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1.1 Dementia syndrome is caused by a lot of different symptoms such as, death of nerve cells or communication between nerve cells, failure to recognise people such as your children and relatives, and decline in mental function.
1.2 Memory impairment examples which are commonly related to dementia syndrome are, a decline in memory function results in the loss of memories from recent events, forgetting how to do familiar things such as cooking a meal they usually cook and forgetting how to play a game they are familiar with. Communication may be affected as the individual may repeat themselves and ask the same questions repeatedly.
1.3 Individuals who have dementia have problems when processing information due to the brain incorrectly processing the information which in turn can result in problems with communication, this can cause feelings of fear and frustration. Visual problems due to the brain rather than the eyes could be; visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, colour vision and depth perception. Hallucinations and delusions can be another issue in relation to cognitive impairment from vascular dementia. Alzheimer’s disease can cause problems recalling recent events. Pick disease can cause problems with sight and hearing and can also be distracted easily due to limited attention span. Dementia with Lewy bodies can have spatial disorientation, hallucinations of animals and people and can be extremely confused.
Other factors can cause changes in an individual’s condition which may not be caused by dementia can be mistaken for dementia because they both have similarities on a person’s behaviour and communication. Medication can cause effects on an individual such as; memory loss and sleepiness. Delirium causes changes in the mental function which can be mistaken for dementia due to the close similarities to dementia, delirium’s onset can be very rapid over days and weeks rather than dementia which develops over months. Depression can also show similarities to dementia as the individual can become withdrawn, mood swings, agitation and withdraw from society. Medications such as; sedatives, anti-anxiety medications, antihistamines and antidepressants can cause dementia like symptoms

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1.
Rational decision making perspective – how most would like to make decisions with carful purchases, that are well informed and diligently compared with adequate time.
Behavioral influence decision making perspective – decisions that are swayed by the environment and the learned responses of our senses. Simply put it’s the sounds, sites, and smells that guide our decisions
Experiential decision making – decisions that are often driven by pleasure and are largely hedonic in value and are feeling based.
2.
All possible outcomes to a consumer’s problem are what are commonly referred to as the Universal set of alternatives.
Awareness sets –
Consideration (“evoked”) – Those alternatives that are deemed acceptable and worthy of additional consideration.
Inept Set – Those alternatives that are the opposite the consideration and ultimately deemed unacceptable.
Inert Set – The alternatives that are middle ground and strong opinions (good or bad) are not present, more of indifference.
3.
Product categories are the mental representations of stored knowledge about groups of products.
Superordinate categories are the broad look at products while subordinate categories are more narrowed and detailed. An example of a subordinate category would be shoes while a subordinate category of shoes would be tennis shoes, running shoes, flip-flops, “boat” shoes, etc.
4.
Conjustion rule – essentially sets a baseline requirements and eliminates all options not meeting that baseline.
Dijunctive rule – again assumes all attributes are equal and sets a high bar that must be met by at least one attribute.
Lexicographic rule – decision based on the highest rating for the most important attribute.
Eliminating by aspects rule (EBA) – this is a process of elimination, setting the baseline then going through the attributes from most important to least that exceed the baseline.

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1.0. Nature and scope of HRM
In a simple sense, human resources management means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirements with a view to contributing to the goals of the organization, individual and the society
People in any organization manifest themselves, not only through individual sections but also through group interactions. When individuals come to their workplace, they come with not only technical skills, knowledge etc. but also with their personal feelings, motives, attitude, talent-job fit, values etc. Therefore, employee management in an organization does mean management of not only technical skills but also other factors of the human resources: The scope of human resources management in the modern days is vast. In fact, the scope of HRM was limited to employment and maintenance of and payment of wage and salary. The scope gradually enlarged to providing welfare facilities, motivation, performance appraisal, human resources management, maintenance of human relations, strategic human resources and the like. The scope has been continuously enlarging. The scope of Human Resources Management includes: o Objectives of HRM o Organization of HRM o Strategic HRM o Employment o Development o Wage and salary administration/compensation o Maintenance o Motivation o Industrial relations o Participative management and o Recent developments in HRM.
1.1. The function of HRM in contributing to organizational performance:
The functions of HRM can be broadly classified into two categories, a. Managerial functions and b. Operative functions. Managerial Functions Managerial functions of personnel management involve;
o Planning o Organizing o Directing o Controlling
Operative Functions The operative functions of human resources management are related to specific activities of personnel management, such as; A. Employment Employment is concerned with securing and employing the people possessing the required kind and level of human resources necessary to achieve the organizational objectives It covers functions such as o Job analysis o Human resources planning o Recruitment, o Selection, o Placement o Induction and o Internal mobility.
B. Human Resources Development: It is the process of improving, molding and changing the skills, knowledge, creative ability, aptitude, attitude, values, commitment etc., based on present and future job and organizational requirements. This function includes: o Performance Appraisal o Training o Management Development o Career Planning and Development o Internal Mobility
o Transfer o Promotion o Demotion o Retention and Retrenchment Management o Change and Organization Development
C. Compensation It is the process of providing adequate, equitable and fair remuneration to the employees. It includes: o Job evaluation o Wage and salary administration o Incentives o Bonus o Fringe benefits o Social security measures etc.
D. Human Relations It is the process of interaction among human beings. Human relations is an area of management in integrating people into work situations in a way that motivates them to work together productively, cooperatively.
E. Industrial Relations: The terms ‘industrial relations’ refer to the study of relations among employees, employers, government and trade unions.
F. Recent Trends in HRM: Human Resources Management has been advancing at a fast rate. The recent trends in HRM include: o Quality of work life o Total quality in human resources o HR accounting, audit and research and o Recent techniques of HRM
1.2. Distinguish between human resource management and personnel management: Human resource is considered as the backbone of any organization.
Personnel Management is different from Human Resources Management. Personnel means persons employed. Hence, personnel management views the man as economic man who works for money or salary. Human resources management treats the people as human beings having economic, social and psychological needs. Thus, HRM is broader in scope compared to personnel management. We can distinguish between human resource management and personnel management as follows:
Personnel management is a traditional approach to managing people in the organization. Human resource management is a modern approach to managing peoples and their strengths in the organization.
Personnel management focuses on personnel administration, employee welfare, and labor relation. Human resource management focuses on acquisition, development, motivation, and maintenance of human resources in the organization.
Personnel management assumes people as an input for achieving the desired output. Human resource management assumes people as an important and valuable resource for achieving the desired output.
Under personnel management, personnel function is undertaken for employee’s satisfaction on the other hand under human resource management, administrative function is undertaken for goal achievement.
Under personnel management, job design is done on the basis of the division of labor but under human resource management, job design function is done on the basis of group work/teamwork.
In personnel management, employees are provided with less training and development opportunities but in HRM employees are provided with more training and development opportunities.
In personnel management, decisions are made by the top management as per the rules and regulation of the organization. In human resource
management, decisions are made collectively after considering employee’s participation, authority, decentralization, competitive environment etc.
Personnel management focuses on increased production and satisfied employees, on the other hand, human resource management focuses on effectiveness, culture, productivity and employee’s participation.
Personnel management is concerned with the personnel manager but human resource management is concerned with all level of managers from top to bottom.
Personnel management is a routine function but Human resource management is a strategic function
1.3. Evaluate the roles and responsibilities of line managers in human resource management: The roles and responsibilities of line managers of any organization are very important to achieve the ultimate goals of any organization. Since the key functions are supervised by the line managers so line managers should be very sincere, dutiful, knowledgeable and honest. Based on the culture of the line managers in human resource management, there is a strong relationship between the line managers and subordinates. This relationship helps the employees take line managers as their own organization. Some important roles of a line manager are;
Planning and Organizing: The line manager is responsible for planning the aims, objectives, and priorities of their work area in an organization according to the level of responsibility and the grade of the people within the organization.
Managing Resources: A line manager is responsible for deploying the resources within their control (people’s time; money; etc) to achieve organization plans.
The Conscience Role:
The conscience role is that of a humanitarian who reminds the management of its morals and obligations to its employees.
The counselor: Employees who are dissatisfied with the present job approach the HR manager for counseling. In addition, employees facing various problems like marital, health, children education/marriage, mental, physical and career also approach the HR managers. The HR Manager counsels and consults the employees and offers suggestions to solve/overcome the problems.
The Mediator: As a mediator, the HR manager plays the role of a peace-maker. He settles the disputes between employees and the management. He acts as a liaison and communication link between both of them.
The Spokesman: He is a frequent spokesman for or representative of the company. The Problem-solver: He acts as a problem solver with respect to the issues that involve human resources management and overall long-range organizational planning.
The Change Agent: He acts as a change agent and introduces changes in various existing programs.
2.0. The pivotal area of HRM in a range of organizational contexts:
Human resource management plays the most crucial role in the management of an organization. HRM plays a crucial role in the conversion process of inputs into outputs. Product design, quality maintenance, rendering services etc., depend upon the efficiency of human resources. The human resource also plays a significant role in managing finances and managing information systems.
The main objectives of HRM may be as follows:
o To create and utilize an able and motivated workforce to accomplish the basic organizational goals.
o To establish and maintain sound organizational structure and desirable working relationships among
o All the members of the organization.
o To secure the integration of individual and groups within the organization by coordination of the individual and group:
o To create facilities and opportunities for individual or group development so as to match it with the growth of the organization.
o To attain an effective utilization of human resources in the achievement of organizational goals.
o To identify and satisfy individual and group needs by providing adequate and equitable wages, incentives, employee benefits and social security and measures for challenging work, prestige, recognition, security, status etc.
2.1. Evaluate the importance for HR planning in the organization:
Human resource planning can be defined in various ways. For example, it has been explained thus: ”estimating the future supply of and demand for human capital and then figuring out how to close the gaps. Such planning allows companies to think through their workforce alternatives to the high fixed costs of full-time employees”. More broadly, it is a continuing process of analyzing an organization’s human resources needs under changing conditions to ensure that the right numbers of people with the right skills, and at the right costs are available at the right time for the organization. More narrowly, it may simply be described as the complex science (or art) of matching labor demand with labor supply. These definitions suggest that staffing plans should derive from, and be consistent with, both short-term and long-term goals and objectives of the organization, and should, in turn,
inform human resource management functions, such as job design, recruitment and selection, human resource development and performance management. Ideally, human resource planning focuses on both the strategic (and long-term) and operational (short-term) perspectives. Long-term covers up to five years and short-term less than one year, depending on the nature of the organization.
The complexity of human resource planning techniques will vary with organizational size and the dynamic nature of the organization or its industrial environment, and the perception and status of the human resource function.
2.2. The stages involved in planning HR requirements:
The most important stages those are involved in HR planning can be described as flowing:
Determined goals of the organization:
This is the first step of HRP because HR planning must be derived from organizational goals or objective.
Assessment of Present Human Resources:
This step begins with developing a profile of current employees in an organization.
The main motive of this stage generates an effective and details about the current number of employees, their capacity, performance, and potentiality etc.
Forecasting Human Resource (demand and supply):
The human resources required at different positions according to their job profile are to be estimated from internal and external sources to fulfill those requirements. There should be a proper matching of the job description and job specification of one particular work, and the profile of the person should be suitable for it.
Implementing the Action Plan:
In these steps, the HR plan should be converted into action. Implementation of her plan means the recruitment, selection, placement, performance appraisal, career development, promotion, transfer, layoff, retirement, training and development, motivation and compensation etc
Evaluation, Control, and Feedback:
In this stage, we need to measure progress in order to control and evaluate to identify if the changes in the HR plans are made necessary because of changed conditions or because some of the original planning assumptions have gone wrong.

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1. There are reasons human activities can cause shortcomings in biogeochemical cycling. Fish kills can be caused by eutrophication and an increased growth of algae. Algae causes a loss of available oxygen, called anoxia. Anoxia can kill fish and other aquatic organisms. Algae does produce oxygen but only when there is enough light. Eutrophication reduces the clarify of water so in eutrophic lakes, algae is starved of light. When algae do not have enough light, instead of producing oxygen, algae consume oxygen.

2. Opportunistic species exhibit aggressive growth. They have a short-life span, are small in size and they produce numerous offspring that they show little care to. They are typically found in unpredictable and variable environments and their population can survive anything that threatens it. Most insects are examples of an opportunistic species. Equilibrium species exhibit a strategic growth. They are opposite of opportunistic, meaning they are large with a long-life span. They have few offspring to whom they give more care to, but they are more likely to become extinct. Birds are examples of equilibrium species.

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3. Biodiversity is the amount of variation of life. This refers to species variation, genetic variation, or ecosystems within an area. Preserving biodiversity has a economic value to humans as well as indirect economic value because or ecosystem is affected by any imbalances in the environment. For example, lack of fish will cause animals that feed on them to die and lack of trees causes lack of oxygen meaning not enough to breath.

4. Sustainable societies can be described as being able to provide the same goods and services to future generations while preserving biodiversity. Sustainable societies are characterized by the use of renewable energy resources product recycling and reuse of heat and waste products. Also preserving ecosystems, aquatic ecosystems, and agricultural land. A non-sustainable society uses non-renewable fossil fuel energy which leads to pollution of ecosystems. Fresh water is a renewable resource but society is running out of the supply and natural ecosystems are being destroyed to be used for human uses such as factories and housing.

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1. The graphic includes the recent United States Federal Deficits by year. In 2018, the budget federal deficit was $779 billion. However, according to the graph, the debt raised by $1250 billion this year. Individuals naturally assume that the annual Deficit is the total that the federal government borrows each year. Actually this is not so. The Deficit is solely the distinction between Federal Outlays and Federal Receipts. If the government spends more than it takes in, then it runs a deficit. If the government takes in additional than it spends, it runs a surplus. Usually, the Federal debt increases each year by more than the official Deficit. For 2019, the federal budget estimates that the federal debt will increase about $1.24 trillion.
https://www.usgovernmentspending.com/federal_deficit_chart.html

2. The reason why I choose this article is because every year, the government spends money on various programs, such as National Defense, Social Security, and Healthcare. Historically, periods with spikes in deficits and corresponding increases in the national debt have been in the 20th century when World War I and World War II were happening. Deficits are not any longer caused by periodic spikes in wartime spending, but rather by a long-term, structural mismatch between spending and revenue.  By addressing this situation, policymakers can put our nation on a better path for economic growth, opportunity, and prosperity. A strong foundation creates positive conditions for growth, including more resources for public and personal investments in our future, and a stronger safety net.
 
3. This article relates to Chapter 6 on GDP (Counting market values, pg.184) The global GDP is a way to measure the health of an economy and overall production during a specific time (a year). GDP gives economists the ability to monitor how a nation’s economy is doing and what trends to predict. GDP is a measure that works well. In the short run, it helps us recognize business cycles, including the ups of an expansion and the downs of a recession. In 2018, the US deficit is expected to be approximately $590 billion, which is 3.6% of GDP for the year.

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Graphic 2 – “Unemployment”

4. The graphic includes the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, which is a federal-statewide cooperative effort in which all states report monthly estimates of total employment and unemployment in the United States. The LAUS county data are estimated using a BLS prescribed multi-step estimation process, which gathers a variety of different information from local areas around the state. The estimates of the state’s employment/unemployment are adjusted so that all areas add to the state-wide total. The data in the graphic reflects on the county where the person lives.
http://data.bls.gov/map/MapToolServlet?survey=la&map=state&seasonal=s

5. The reason why I chose this article is because according to the San Diego County’s data, the unemployment rate was 3.3 percent in October 2018, which is an increase from the 3.2 percent in September 2018. The California’s Employment Development Department (EDD), shows that some companies may simply be unable to fill jobs because qualified workers don’t want to move to San Diego with its tight housing market and lower wages than might be available elsewhere. The unemployment rate for California was 4.0 percent statewide in 2018, and 3.5 percent for the entire United States. The total jobs in construction, financial services (particularly insurance carriers), administrative support and health care employment decreased by roughly 2500 jobs. While on the other hand, there was increases in transportation, manufacturing, tourism and government employment, according to EDD data.

6. This article relates to chapter 7 on Unemployment (“The natural rate of unemployment”, pg. 224) When unemployment rates are less than their natural rate, this can be an indication of an economy expanding beyond their capabilities. The unemployment rate is the second most important indicator of an economy, while GDP is the first. Economists monitor the unemployment rate as an important macroeconomic indicator for an economy. They use the unemployment rate to address the position of the economy corresponding to the business cycle.

Graphic 3 – “Minimum wage”

7. The graphic includes a map of the minimum wage laws in the United states. Back in the 1960s, the federal minimum wage was set to corresponding the productivity of the economy. If the federal wage had kept at that pace, then it would nearly be under $19. However, in 2009, the federal minimum wage was set to $7.25 nationwide. Over time, some states and cities have raised their minimum wages to $11.50 per hour. But when the minimum wage increases, the employers also increase their costs onto the consumers in the form of higher prices, or cut costs elsewhere leading to a less full-service and be more customer self-service. As a result of this, this could mean fewer hours, and less jobs for less-skilled and less experienced employees.

https://www.dol.gov/whd/minwage/america.htm – stateDetails

After seven years, the minimum wage is worth a lot less

8. The reason why I chose this article is because I am an advocate for higher minimum wage in California. Raising the minimum wage is one of the best tools we have to lift incomes our economy. Two years ago in 2016, Governor Brown sign SB 3, a bill that increases the minimum wage in California to $15 per hour by 2022. The state governor’s decision makes California, the first state in the United States to promise to raise the minimum wage to $15 per hour statewide. However, from doing my research, a new study from economists at the University of California, Irvine find that over the past years, increases in the minimum wage have not yet reduced poverty levels in disadvantaged neighborhoods.
* Extra credit: This website is for the new study that I put in the paragraph, it is an interesting article that relates to chapter 5 (price control)
https://www.epionline.org/oped/minimum-wage-hikes-a-poor-way-of-lifting-people-out-of-poverty) *

9. These two articles relate to Chapter 5 Price Controls (“What Effects Do Price Floors Have On Economic Activity” pg .160). Most people believe that raising the minimum wage is a simple step that the government can take to improve the standard of living of the low income people. However, what they don’t realize is that business generally wants to keep costs down, so in the long run, they will try to reduce the amount they spend on labor. They might replace workers with machinery, shorten work hours, or even relocate to states that don’t have minimum wage laws.

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