 to $80 billion by 2002 (US Department of Commerce, 1999). The National Retail Federation (1999) forecasts that internet purchases will grow by almost 400% in the next few years to 41 billion by 2002 from $11 billion in 1999 (National Retail Federation, 1999).
Online advertising refers to the type of marketing strategy that involves the use of internet for promotion of products by delivering the marketing messages to the larger consumers. It includes delivering ads to internet users via websites, e-mail, ad supported software’s text messaging and internet enabled cell phones. Philip Kotler in Marketing management Millennium Edition mention that the internet population is younger, more affluent, and better educated and they easily find their way onto the internet, the cyberspace population is becoming more mainstream and diverse. In on-line marketing, it is the consumer, not the marketer, who gives permission and controls the interaction. Internet consumers have around-the-clock access to varied information sources, making them better informed and more discerning shoppers.

1.2: Research Objectives.
1. To analyze consumer response to online advertisement and their perception of companies which advertise online
2. Determine the relationship between internet advertisement and purchase decision.
3. Business can develop more effectively through online advertisement complain.
4. Internet advertising have that fits need.
5. Determine the effectiveness of internet advertising on reach and certain of awareness.

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1.5 Simonyi and Richard Brodie, former Xerox

1.5 Microsoft Word
Microsoft Word or often called Word is a graphical word processing program that user can type with. It was a word processer and was developed by Microsoft. Microsoft Word was purposed to let users to type and save documents. It was first released on October 25,1983 under the name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix system. Microsoft Word is similar to other word processors, it has helpful tools to make documents such as spelling and grammar checker, word count, insert with pictures, graph and table. Word is a component of the Microsoft Office suite of productivity software but can also be purchased as a stand-alone product.

The first version of Microsoft Word was developed by Charles Simonyi and Richard Brodie, former Xerox programmers hired by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in 1981. Bravo, who is the first graphical writing program was gave many ideas and features in Microsoft Word. Bravo program was bought by computer company Microsoft.Then, Microsoft changed Bravo program to Microsoft Word. When it first came out, it was not as popular as other writing programs like Word Perfect but it had a feature called WYSIWYG which is What You See Is What You Get. It meant that users can change the visual style of writing just by clicking buttons.

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In 1989, the first Windows version was released with a slightly improved interface. It caused Word became a huge commercial success. Word for Windows 1.0 was followed by Word 2.0 in 1991 and Word 6.0 in 1993. It was renamed to Word 95 an Word 97, Word 2000 and Word for Office XP. In 2016 Microsoft Word was released. It is the latest version of the word processing application.

Word is not just made for Windows but also can use for Mac. In 1997, Microsoft formed the Macintosh Business Unit as an independent group within Microsoft focused on writing software for Mac OS. Users could choose the menus and keyboards shortcuts to be similar to either Word 97 for Windows or Word 5 for Mac. In 2000, Word 2001 was released with added a few new features including the Office Clipboard which allowed users to copy and paste multiple items. Word X released in 2001 which is the first version to run natively on and required Mac OS X and introduced non-contiguous text selection. Word 2004 was released in May 2004. It included a new Notebook Layout view for taking notes either by typing or by voice. Word 2008, released on January 15, 2008, included a Ribbon-like feature, called the Elements Gallery, that can be used to select page layouts and insert custom diagrams and images. Word 2011, released in October 2010, replaced the Elements Gallery in favor of a Ribbon user interface that is much more similar to Office for Windows and includes a full-screen mode that allows users to focus on reading and writing documents, and support for Office Web Apps.

1.5.1 Advantages of Microsoft Word
Microsoft Word is a great tool as typing is faster than ever. It is easy to correct the mistakes by just hitting the backspace or delete button. There are the templates for any type of document and mail merge from a database so that you can easily send out the letters to multiple people at a time .You can align the text whether at the centre, right or left margins or justified takes just one click, spelling and grammatical mistakes are pointed out instantly , You can correct any mistakes which are made easily. The bullets and numbers are done automatically and there is always an option to ask for help. The images and the figures can be attached and laid out easily. Copying the documents is fast and easy. Copies can easily be made which saves on printing and it is much easier to do.

1.5.2 Disadvantages of Microsoft Word
Microsoft Word is available practically everywhere. It comes standard on many PCs. You can typically find it on your work computer, the computers at school and your home PC , This makes it easy to save the documents on a flash drive, take them with you and work on them somewhere else, If you need to do some work, you can usually find a computer with Microsoft Word on it. As a practical and valuable addition to the new version of MS Office, the new “read mode” will allow users to read documents in an easy-to-read environment. The only drawback is that you can’t make changes to the text while you’re in “read mode.”

1.6 Windows Movie Maker
Windows Movie Maker is a video editing software by Microsoft. It is a part of Windows Essentials software suite and offers the ability to create and edit video as well as to publish on One Drive, Facebook and YouTube. Movie Maker first released is in 2000. Movie Maker was officially removed for download on January 10, 2017. Now it is replaced by Windows Story Remix in Windows 10’s Photo App.

1.6.1 Advantages of Windows Movie Maker
Window Movie Maker is free to the users of Microsoft Windows. It designed for the people that have no experience with editing video because it is very easy to learn and it is fun. There are over 130 effects, amazing transitions, titles and credits available. After the capture, we able to drag and drop any video, pictures and clip anywhere on he timeline. Window Movie Maker is the perfect tool for the photo slide shows.
1.6.2 Disadvantages of Windows Movie Maker
Windows Movie Maker can freeze and crash. It need to make sure to save often before quit. It cannot create a complex video. It just can make one video track and one audio track at any instance. Windows Movie Maker also needs the patience of a saint since it is very crash prone. The video reversing requires more effort and time to do. You can cut up the clips to the smallest and put them backwards. It is frustrating for the advanced users.

1. and innovation. It needs a systematic

1. The Concept and Process of Marketing
Marketing is described as a combination of behavioural and management sciences, which are augmented by instinct, imagination, inspiration and innovation. It needs a systematic approach to develop new products. It needs capabilities to identify new channels. Marketing provides an individual the ability to convert thoughts into actions.
1.1. Elements of the Marketing Process
The goal of having a marketing process is to increase company’s top line. Marketers formulate marketing strategies based on insights gathered through marketing research. Marketing research enables marketers to make decisions on the following aspects:
Markets that should be targeted
Offerings that should be focussed upon
The type of association that should be developed with customers
Industry experts have different opinions about elements of the marketing process. Key elements of the marketing process are illustrated in figure 1 below.
Figure 1: Elements of the marketing process
Needs and Wants: Needs are the basic human requirements. They are required for a human to survive. For example, we need food, shelter, clothing, etc. to survive. Needs cannot be created by any marketer. On the contrary, wants are something that are not essential for humans to survive. It is something which consumers wishes for to satisfy a particular need. For example, food is a need but the desire to have burger is a want. The want for a burger depends on various factors. Wants of an individual are also influenced by the society he lives in.
Products: ‘Product’ is the core of marketing mix. It is essential to have a clear understanding of the product and its functions, to formulate its placement, promotion and pricing strategy. Packaging, warranty and after sales support also play an important role in the marketing of product. Packaging of a product has a qualitative value linked to it and hence it is a very important criteria for the product marketing.
Value and Satisfaction: In the current environment, getting customers and retaining them is very challenging because of the cut-throat competition in market. Customers choose a brand that provides maximum value in terms of customer perception. Customers assess the product on the basis of benefits it delivers and cost paid in comparison to the other goods available in the market. Customer satisfaction is defined as product’s ability to meet customers’ needs and expectations effectively, and deliver value. All top companies lay strong focus on the satisfaction of their customers and that is why they are successful.
Exchange Utility and Transaction: Want, need and value of a product do not ensure successful marketing. Both buyer and seller should have something that the other person desires. The goal of a marketing transaction is to get a product that is more desirable than the one that was used earlier.
Markets: “A market comprises customers with common needs and wants, and capable to perform an exchange to satisfy their needs and wants”.
It is essential to have a free flow of products or services from seller to buyer, for a market to run successfully and efficiently. There should be an effective communication between all parties involved in the transaction. The seller should give all important information to the buyer.
1.2. Benefits and Costs of Marketing Orientation
‘Marketing Orientation’ is defined in multiple ways by many industry experts. The two definitions that are most apt are given below:
Market orientation has three key components ? customer focus, competitor focus and inter-departmental coordination. It is also linked to the long-term strategy and profitability of the company.
Marketing orientation is also defined as gathering marketing intelligence at the organisational level. The intelligence is collected on current and future needs of customers. It also involves sharing of customer insight across various departments and the firm’s ability to respond to the gathered intelligence.
Market orientation has the following advantages:
Sales: Market orientation has a connection with sales growth. Firms that are more market oriented have higher sales growth.
Market share: Market orientation is linked to market share. Companies that are market orientated have higher market share than the non-market oriented companies.
New Products: Market orientation also has a connection with product success. Market oriented companies experience higher success rate for their newly launched products.
There have been many discussions related to the success and failure of marketing companies. It is often believed that the cost of a market oriented company is high as compared to a non-market oriented company. This is true but benefits achieved from being marketing oriented are much more than the cost incurred by such companies.
The costs involved in market orientation are as follows:
Market research: It can be conducted either through an in-house well-qualified research team or through research agencies and consultancies. It involves huge amount of money.
Strategy: Formulation of the segmentation, targeting and positioning strategy involves cost.
Customised product: Cost is also incurred in developing a customised product as per the customer requirement. A standardised product is always cheaper than a customised product. This is true for all industries.
Promotional activities: Undertaking promotional activities (such as advertisements on radio, television and magazine, and sales promotion) involve huge amount of money.
Distribution network: Developing an efficient and effective distribution network also involves cost.
Researchers have assessed market oriented companies on the basis of various parameters such as return on equity, profitability and market share. The findings reveal that such companies are more successful and enjoy higher growth. Such companies are also highly organised and plan more proactively. They work in collaboration with various departments (e.g. finance, sales and product development).
On the other hand, companies that are not market oriented, have lower operating expenses. They are cautious of their expenses and hence profits of such companies are higher as compared to companies that focus on marketing.

1. of the liver and is also

1. Abstract

Liver cancer is a malignant tumor that starts in the cells of the liver and is also the one in the fifth most cancers in the world 1, in most cases liver cancer starts in hepatocytes, the cells which make up the body of the liver. Cancer treatment using stem cells is a fast-growing method to treat many cancers. At present the most common method to treat liver cancer is by surgical approach to remove the affected portion of the liver. But in many cases the cancer spreads very fast and cover most portion of the liver where surgical approaches fail, in this situation treatment by injecting the stem cells becomes significant. In liver cancer, the cancer stem cells (CSCs) is the main reason for the formation, invasion, metastasis, and recurrence of the tumor, this can be identified by using markers, many drugs have been developed to control it. The mechanism of liver cancer treatment, the advantages and disadvantages of this treatment and moreover the recent advancements in the treatment of liver cancer is addressed in this paper. Stem cell treatment improves the outcomes of liver diseases and also helps in development of new drugs.

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OPINION PAPER: Stem Cell Therapy in Liver Cancer

2. Introduction

The main objective of this opinion paper is to discuss about liver cancer and the treatment of it using stem cell therapy. Liver cancer or hepatic cancer is one of the most often cancers in the world 1, which is caused due to cirrhosis, aflatoxin, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver flukes, with the symptoms like lump or pain in the right side below the rib cage, yellowish skin, weight loss, swelling of abdomen etc. The most common approaches for the treatment includes surgery, targeted therapy and radiation therapy 4.
Stages of liver cancer


Mechanism of liver cancer

Source: http://tgc.amegroups.com/article/view/90/96

OPINION PAPER: Stem Cell Therapy in Liver Cancer
A normal liver has a very low cell turnover, but when any abnormalities occurs, a rapid regeneration of cells takes place, the actual mechanism is that the injury activates a facultative stem cell compartment present I the intrahepatic biliary tree, which produces cords of biopotential transit amplifying cells which has the capacity to differentiate into hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells 2. Hepatocytes are the functional stem cells of liver which normally helps in the regeneration of liver. The isolated hepatocytes are first tested in vivo and ex vivo cell therapies but hepatocytes do not survive in in vitro culture and another limitation is the scarcity of donor livers from which hepatocytes are usually isolated leads to the development of the technology called stem cell therapy 6. The capacity of stem cells for differentiation and renewal provides unlimited number of hepatocytes. There are different stem cell sources for the treatment and they are liver- derived stem cells, bone marrow -derived stem cells, annex stem cells, embryonic stem cells(ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells(iPSCs) 3.
Stem cells in liver disease.


The main benefits of stem cell therapy are that it improves liver function after resection and the advantage of the graft-versus-tumor effect that is mostly seen in allogeneic transplants. In many cases, stem cell therapy can be used prior to surgical removal of the tumors in liver, which improves liver function and avoid complications, stem cells also help in vitro screening
OPINION PAPER: Stem Cell Therapy in Liver Cancer
of new antitumor drugs by providing cellular targets of the tumor’s mutations in cancer patients. Stem cell therapy works by improving the regeneration of liver by modulating liver’s own regeneration process, helps in down- regulate immune mediated liver damage, provides hepatocyte-like cells(HLCs) derived from stem cells and helps to use stem cell derived HLCs for cell transplantation to replace hepatocyte function 6.

Source: http://www.ncrm.org/media/timesofindia20oct11.html

OPINION PAPER: Stem Cell Therapy in Liver Cancer
3. Search strategy

The information gathered in this opinion paper is from different sources. The core source for the paper was web searching or so called online information, that includes articles, review papers, journals. The sites like google scholars, NCBI, PUBMED provided the access to most of the research papers for reference. In some cases, some research papers were not accessible completely, where the abstract was the only source of information. Most of the information in this opinion paper is gathered from online sources. At certain point I was not clear about some terminology and some mechanism of the disease, in that situation all my doubts and clarifications were answered by my friends and seniors, so a verbal way of information gathering also helped me. The images used in the opinion paper was taken from some research papers and with the help of google. The basic knowledge on the mechanism of the disease was provided by the sites like Wikipedia. Gathering data based on clinical trials and the recent advancement in the technology was little tough compared to other information, it was mostly done with the help of recent research paper.

OPINION PAPER: Stem Cell Therapy in Liver Cancer
4. Discussion
Hepatocyte transplantation is a proven alternative approach to liver transplantation, but limited due to availability of organ, failure of donor engraftment and weak viability in cell culture etc. Transplantation of stem cells is effective according to the recent experimental and human studies 11. The stem cells function by improving the microenvironment through paracrine effects, and the replacement of functional hepatocytes 11. The stem cells derived from adult livers are bipotent and can differentiate into hepatocytes or bile duct cells, these cells play a vital role in liver regeneration. The main limitation is that their number within a normal liver is very low, thus isolation is not practical. The hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow are multipotent progenitor cells which are easily accessible and isolated. They also have immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive properties that down regulate T cell, B cell, and NK cell functions, thus they induce tolerance after liver transplantation. ESCs are totipotent cells which can colonize the liver after injury 3. But the limitation of this is that their procurement involves the destruction of embryos and there will be immune incompatibility between donors and recipients. iPSCs are like ESCs, and they offer possibility for autologous use. The origin of the iPSCs play an important role in their capacity to differentiate. Adoptive immunotherapy, with the transfer of naturally occurring T cells is an effective method for cancer treatment, this same technique can be performed using iPSCs, which is able to supply highly reactive antigen specific cytotoxic T- lymphocytes that can target, infiltrate and eradicate tumors when transferred into patients 7. Using all these different stem cells the liver cancer can be treated, thus stem cell therapy is an emerging field for cancer treatment. The clinical studies documented that there where improvements in liver function and enhanced liver regeneration after portal vein embolization, it is a radiological approach to block the venous flow to affected part of the liver and after surgical removal of the affected area of the liver. The most common treatments available for liver cancer is surgery (liver resection and liver transplant), Trans arterial chemoembolization (TACE), ablation therapies (Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), targeted therapy and radiation therapy 12.
OPINION PAPER: Stem Cell Therapy in Liver Cancer
5. Future Directions

Progenitor cell lines derived from normal human liver will be a source of hepatocytes, there are further improvement going on the isolation, cultivation and propagation techniques. The studies done in rodents shows that human fetal liver progenitor cells have proliferated, and this could be done in humans in future. More researches are needed to identify the inside and outside of the liver which can form hepatocytes in vitro and functional liver tissue after transplantation in vivo 48. The preliminary results of the clinical trials are positive, but the safety and efficacy of the adult stem cell therapy is a major concern. Regenerating medicine involving the stem cells is rapidly growing and many researches is done in this field and clinical trials are carried out. In future the exploration of this method for the treatment of liver cancer will happens, which benefits the patients suffering from liver diseases mostly who are in the end stages. Before using this therapy in clinical applications, different aspects must be taken into consideration which include, efficient differentiation into mature hepatocytes should be done without the help of viral vectors to avoid tumorigenicity 6. An efficient and reliable method for rapid and large-scale production of cells need to be developed. Significant progress has seen in liver stem cell studies in the last few years 9. The need to study the normal liver cells and the cancerous liver stem cells are clear and studies are going on. Tumor initiating stem- like cells(TISC) that occur during liver injury share expression of signaling pathways, which include those organised around TGF-And ?- catenin, surface markers with normal LPC. Researches on role of TISC in hepatocellular carcinoma provides details about the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of hepatocarcinogenetic 10. The focus is on new markers of normal LPCs which may be useful for further fractionation of heterogeneous TISC populations. And in the same hand the role of signaling pathways and transcription factors regulating TISC characteristics in noncancerous liver regeneration is studied in detail. Overall, treatment of liver cancer with the help of stem cells will be a promising strategy, and more advancements will happen in this field.


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