1. other countries than their domestic one.

1. IntroductionOver the past decades, organizations have become more interconnected, cross border linkages have emerged and advanced technologies have become inevitable in order to remain competitive. When the act of globalization has begun, more and more companies tried to operate internationally and opened subsidiaries in other countries than their domestic one.

At the same time, those companies have also transferred some sort of power to the management of their subsidiaries. In order to survive in today´s growing and dynamic business world multinational firms are required to maintain trust and control over its management in subsidiaries. Yet, in the recent past there have been many issues of control and trust. A multitude of factors outside and inside the enterprise can damage the application of management control.

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Especially, social, economic, political, geographical and cultural differences across national borders have shown that they have a serious impact on the efficiency of management control in the past. The aim of this report is to investigate what are the requirements of MNE´s to maintain control and how do MNE´s may implement their own policies without incurring disadvantages for its subsidiaries. First, the report will explain what multinational firms are about. The report continues by explaining the relationship between control and trust with multinational companies. Next, the report will specifically address management control issues in the Chinese environment. Finally, the report will provide several solutions and outlooks while referring to the problem statement. 2.

Multinational Enterprises (MNE´s)Multinational corporations are a powerful facilitator of transfer of cash flows, technology and managerial know how. Multinational firms do operate with subsidiaries in different countries. They are delegated by their headquarters in their domestic country. Furthermore, these countries bear several distinctions with regard to its culture, economic, social and political situation. The headquarters and subsidiaries of MNE´s have to cope with locals, such as consumers or suppliers. In general, an MNE is defined by its complex structures.

More and more multinational firms are changing its coordination strategy from a pure international player towards a multinational, global and transnational enterprise (Yan, Lecture 2018). Management can visit multinational firms more frequently. Therefore, control and trust is easy to integrate. Yet, MNE´s that follow a globalization or transnational strategy face the problem that it becomes more complex and difficult to visit its subsidiaries and monitor them.

Next to these strategies, MNE´s have to be aware of cultural distinctions between the host country and the domestic country. For example, the Asian market is not comparable to the European market. Many European firms made fatal mistakes when entering the Asian market as they did not incorporate the local tastes. Another relevant consideration is the entry strategy. While opening subsidiaries overseas, headquarters have the responsibility of control and trust. MNE´s can set up wholly owned subsidiaries or engage into partnering by, for instance, establishing a joint venture. As MNE´s do operate in different countries with different habits, they also have to adjust their control and trust ability towards the characteristics of the particular host country. Especially partnerships add complexity.

Generally speaking, MNE´s have two options when setting up subsidiaries. Either they can adjust their practices to local needs or they stick to their original practices from their home country.3. Control in Multinational EnterprisesThere are numerous definitions of control in multinational enterprises.

However, control in multinational companies can be characterized as practices, rules and values that are dictated in order to monitor management/ employee behavior (Malmi & Brown, 2008). Furthermore, control systems are “means of gathering and using information to aid and coordinate the planning and control decisions throughout an organization” (Horngren et al. 2012). In general, one can say that there is a relationship between the coordination strategy and the level of control of subsidiaries. First of all, global multinational firms try to reach global consistency. Therefore, the headquarter has the responsibility to control and coordinate its subsidiaries.

In turn, the subsidiaries are very much dependent on the headquarters policies. Hence, control of local subsidiaries in host countries is limited. Secondly, firms that pursue an international and multinational strategy do neither follow global consistency nor local adaptiveness. Within the international MNE the headquarter transfers knowledge and coordinates the subsidiaries, yet, subsidiaries can exhibit some sort of autonomy, meaning full control is not guaranteed.

Thirdly, MNE´s that pursue a transnational strategy try to tackle both global efficiency while responding to local tastes. The idea is to build a horizontal organizational structure instead of a coordinated hierarchal structure. Headquarters and local subsidiaries are very interdependent and act on the same level. Even though this strategy is most promising it is difficult to implement (Abdullah & Khalid, 2011)Control is key to achieve the goals set up by the overall MNE. Furthermore, one can differentiate between different types of control. Chow et al. state that there are three general types of control. First of all, output control describes the adherence to certain objectives by the parent company.

Secondly, process control which states that employees must stick to pre-specified processes. Finally, there is some sort of social control, incorporating the formal as well as the informal relations within the MNE. Control is of utmost importance in order to achieve global competitive advantage. Often subsidiaries do not align with the standardization strategy of the parent company and do not achieve certain goals. However, sometimes parent companies do control too much meaning that local needs are not tackled and local employees are not regarded as important.

Apart from the coordination strategy or the different types of control, literally all multinational companies inhibit some issues of control. It is obvious to identify a main factor for these issues: distinction between home and host country due to several differences between society, culture, economy and politics. 3.1 China as an Example of Too Much ControlChina opened its markets in the 90s and served as a lucrative new market for foreign investors. Yet, China has embedded some sort of hurdles regarding its social, political and economical environment.

This leads to complex structures. China itself is separated into one tier, two tier and three tier regions. These regions inhibit large discrepancies. However, the growth rates were gigantic which attracted many foreign investors. While opening new subsidiaries in China, a lot of multinational corporations ended up in issues regarding their control, yet, not because there was no control but rather because there was too much control. The reason for that were expatriates which were assigned to transfer technology and knowledge but also to monitor and to coordinate. Especially Japanese companies, such as Fujitso or Mitsubishih put a large number of expatriates in charge to facilitate the exchange of control status between headquarter and subsidiary.

However, there are tremendous differences in the culture. Japan and Germany, for instance, are according to Hofstede a very coordinated country. This can also be seen in a multitude of firms. As these firms tried to standardize and establish the same control systems as in their home country, issues arose. Leung et al. describes two major fields of problems.

First of all, local employees feel uncomfortable and disappointed under the high level of control as they have no autonomy and are excluded in the decision making process. Secondly, foreign multinational enterprises have become more and more inflexible to respond to the local needs from both, its customers and its employees. The reason for that is that this clear subordinate-superior relationship is controversial and does not provide the needed middle man that yields joint decisions (Leung et al., 1999). 5. Requirements to Maintain ControlAs outlined in the sections before, the right mix for control is clearly a huge challenge for multinational firms. Control is key to achieve the goals set up by the overall MNE.

Therefore, one can differentiate between different types of control. These mechanisms can and should be implemented by expatriates in order to have the perfect bridge between subsidiary and headquarter. In general, there are certain requirements a multinational should retain or implement in order to maintain control. In order to remain output control, MNEs can implement three actions, namely incentives/perks, reporting and budget controls. This type of control is not really specifically attributed to a certain host country as output control is depending on the targets of the parent company. You can measure output control with both financial and non financial targets. First, MNE´s can introduce incentives.

Incentives have the goal to motivate employees in subsidiaries to deliver positive results. By that, the headquarter ensures and controls that the management in subsidiaries sticks to financial and non-financial goals of the parent company.Secondly, through reporting the parent company can get information access and see how well the subsidiary performs. Reporting, however, requires time and expertise. It is likely that this is a task for expatriates. Yet, reporting is still very powerful as it can be tracked back and serves as an information transfer. Thirdly, the parent company can implement budgeting plans.

By that, the management of subsidiaries does not have the ability to overspend. Furthermore, it gives a great forecast of what managers should and should not spend. In case of special spending, the management can still communicate with the parent company to enlarge the budgeting policy (Dossi & Patelli, 2010).In order to remain process control, multinational companies can try to implement rules and procedure manuals, clear rights of decision and finally a transnational strategy.First of all, MNEs can give their local employees procedure manuals and propose rules.

It is important to remember that there might be differences in the culture. Furthermore, it is important to ensure that the manual can be read by everyone, meaning the manuals and rules should be translated into the particular language. The managers of subsidiaries should be responsible to ensure that every local employee is coherent with the rules. Clear rules and a clear outline of procedures can leverage the efficiency of the firm and give some sort of control about the organizational processes. Secondly, the parent company should be able to define decision rights.

Of course, the parent company wants to ensure that goals of the subsidiary are aligned with corporate goals. However, as the example in China has shown, it can be very demotivating to be controlled 24/7. Therefore, companies should give managers of subsidiaries at least control over the working capital and the daily operations. Managers in foreign subsidiaries are way more flexible to respond to local market needs. Furthermore, too many expatriates sent by the parent company can be dysfunctional as well since they are not aware of the specific local needs. It is of highest importance to give away some authority to maintain control as otherwise the firm will not control anything as employees will leave.Finally, the multinational companies should really try to become a transnational firm.

For sure, this is a difficult task and only the real global players can achieve transnational structures. However, the strategy is incredibly effective with regard to implementing both globalization/ centralization and localization. By that the firm can implement its own policies without incurring any disadvantages for itself (Kranias, 2000)In order to remain social control, multinational companies can hire and train expatriates from the parent company or can offer workshops for local management. First of all, expatriates come from the parent company and can convey the mission and vision to the subsidiary.

Furthermore, expatriates can facilitate the information transfer by monitoring and complying to other control processes. Yet, it becomes more and more important that expatriates should not be seen as a superior person. They should understand the culture of the foreign subsidiary and starting informal talks to local employees. Secondly, workshop sessions can be the key towards managing control as it provides a keen way to spread corporate values (Hoque & Chia, 2012)

1.1 has the potential of helping in the

1.1 Background to the StudyEconomically, a well-developed payment system in a country ensures the safety, stabilisation and well-functioning financial system. Proper and effective payment system create an avenue for quick and timely accomplishment of financial dealings which help improve on production leading to job creation and hence, economic growth.

Good payment system has the potential of helping in the overall improvement of the micro and the macro sectors of an economy. In Ghana, the basic payment systems take the form of institutional arrangements and procedures that enhance movement of financial claims between and among two parties in financial transactions. These institutional procedures and processes are in the form such as Real Time Gross Settlements (RTGS), e-zwich, mobile money, Visa, master card among several others (BOG, 2017).In the last few years, the telecommunication industry has embraced the use of modern technologies which has now put the globe in unison and the most prevalent of all is the mobile phone usage which is of a medium of over 5 billion subscriber’s worldwide (Wireless intelligence, 2012). The adoption of technologies among the telecommunication networks has led to a collaboration between the telecommunication industry and the banking sector which has created a new avenue that enhance business undertakings and business development in an economy. Precisely, the mobile money transfer services, which provides time independence, easiness and fastness to subscribers who save cost patronising the service (Lee and Kim, 2007).

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Within the last few years has witness a prevalent use of mobile phones in Ghana as mobile phone has been converted from being an extravagance that was limited to the very few individuals to a wide number of people in the country patronising its usage which is positively affecting lives. It is believed that the number of mobile phones in the country are fall more than the entire population. It is now easy to have access to mobile phones than before and this is made possible due to the interaction among the regulatory authorities’ interventions, strong competition existing between the telecommunication firms and the amount of investments being made on daily basis to strengthen the sector by the industry actors.

Mobile phone is now an essential substance for growth and development especially in developing countries like that of Ghana. It is a key to Ghana’s development and therefore cannot be underestimated. While Mobile phone has not only made it easy for people to connect with one another and entertain themselves, it has also made it possible to transact financial dealings within a shortest possible of time, and that is the mobile money services. The mobile money services has led to the reduction of the amount of cash in the society thereby gradually helping to achieve the cashless society so desired by the financial regulators in the country. Mobile Money Transfer has seen a transmute outcome to the live of the rural unbanked, who are normally ignored by the traditional moneymaking banks in the country. Mobile money is an electronic cash transaction. Is available in most countries in the world especially in Africa.

The mobile money service gives way to users to store money on their mobile phones, transfer and receive money to and from users who are connected to the mobile money platforms. The mobile money service also makes it possible for users to make payments online, or in a physical market transactions and also makes it easy for users of the service to connect their bank accounts to the mobile money service to enjoy banking on real time basis. In Ghana, the mobile telecommunication networks are the operators of the mobile money service. The operators creates an accounts through the Subscriber Identification Module (SIM) of which the SIM number serves as the account number of the mobile money user. These services are normally classified as the electronic commence or trading. This makes mobile money service an alternative to the traditional banking system especially to the rural unbanked who are always almost neglected by the traditional banks. Simply, the mobile money service is now a digital alternative to cash.

Prospects are certainly great that mobile money services will built-up the financial sector to millions of unbanked Ghanaians, predominantly in the rural areas where people lack the basic access to the traditional financial services. But by the use of mobile phones, certain variety of vital financial service could be enjoyed which they hither to, have no access to. This can lead to low cost banking to a number of people who once enjoyed banking service at a relatively higher cost. GSMA’s Mobile Economy (2013) report shows over 2.

5 billion of the world working population has zero contact to basic financial services for the undertaking of financial transactions such as savings, fund transfers and the borrowing of funds. Mobile money service delivers the potential of cumulative worth of payments system and increasing access to formal financial services by those who currently have no access to it. The rural unbanked population in Ghana has the great chance of being on the mobile money platform due to the ever increasing access to mobile phone services in the country. This makes it easy for millions of people to have access to safe and secured platforms to undertake financial transactions at relatively cheaper cost.According to the Bank of Ghana (2018), the mobilized fund outside the banking system and through the use of mobile money services reached a record GH¢2.

3 billion ending December 2017. This figure represents a progression of 84.6 percent over the December 2016 amount of GH¢1.

3 billion. The fund mobilized are normally held by the mobile money partner banks in the country. The statistics also indicates that mobile money accounts holders are 23.95 million relative to 11.43 million bank accountholders as at end December 2017. This may be as a result of one person having more than one accounts with different telecommunication companies.

The total worth of mobile money transactions also increased from GH¢78.5 billion in December 2016 to GH¢155.8 billion at end December 2017 showing a growth of 98.5 percent.The mobile money services is therefore an avenue of bringing those with limited access to the traditional banking sector, those who are predominately in the rural areas on board the formal financial sector to have the benefits of the services such as money transfers, savings, loaning and paying bills at relatively cheaper cost. Aker and Wilson (2013) in their work showed that, the bank of Ghana in its attempt to achieve a reasonably level of financial inclusion among the rural population introduced EZWICH a biometric credit card that can be used at ATM stands, payments of bills and online settlements. Apart from this, the telecommunication networks in the country have introduced the mobile money platform which has achieve its feet within Ghana’s financial system. This study therefore seeks to examine the factors influencing the adoption of mobile money services among the rural unbanked in Techiman North District.

1.2 Problem StatementThe GSMA 2014 report indicates that there were 255 mobile money service companies worldwide. Ghana is one of such countries with four telecommunication companies providing such services, with mobile phone infiltration attaining a level in surplus of 115%. The sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) clearly features general financial inclusion realisation for all countries and the use of mobile money services is an appropriate machinery that has the potential to be the main drive towards achieving financial inclusion in the world. Financial inclusion is about providing financial services at a relatively cheaper cost to those who are neglected by the formal banking services or those who earns little income.

Financial inclusion assist the nation in checking and regulating financial institutions in the country.The gap in usage of financial services among the rural dwellers in Ghana and that of the people living in the cities are so huge and the central bank of Ghana has undertaken several reforms to ensure financial inclusion in the country so as to achieve a cashless society. Most of these reforms are more of legal than product to fulfil such desires of financial inclusion and little has been achieved from the reforms. The World Bank reported in 2012 that only 30% of Ghana’s population have access to bank accounts. This may be as a results of the lack of confidence in the traditional banking system coupled with the frequent collapse of microfinance firms in the country.

Also, most of the banks in the country are situated in the urban centres living the rural dwellers with little to no access to formal banking system. As indicated by Gbombe and Tomoya (2014), the relative concentration of banks in urban centres with limited rural penetration is one of the reasons why the rural folks have limited access to banking services. Techiman North District is characteristically rural in nature with no viable banking services even in the capital of the district, Tuobodum. The only financial service provider that cut across the district is the Brong Ahafo Catholic Society of Development (BACSOD) which serves as a microfinance institution in the district. This has led to an increase in the cost of financial transactions in the district with most of the inhabitants travelling to the Techiman Municipality to transact financial activities. Being relatively a new district and rural in nature, the traditional banks have neglected the area. This is more of discouraging to the people in the area who have no choice than to rely on the use of mobile money services to transact businesses, sending and receiving funds and making payments. Making financial services accessible through the use of mobile phones is very essential for national development and growth.

This is because of the large number of people in the country that have access to the mobile phones and embedding financial system with the mobile phone goes a long way to ensuring the attainment of financial inclusion in the country. Study conducted by Baako (2016) in the Kasena/Nankana West district showed that, in spite of the vital role mobile money service deliver in savings and payments, there are still so many impediments that hinders consumers from enjoying the full benefits of the service. Some of the impediments identified in the study included insufficient funds from the agents, unreliable network, long procedure in undertaking transactions and lot of time spent at the premises of the mobile money agents due to the long queues. The innovativeness of the mobile money services therefore has the potential of growing the formal financial service sector and it is prudent to institute a comprehensive research on the factors that influence the adoption of the mobile money services in the Techiman North District. This study will consequently seeks to find out the factors to help fill the knowledge gap in the field of mobile money services and also find out whether the usefulness, easiness to use, cost and associated risk of usage have effects on the adoption of mobile money services in the District.

1.3 Objectives of the studyThis research seeks to examine the factors influencing the adoption of mobile money services among the rural unbanked in Techiman North District. To achieve the general objective of the research, the specific objectives are:1. To evaluate the influence of perceived usefulness (PU) on the adoption of mobile money services in the unbanked population in the Techiman North District.2.

To examine the influence perceived easiness of use (PEU) on the acceptance of mobile money services in the unbanked population in the Techiman North District.3. To determine the cost of usage (COU) and its influence on the use of mobile money service among the rural unbanked in the Techiman North District.4. To establish the joint contribution of the perceived Usefulness (AU), perceived easiness of use (AEU) and the cost of usage (COU) on the use of mobile money service among the rural unbanked in the Techiman North District. 1.4 Research HypothesisH1 perceived usefulness (PU) has a positive effect on the adoption of mobile money servicesH2 perceived easiness of use (PEU) has a positive effect on the adoption of mobile money services.H3 cost of usage (COU) has a negative significant effect on the adoption of mobile money service.

H4 perceived usefulness (PU), perceived easiness of use (PEU) and the Cost of usage (COU) jointly have a positive effect on the adoption of mobile money service among the rural unbanked in the Techiman North District.1.5 Significance of the studySeveral information and technologies have been explored in the past and mobile phone innovations is one of them. Mobile money service is one of the technologies in the mobile phone applications and has penetrated in both personal and business domain. The impact of this technology has made it possible for people to have access to financial transactions irrespective of their locations so far as there is a mobile telecommunication network.The adoption rate of mobile money services differ from one society to the other since it is relatively a new enterprise in the country and this research will have a major role to play on mobile money adoption.

Policymakers worldwide have acknowledged the rationale behind policies that geared towards achieving financial inclusion (IFC, 2011). Though there are enough literature on the adoption of mobile money services, several of them emphasis on the urban areas with little consideration given to the underprivileged areas that are typically excluded from the traditional banking system. Also, there is nothing significant that has been done on the factors influencing the adoption of mobile money service in the country. For example, Mensah-Nyame (2013), conducted a study on the importance of mobile money in the city of Accra. The study was basically on businesses that use MTN mobile money services in Accra district. Baako (2016) also conducted a study on the impact of mobile money in providing financial inclusion for the rural population of the Kasena/Nankana West District Of Upper East Region.

This study therefore seeks to make meaningful contribution to the already existing literatures on mobile money adoption and how the mobile money service can help achieve financial inclusion for the unbanked population of the Techiman North District and the in the country at large. The study will make contribution to awareness on how mobile money services can be planned to enhance broader adoption of mobile money service in rural areas considered to have slow rate of adoption. With regards, the study will provide understanding on how the rural unbanked access financial services, how they patronise the services, and the benefits they gain from it by way of sending and receiving funds.The study will provide understanding on the financial conduct of people who dwells in the rural areas and how the assume the factors that influence their adoption rate. The aftermaths and results of this study may be of significant assessment to the financial industry and to other academicians who are interested in the field of finance to know how people react to innovative financial services like that of the mobile money. Based on the factors influencing the adoption of mobile money services, the research may offer recommendations for financial institutions who would be interested in setting up branches in the district.

The outcome will also assist policy makers, Central Bank, financial institutions and development agencies to ascertain areas of interest to provide appropriate support as well as recognising avenues of collaborations with mobile money service providers to make the required interventions geared towards achieving financial inclusion for the rural unbanked through the use of the mobile money services. The outcome of the research canbe implemented by government and the various interested parties to assist them choose from the best options in adopting and refining the existing non-cash payment systems since a consistent and effective payment system is prudent in achieving a sustainable and reliable financial sector in the economy and also enhancing the reputation of the central bank.1.6 Scope of the study and delimitationsThe Techiman North District is among the twenty-seven district and municipalities in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana.

The district is made up of sixty-four towns and villages with only five major towns namely; Tuobodum, the capital of the district, Krobo, Offuman, Aworowa and Buoyem. The district covers an area of 389.4km2 and most of the settlements are located along the main roads that is Techiman-Wenchi and Techiman Kintampo routes.

The Techiman North District is predominately an agrarian community with most of the inhabitants engaging in subsistence farming with pretty few in trading. The District capital, Tuobodum has two banks namely, the GN bank and Nkoranza-Kwabre Rural Bank whiles the rest of the major towns have been deprived of any major financial institutions and this has motivated the researcher to consider the District as the choice of the study. For appropriation, the research will cover mobile phone users who are registered users of the mobile money service who do not have access to any formal banking service in the district and has resorted to the mobile phones for help. The study will focus on three variables which are the easiness of use of the mobile money service, the usefulness of the service and the cost of usage as these variables will determine the rate of adoption of the mobile money services is the district. Although they could be other variables influencing the adoption of mobile money service in the district, the study will concentrate on only the three variables. The study will not focus on the adoption of mobile money services in businesses and will basically concentrate on the rural unbanked in the Techiman North District.

1.7 Organisation of the studyThe whole study will be categorized into five chapters.Chapter one will consist of the following; background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitations of the study and organization of the study. Chapter two will include theoretical framework, Conceptual framework, definitions of concepts such as financial inclusion, the unbanked population, literature review of existing works carried out by other researchers and a summary of the chapter. Chapter three will focus on the research methodology which will look at the study population, sample size and sampling techniques, research design, research instruments, pre-testing of instruments, data collection methods and the estimation strategies. The fourth chapter will be based on the results and discussions of findings, while chapter five will provide summary of the study, conclusions and policy recommendations of the study.

1. additional than it spends, it runs a

1. The graphic includes the recent United States Federal Deficits by year. In 2018, the budget federal deficit was $779 billion. However, according to the graph, the debt raised by $1250 billion this year.

Individuals naturally assume that the annual Deficit is the total that the federal government borrows each year. Actually this is not so. The Deficit is solely the distinction between Federal Outlays and Federal Receipts. If the government spends more than it takes in, then it runs a deficit. If the government takes in additional than it spends, it runs a surplus.

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Usually, the Federal debt increases each year by more than the official Deficit. For 2019, the federal budget estimates that the federal debt will increase about $1.24 trillion.

https://www.usgovernmentspending.com/federal_deficit_chart.html2. The reason why I choose this article is because every year, the government spends money on various programs, such as National Defense, Social Security, and Healthcare. Historically, periods with spikes in deficits and corresponding increases in the national debt have been in the 20th century when World War I and World War II were happening. Deficits are not any longer caused by periodic spikes in wartime spending, but rather by a long-term, structural mismatch between spending and revenue.

  By addressing this situation, policymakers can put our nation on a better path for economic growth, opportunity, and prosperity. A strong foundation creates positive conditions for growth, including more resources for public and personal investments in our future, and a stronger safety net. 3. This article relates to Chapter 6 on GDP (Counting market values, pg.

184) The global GDP is a way to measure the health of an economy and overall production during a specific time (a year). GDP gives economists the ability to monitor how a nation’s economy is doing and what trends to predict. GDP is a measure that works well. In the short run, it helps us recognize business cycles, including the ups of an expansion and the downs of a recession. In 2018, the US deficit is expected to be approximately $590 billion, which is 3.6% of GDP for the year. Graphic 2 – “Unemployment” 4. The graphic includes the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, which is a federal-statewide cooperative effort in which all states report monthly estimates of total employment and unemployment in the United States.

The LAUS county data are estimated using a BLS prescribed multi-step estimation process, which gathers a variety of different information from local areas around the state. The estimates of the state’s employment/unemployment are adjusted so that all areas add to the state-wide total. The data in the graphic reflects on the county where the person lives.http://data.bls.

gov/map/MapToolServlet?survey=la&map=state&seasonal=s5. The reason why I chose this article is because according to the San Diego County’s data, the unemployment rate was 3.3 percent in October 2018, which is an increase from the 3.2 percent in September 2018. The California’s Employment Development Department (EDD), shows that some companies may simply be unable to fill jobs because qualified workers don’t want to move to San Diego with its tight housing market and lower wages than might be available elsewhere.

The unemployment rate for California was 4.0 percent statewide in 2018, and 3.5 percent for the entire United States. The total jobs in construction, financial services (particularly insurance carriers), administrative support and health care employment decreased by roughly 2500 jobs.

While on the other hand, there was increases in transportation, manufacturing, tourism and government employment, according to EDD data. 6. This article relates to chapter 7 on Unemployment (“The natural rate of unemployment”, pg. 224) When unemployment rates are less than their natural rate, this can be an indication of an economy expanding beyond their capabilities.

The unemployment rate is the second most important indicator of an economy, while GDP is the first. Economists monitor the unemployment rate as an important macroeconomic indicator for an economy. They use the unemployment rate to address the position of the economy corresponding to the business cycle.

Graphic 3 – “Minimum wage”7. The graphic includes a map of the minimum wage laws in the United states. Back in the 1960s, the federal minimum wage was set to corresponding the productivity of the economy. If the federal wage had kept at that pace, then it would nearly be under $19. However, in 2009, the federal minimum wage was set to $7.25 nationwide.

Over time, some states and cities have raised their minimum wages to $11.50 per hour. But when the minimum wage increases, the employers also increase their costs onto the consumers in the form of higher prices, or cut costs elsewhere leading to a less full-service and be more customer self-service. As a result of this, this could mean fewer hours, and less jobs for less-skilled and less experienced employees.

https://www.dol.gov/whd/minwage/america.htm – stateDetails https://www.

marketplace.org/2016/07/25/business/after-seven-years-minimum-wage-worth-lot-less8. The reason why I chose this article is because I am an advocate for higher minimum wage in California. Raising the minimum wage is one of the best tools we have to lift incomes our economy. Two years ago in 2016, Governor Brown sign SB 3, a bill that increases the minimum wage in California to $15 per hour by 2022.

The state governor’s decision makes California, the first state in the United States to promise to raise the minimum wage to $15 per hour statewide. However, from doing my research, a new study from economists at the University of California, Irvine find that over the past years, increases in the minimum wage have not yet reduced poverty levels in disadvantaged neighborhoods. * Extra credit: This website is for the new study that I put in the paragraph, it is an interesting article that relates to chapter 5 (price control)https://www.

epionline.org/oped/minimum-wage-hikes-a-poor-way-of-lifting-people-out-of-poverty) *9. These two articles relate to Chapter 5 Price Controls (“What Effects Do Price Floors Have On Economic Activity” pg .

160). Most people believe that raising the minimum wage is a simple step that the government can take to improve the standard of living of the low income people. However, what they don’t realize is that business generally wants to keep costs down, so in the long run, they will try to reduce the amount they spend on labor. They might replace workers with machinery, shorten work hours, or even relocate to states that don’t have minimum wage laws.

1. 9. Alexander had a tall face and

1. Alexander was a disciple of Aristotle.2. Alexander had the eye of different colors, brown and blue. 3. From age 16, Alexander used to replace his father on the throne when he left on state affairs.

4. The first victory was won by him when he was 18 years old.5.

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He became the ruler at the age of 20 after his father’s death, King Philip of Macedonia.6. Alexander was the founder of more than seventy cities, and he named twenty cities after himself.7. He led a successful military campaign for 15 years, conquering many countries, including Turkey and Iran.

8. Alexander is considered to be a descendant of the Greek hero Hercules from his paternal side and Achilles from his maternal side.9. Alexander had a tall face and a sharp voice.

10. Alexander the Great was the king of Asia, the king of Ancient Macedonia, the pharaoh of Egypt, and the Persian king.11. According to historical documents, he was known for his love of cleanliness and always carefully observed personal hygiene.12. It was under Alexander the Great that a whole historical period began, known as the Hellenistic era.

13. Alexander the Great is considered the greatest conqueror in the history of mankind.14. The army of Alexander the Great had only 15,000 soldiers. 15. Death of Alexander remains one of the greatest mysteries of the ancient world.16.

Alexander was particularly violent and impulsive in character.17. Alexander of Macedon was epileptic.18. Tactical schemes of Alexander teach in military academies and universities all over the world.19.

Alexander the Great when died had the most expensive funeral of all time. The entire funeral amounted to the US $600, 000,000 in today’s currency.20. The exact date of birth of Alexander is unknown. Historians only know year – 356 BC.21. Alexander the Great had two sons – illegitimate Hercules from the Barsina and Alexander from Princess Bactria Roxana.22.

Alexander the Great’s real name is Alexander III of Macedon.23. Alexander the Great is known for his greatest military strategists of all time, he did not lose a single battle. 24. When Alexander died, his entire kingdom collapsed, and his land was divided into new kingdoms.

25. Alexander simply did not care about its future, either. He didn’t bother to father an heir to his throne.

26. After Alexander’s sudden death, all his blood relatives were killed.27. There are still disputes about the sexual orientation of Alexander the Great. Nevertheless, he had three wives: Roxana, Stateira II, and Parysatis II. 28.

After the victory over the Persians, Alexander adopted their style of clothing.29. Alexander named one of the cities on the name of his beloved horse, Bucephalus.30. When Alexander sat on the throne he ordered for all of his rivals to the throne to be killed to ensure no-one would try to take his new position.31. Alexander considered Hercules his idol.

32. Alexander employed Persians to his army while he was invading Persia. 33. The base for the conquests of Alexander the Great was laid by his father, Philip II of Macedonia.34. In this battle against Persia, the army of Alexander the Great lost about 1000 people and killed 30,000 Persians army.

35. The first wife of Alexander the Great was Bactrian princess Roxana, who was only 14 years old at the time of her marriage.36.

In 326BC, Alexander the Great invaded India, in greed of conquering the entire world. However, many people died and his army decided to turn back.37. Many studies show that he was excessive alcoholic drinker.38. On the day of Alexander’s birth, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, the temple of Artemis was burned down.

39. Alexander liked to read Homer’s Iliad; he even kept a copy of Homer’s Iliad with him. 40. In the headquarters of Alexander, with thousands of army, there were also scientists and historians.41.

It was believed that whoever untied the Gordian knot would rule over Asia. Alexander cut the knot with his sword.42.

After the achieved goals in Asia, Alexander the Great made a series of campaigns against Syria, Egypt, Persia, and India, adding new lands in his territory.43. In addition to Aristotle, Alexander maintained contact with other well-known philosophers of the time.

One day he approached Diogenes in the town square and asked: “Can I do something for you?” “Yes,” Diogenes answered, “step aside. You are blocking the sun.” Alexander was delighted with the answer.44. In total, Alexander the Great led his army 11,000 miles and created an Empire that covered over 20 million square miles.

45. Alexander died when he was just 32 years old.46. It is known that Alexander’s grave was visited Julius Caesar, Mark Antony, Octavian and the Roman Emperor Caracalla.47. Immediately after his death in 323 BC began the collapse of the great empire of Alexander the Great.48.

During his visit to India, Alexander the Great found a tribe that hadn’t discovered fire yet. 49. Alexander’s body was buried in Alexandria.50.

After death, his body was stored in a vat of honey.


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