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1.0 PENGENALAN

Berdasarkan Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan, pendidikan Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang seimbang dan harmoni dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi dan jasmani berdasarkan kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada tuhan. Sehubungan itu, semua kanak-kanak di Malaysia mempunyai hak untuk mendapat pendidikan sempurna mengikut keupayaan masing-masing.

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Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia telah merangka Falsafah Pendidikan Khas yang bersifat progresivisme. Falsafah tersebut berbunyi:

” Pendidikan Khas di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan untuk melahirkan insan yang berkemahiran, berhaluan, berupaya, beriman, berdikari, mampu merancang dan menguruskan kehidupan serta menyedari potensi diri sendiri sebagi seorang individu dan ahli masyarakat yang seimbang dan produktif selaras dengan Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan.” Usaha kerajaan untuk memberi pendidikan kepada golongan kanak-kanak kelainan upaya merupakan satu dasar yang amat dikagumi dan ini membuktikan keprihatinan kerajaan terhadap kanak-kanak kelainan upaya dalam mendidik dan membentuk murid melalui perkembangan mental, kestabilan emosi dan integrasi sosial.

Justeru, pengajaran dan pembelajaran (PdP) pendidikan inklusif semakin penting di Malaysia. Pelbagai program dan aktiviti dijalankan melalui pendidikan inklusif di peringkat sekolah rendah khas kepada murid-murid kelainan upaya. Pendidikan inklusif merupakan suatu program mengintegrasikan murid kelainan upaya ke dalam sistem persekolahan biasa.

Menurut Lewis dan Doorlag (2003), pendidikan inklusif merupakan penempatan bagi murid berkeperluan khas di dalam pendidikan arus perdana. Ini menunjukkan bahawa inklusif adalah program yang dirancang khas untuk menempatkan murid berkeperluan khas (MBK) agar dapat belajar bersama murid normal di kelas aliran perdana.

Maklumat Pendidikan Khas (2008), menyatakan bahawa program inklusif diwujudkan di sekolah harian biasa rendah dan menengah dan sekolah menengah teknik/vokasional yang menggunakan pendekatan pengajaran dan pembelajaran secara pengasingan dan separa inklusif. Ini menunjukkan bahawa program inklusif ini turut dilaksanakan di Program Pendidikan Khas Intergrasi Bermasalah Pembelajaran (PPKIBP) di sekolah-sekolah harian biasa yang terpilih.

Justeru, penekanan terhadap kualiti, kejayaan dan keberkesanan pendidikan inklusif amat berkait rapat dengan rasa tanggungjawab daripada pihak kerajaan, komuniti sekolah, ibu bapa atau penjaga dan masyarakat. Hal ini kerana murid kelainan upaya ini dapat menyesuaikan diri dari awal lagi dalam semua aspek kemasyarakatan dan menjadikan mereka lebih berupaya, mampu berdikari dan menjadi anggota masyarakat yang dapat menyumbang kepada bangsa dan negara.

1.1 LATAR BELAKANG KAJIAN

Sekolah Kebangsaan Sri Kulim merupakan sekolah aliran perdana yang terletak 5 kilometer dari bandar Kulim. Sekolah yang dikategorikan sebagai sekolah bandar yang mempunyai kira-kira 335 orang murid. Terdapat seramai 30 orang guru di sekolah ini. Sekolah ini mempunyai 24 kelas biasa,sebuah kelas prasekolah, dan sebuah kelas pemulihan khas. Pada awal tahun 2013, sekolah didatangi oleh pegawai Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah Kulim Bandar Baharu bahagian Pendidikan Khas. Pegawai tersebut memaklumkan bahawa beliau telah meluluskan permohonan penjaga seorang murid kelainan upaya untuk menjalani pendidikan wajib di sekolah aliran perdana. Murid tersebut telah menjalani pendidikan prasekolah di kelas pendidikan khas yang berada di bandar Kulim. Oleh kerana sekolah tersebut terletak jauh dari kediaman maka permohonan diluluskan oleh PPD. Selain itu, murid tersebut juga telah menunjukkan kemampuannya untuk bersekolah di aliran perdana di samping sokongan kedua daripada penjaga.

1.2 FOKUS KAJIAN

Kajian ini berfokuskan kepada seorang guru aliran perdana yang melaksanakan program inklusif dan Penolong Kanan Pentadbiran Guru di Sekolah Kebangsaan Sri Kulim. Puan Noor Arina Binti Ariffin adalah seorang guru pendidikan inklusif yang mengajar murid bernama Akmal Aiman Bin Mohd Kamal di kelas 3 Muazzaim. Akmal Bin Mohd Kamal dikenal pasti sebagai murid kelainan upaya yang mempunyai masalah penglihatan di mana murid hanya boleh melihat sebelah mata. Murid ini mempunyai kad Orang Kurang Upaya(OKU) setelah menjalani pemeriksaan kesihatan daripada pegawai kesihatan. Murid ini mengikuti sepenuhnya kelas biasa dengan dibantu oleh seorang guru aliran perdana.

Pemerhatian awal saya mendapati bahawa, Akmal telah menguasai kemahiran membaca, menulis dan mengira. Hanya pergerakan Akmal agak terbatas dan dia mengambil masa yang lebih untuk menulis sesuatu latihan. Namun begitu hasil kerja Akmal amat memuaskan. Akmal menerima bantuan OKU setiap bulan sebanyak RM200 sebagai bantuan sokongan keluarga. Akmal mendapat kasih sayang dan komitmen tinggi daripada ibu bapa dan juga rakan sekelas. Pergaulan Akmal dalam kalangan kawan-kawannya kelihatan biasa di sekolah. Guru-guru di sekolah turut berprihatin dan memberi pendidikan sama rata kepada Akmal.

1.3 OBJEKTIF KAJIAN

Kajian ini dilakukan untuk mengenal pasti pelaksanaan program pendidikan inklusif yang berkesan dan berkualiti terhadap murid kelainan upaya di kelas aliran perdana. Selain itu, kajian ini dijalankan untuk mengkaji penerimaan guru aliran perdana terhadap murid-murid kelainan upaya yang diinklusifkan. Aspek pengetahuan dan kesediaan guru dalam menyediakan pengajaran dan pembelajaran pendidikan inklusif juga dilihat sebagai suatu perkara yang perlu diberikan perhatian agar murid kelainan upaya yang mengikuti pendidikan inklusif mendapat faedah yang boleh memberikan impak yang besar kepada mereka.

Penekanan terhadap strategi guru aliran perdana juga turut dikaji bagi menangani keperluan murid di dalam kelas aliran perdana. Selain itu, faktor yang menyokong atau menghalang guru aliran perdana dalam melaksanakan pendidikan inklusif juga diberikan perhatian khususnya berkaitan pencapaian akademik dan penglibatan murid kelainan upaya dalam Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah (PBS) dan pentaksiran awam yang menjadi tanda tanya dalam kalangan guru yang terlibat.

1.4 KAEDAH PENGUMPULAN DATA

Saya telah menggunakan pendekatan temu bual terhadap seorang guru, seorang pentadbir sekolah dan seorang murid kelainan upaya dari Sekolah Kebangsaaan Sri Kulim berkenaan pelaksanaan pendidikan inklusif. Maklumat yang diperlukan untuk menyempurnakan tugasan saya menjadi lebih mudah kerana temu bual secara mendalam dapat mencungkil banyak maklumat serta pandangan sebenar responden yang lazimnya sukar diperolehi melalui penggunaan soal selidik. Setiap temu bual telah mengambil masa antara satu hingga satu setengah jam dan dengan kebenaran responden yang ditemu bual, setiap sesi telah dirakamkan dan hasilnya telah ditulis semula bagi membolehkan analisis kualitatif seperti yang diterangkan oleh Creswell(2005), Miles & Huberman (1994) dan Straus & Corbin (1998) dibuat.

Daripada data yang diperoleh dapat diperhatikan bahawa pandangan guru berkenaan murid kelainan upaya yang mengikuti pendidikan inklusif telah berubah dari semasa ke semasa. Hal ini dibincangkan oleh Lindsay (2007) yang mengatakan bahawa perubahan dalam pendidikan khas melalui inklusif yang dijalankan dapat dilihat dengan ketara apabila guru-guru mula menerima kehadiran murid kelainan upaya di kelas aliran perdana. Responden yang ditemu bual turut berpandangan positif terhadap kehadiran murid kelainan upaya di kelas aliran perdana. Menurut responden, beliau tidak mengalami kesukaran untuk merancang mahupun menjalankan PdP bagi mata pelajaran beliau disebabkan adanya murid kelainan upaya di aliran perdana. Data yang diperoleh dalam kajian ini juga menunjukkan bahawa sekumpulan besar guru yang terlibat dengan inklusif bersedia untuk mengajar dan yakin dengan kebolehan murid kelainan uapaya yang belajar di sekolah mereka.

1.5 ANALISIS KAJIAN

Data temu bual yang diperolehi transkripsi iaitu ditaip dengan lengkap supaya memudahkan proses menganalisis. Transkripsi dibuat secara verbal, iaitu menggunakan perkataan atau ayat-ayat yang sebenarnya diperoleh bagi membolehkan analisis dibuat secara tepat. Seterusnya, transkrip temu bual dibaca secara keseluruhan untuk mendapat gambaran yang menyeluruh tentang apa yang dikatakan oleh responden. Kemudian transkrip dibaca sekali lagi dan maklumat penting yang terdapat dalam catatan itu digariskan.

2.0 DAPATAN KAJIAN

Sebagaimana yang dibincangkan oleh Hick & Thomas (2009), kenyataan beliau berkenaan kesediaan guru mempunyai kesamaan dan dibuktikan dengan dapatan dalam kajian saya ini. Ia merujuk kepada faktor yang menyokong murid kelainan upaya yang menduduki peperiksaan/pentaksiran tidak diberikan halangan oleh pihak pentadbir, ibu bapa dan juga guru-guru. Walaupun sistem pendidikan mempunyai peperiksaan/pentaksiran awam tetapi hak untuk belajar dan menduduki peperiksaan/pentaksiran tidak pernah menjadi halangan. Perbincangan Lipsky & Gardner (2008) berkenaan hak murid kelainan upaya juga menyokong dapatan kajian ini. Hasil temu bual daripada Cikgu Noor Arina Binti Ariffin yang terlibat secara langsung dalam pelaksanaan pendidikan inklusif menunjukkan murid kelainan upaya yang mengikuti kelas beliau di aliran perdana tidak pernah mengalami sebarang halangan dan kesulitan untuk menduduki pentaksiran. Malah, murid kelainan upaya ini menunjukkan pencapaian akademik yang baik dalam peperiksaan.

Menurut Cikgu Noor Arina Binti Ariffin, keperluan guru mendapatkan kemahiran melalui kursus-kursus pendidikan inklusif dapat meningkatkan semangat kerjasama dalam melaksanakan pendidikan inklusif di sekolah. Hal ini disokong melalui kajian yang dijalankan oleh Kezar (2006); Smith et al. (2008) yang menyatakan bahawa keperluan guru yang mengajar murid kelainan upaya di kelas aliran perdana sangat perlu dan mereka menyatakan penyesuaian terhadap pedagogi akan dapat membantu guru aliran perdana menyesuaikan dan mempelbagaikan teknik pengajaran mereka. Pada mulanya, Cikgu Noor Arina ditugaskan untuk melaksanakan program pendidikan inklusif di sekolah beliau tanpa mempunyai pengalaman mengajar murid kelainan upaya. Ini menjadi halangan kepada beliau untuk terus melaksanakan PdP di kelas aliran perdana.

Namun, dedikasi dan komitmen tinggi dalam kerjaya telah mendorong beliau untuk mengikuti Program Intervensi Tambah Opsyen(PITO) di Institut Pendidikan Guru (IPG), Jitra. Setelah berjaya mengikuti PITO beliau lebih yakin dan bersemangat untuk melaksanakan PdP pendidikan inklusif di sekolah. Beliau turut mendapat sokongan penuh daripada pihak pentadbir dan rakan setugas dalam menyedia dan melaksanakan pendidikan inklusif di sekolah. Beliau sering berkongsi pendapat tentang strategi pengajaran pendidikan inklusif bersama guru pendidikan khas dan rakan-rakan setugas. Kerjasama dan suasana persekitaran di tempat kerja dapat lebih meyakinkan beliau untuk terus berkhidmat dengan baik.

Pandangan daripada pihak pentadbir sekolah juga menunjukkan pelaksanaan pendidikan inklusif di sekolah berkenaan tidak mengalami sebarang kesulitan kerana bilangan murid kelainan upaya di sekolah tersebut adalah kurang. Hanya seorang murid yang kelainan upaya di kelas tahun 3. Guru pendidikan inklusif tidak mengalami masalah dari segi peruntukan masa mengajar kerana PdP di kelas airan perdana dijalankan seperti biasa tanpa sebarang gangguan pembelajaran. Guru pendidikan inklusif diberi tugas-tugas lain seperti rakan-rakan setugas yang lain kecuali jawatan ketua panitia. Pendek kata, pengagihan tugas guru selain mengajar menjadi fleksibel. Soal beban kerja tidak pernah wujud dalam diri guru pendidikan inklusif.

Perhatian guru terhadap murid kelainan upaya tidak pernah menjadi isu pembelajaran di dalam bilik darjah. Malah, murid-murid aliran perdana juga tidak merungut tentang kehadiran murid kelainan upaya di bilik darjah bersama mereka. Penglibatan murid berkenaan kelihatan biasa dan pergaulannya bersama rakan-rakan sebaya tidak mengalami sebarang masalah. Ini membantu guru pendidikan inklusif untuk membentuk murid kelainan upaya dari segi perkembangan mental, kestabilan emosi dan integrasi sosial. Komunikasi diantara guru dengan guru dan guru aliran perdana dengan murid turut memainkan peranan penting dalam menjayakan pelakasanaan pendidikan inklusif. Sebagaimana yang dikatakan oleh Glatthorn et al. (2006) dan Glickman et al. (1998) pelaksanaan pendidikan inklusif perlu mengaitkan hubungan antara pendidikan khas dan aliran perdana dengan menyatakan bagaimana konsep itu boleh dijelmakan dan hal ini turut disokong oleh Klingner dan Vaughn (2002).

Sokongan yang diperlukan oleh guru adalah sesuatu yang mudah seperti peruntukan masa untuk menghasilkan bahan-bahan pembelajaran selain memerlukan pengurusan yang efektif dalam persediaan untuk menyediakan murid-murid yang mempunyai keperluan yang pelbagai.

Menurut Cikgu Noor Arina, kajian ini mendapati bahawa bekas murid-murid yang terlibat dalam pendidikan inklusif juga dapat mencapai pencapaian yang baik dalam Ujian Penilaian Sekolaha Rendah(UPSR) yang lepas. Beliau juga berpendapat bahawa hampir semua murid pendidikan inklusif di sekolah berkenaan menunjukkan perubahan positif dari segi pencapaian akademik dan sahsiah. Hal ini disokong oleh kajian Friend, 2007; Kudlacek et al., 2009 di mana pencapaian akademik didapati meningkat secara positif disamping mempunyai daya keyakinan diri yang lebih tinggi berbanding dengan pelajar yang tidak diinklusifkan. Manakala, murid-murid aliran perdana pula menunjukkan motivasi yang tinggi untuk bersaing selain pembentukan sahsiah diri yang lebih sensitif kepada murid kelainan upaya.

Hasil daripada kajian ini, Cikgu Noor Arina telah merancang dan melaksanakan aktiviti seperti ‘Hot Seat’ dan permainan stesen dalam aktiviti PdP. Teknik soal jawab dan permainan ini memang merangsang keinginan murid kelainan upaya untuk melibatkan diri secara aktif. Menurut penyelidik kajian Sanna, a. et al (2016), pendekatan permainan dalam aktiviti PdP dapat menarik perhatian dan minat belajar seseorang murid di dalam kelas. Dari segi penyediaan Bahan Bantu Belajar(BBB), Cikgu Noor Arina suka menggunakan carta yang merangkumi gambar berwarna dan tulisan jelas yang bersaiz besar bagi memudahkan murid bernama Akmal(murid kelainan upaya) dapat melihat dan membaca. Keprihatian dan kepekaan terhadap keperluan Akmal sentiasa diutamakan dalam aktiviti PdP.

Dari segi kawalan kelas, Cikgu Noor Arina tidak mengalami sebarang masalah disiplin semasa aktiviti PdP. Ini kerana pendekatan guru dalam menggunakan kaedah atau teknik pengajaran yang menarik secara langsung tidak menimbulkan sebarang kesulitan dalam kalangan murid. Arahan Cikgu Noor Arina sentiasa jelas dan mudah difahami oleh murid-murid. Kehadiran Akmal di dalam kelas aliran perdana tidak pernah diabaikan. Ini menjadi kekuatan kepada Cikgu Noor Arina untuk meneruskan pendidikan inklusif dengan berkesan tanpa gangguan. Menurut Cikgu Noor Arina, pendidikan inklusif akan memberikan peluang kepada murid-murid kelainan upaya berinteraksi dan melibatkan diri dalam aktiviti pembelajaran dan ia akan memberikan peluang kepada golongan murid ini merasai semangat persekolahan yang lebih efektif dan bermakna pada setiap masa.
3.0 ISU DAN CABARAN DALAM PELAKSANAAN PENDIDIKAN INKLUSIF

Pelaksanaan Pendidikan Inklusif dalam sistem pendidikan aliran perdana merupakan matlamat yang ingin dicapai dalam meletakkan pendidikan Malaysia bertaraf dunia. Namun terdapat pelbagai halangan dan rintangan dalam melaksanakan pendidikan inklusif secara sepenuhnya di setiap sekolah. Cikgu Noor Arina yang bertugas di SK Sri Kulim turut menghadapi cabaran dalam menjalankan tugas beliau. Antara faktor yang menjadi kekangan utama ialah kekurangan guru. Menurut beliau, isu kekurangan guru di sekolah menyebabkan guru pendamping yang sepatutnya membantu Cikgu Noor Arina untuk membimbing Akmal (murid kelainan upaya) semasa aktiviti PdP tidak dapat ditawarkan di sekolah tersebut. Namun, Cikgu Noor Arina dapat menangani masalah ini tanpa bantuan guru pendamping. Beliau mampu melaksanakan PdP pendidikan inklusif dengan adanya bimbingan guru pendidikan khas di sekolah.

5.0 KESIMPULAN

Hasil daripada kajian ini dapatlah disimpulkan bahawa salah satu pendekatan pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang wajar dilaksanakan bagi memenuhi keperluan murid kelainan upaya adalah dengan menjalankan program inklusif. Pandangan yang positif guru aliran perdana berkenaan pelaksanaan program inklusif sangat diperlukan bagi membolehkan peluang belajar dapat diberikan sepenuhnya kepada murid-murid kelainan upaya. Kaedah, strategi dan teknik pengajaran perlu diubah dan dipelbagaikan agar pelaksanaan program pendidikan inklusif ini dapat dijalankan dengan sistematik dan mencapai matlamat sebenar Falsafah Pendidikan Khas.

Perhatian khusus terhadap keperluan guru seperti latihan khas berkenaan pedagogi perlu diberikan keutamaan bagi memastikan kedua-dua pihak iaitu guru dan murid mendapat faedah daripada program yang dijalankan. Pendekatan ini akan memberikan banyak manfaat kepada murid kelainan upaya untuk menikmati kehidupan biasa dalam kalangan masyarakat. Berpandukan kepada cara pelaksanaan inklusif di sekolah dan cara pihak-pihak tertentu menjalankan tanggungjawab mereka melalaui program pendidikan inklusif ini dapat meyakinkan murid kelainan upaya supaya berdikari dan berkeyakinan tinggi untuk melakukan sesuatu perkara di sekolah mahu pun di rumah seperti rakan-rakan sebaya tanpa mengharapkan bantuan daripada orang lain.

Secara tidak langsung, sepanjang kajian ini beberapa faktor yang penting telah dikenal pasti dalam membantu pihak sekolah, guru-guru, murid dan ibu bapa dalam melaksanakan program pendidikan inklusif secara lebih berkesan. Oleh itu, penglibatan dan kerjasama diperlukan daripada semua pihak untuk mewujudkan sistem pendidikan yang terbaik bagi pendidikan inklusif. Perancangan yang mendalam dan efektif harus dirancang supaya negara boleh mencapai matlamatnya. Akhir kata, kerajaan Malaysia memang memerlukan sokongan penuh daripada rakyatnya dalam usaha melahirkan modal insan yang seimbang dan harmonis. Kita berharap dengan kerjasama daripada semua pihak, program pendidikan inklusif ini akan dilaksanakan dengan lancar dan berjaya demi masa depan murid-murid kelainan upaya kerana golongan ini berhak diberi pendidikan yang sesuai dengan keperluan mereka.

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1.0 Executive summary
This report is to choose two company to do the analysis by using different tools to better know that financial contents. We choose Chorus and Enable two companies as our group project topic. We are using balanced scorecard tools to analysis four different parts, which are financial, customer, internal process and learning &growth perspective. Through this part, we can evaluate the overall performance of the chosen organization and to determine about the management of the company has been successful in accomplishing the strategic goals of the organisation or not. Also we use SWOT environment analysis strategic to talk about what kind of situation of Chorus company have in the past and what potential problems they will face in the future by analysis financial statements. We will give more detail in the following pages.

2.0 Introduction
The Chorus was divided from the spark in 2011 and the chorus company cannot sell them products directly to the customers. It has been chosen wholesale services to the retailers (Chorus,2017). Chorus is a largest telecommunication infrastructure building in company in New Zealand . The company are also doing the fixed telecommunications network. The goal of Chorus company is trying to ensure New Zealand people have better broadband experience. The significant characteristics of Chorus company is providing good using experience for the consumers (Who is Chorus,2017). This group project will concentrate on financial analysis . For example , current ration talk about Chorus had increasing assets in 2017 compare with 2016 and 2015. Also ,we use accounts receivable to working capital ratio, percent profit margin to sales etc. we use SWOT analysis tool to discuss how Chorus company through strengths and weaknesses , and for identifying both the opportunities open to Chorus and the threats Chorus face. For instance, Chorus can develop new customer groups and keep providing good services. Regulatory environment of Chorus is a potential threats for them to figure out in the future. In the end of repot , we discussed finding from the ratio and give company of Chorus recommendation about which area have to improve in the future and which part have to keep doing that.

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3.0 METHODOLOGY
3.1 Balanced scorecard
3937000Business objectives and strategy map
0Business objectives and strategy map

-180340254949Financial
0Financial
3827780302260Decrease operating costs
00Decrease operating costs

34804352159002337435215900142303534290025628605080Increase net profit
0Increase net profit
8509008255Increase shareholder
revenue
00Increase shareholder
revenue

41662356286511916386286400165735187960
3817620230505Doing survey for using experience
00Doing survey for using experience
2222500276225Improve market percentage
00Improve market percentage

2794635540385004509135540385176593554038585090075565Improve consumer’s satisfaction
00Improve consumer’s satisfaction
-177165233680customer
customer

1080135108585
165735142240
3822700204470Doing frequency of surveying and getting feedback as soon as possible
0Doing frequency of surveying and getting feedback as soon as possible
2339340186690Advertising on social media or website
0Advertising on social media or website
965835186690Provide variety options for customers
00Provide variety options for customers

3709035641985-403860114935Internal processes
0Internal processes

26803357493016516357493017018017018000
4166235186690High quality connection with consumers
High quality connection with consumers
1541780186690Network investment and improve skills
0Network investment and improve skills
2572385180975Improve fibre installation experience
0Improve fibre installation experience

-520700135890Learning &growth perspective
00Learning &growth perspective

Balanced scorecard is an important tool for the company to keep business and organisation on the right way. Balanced scorecard more focus on the goal of the company rather than to concentrate on how many scores company achieved (Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P,2001). Through the analysis the chorus, we can better know that the chorus company how to run the business and what kind of drawbacks they exist. Above the diagram is showing that how the company using balanced scorecard to achieve their objectives. And balanced scorecard divides into four parts which are financial, customer, internal processes and learning growth perspectives. The diagram starts from bottom up to top. For the learning & growth perspective are mainly focus on increasing network investment, high quality connection for customers and fibre installation experience. To concentrate on good quality connection with customers is first goal of building next two following steps which are internal process and customer. In learning & growth steps also have a lot of measures to help the Chorus company. For example, concern about employee health and safety and socio-economic benefits of broadband and be aware of fixed wireless completion from other company. The reason why is that most of new business and new entrants could be disrupting the New Zealand market. For the internal process, it is more likely how the chorus run the business. In this step, the strategy will be providing more new selection for the customers and end user experience score. Using advertise to attract people’s eyes, let more people join to the Chorus to buy the products. Then, the company should create improved offering selection process and training programme for new offering and user interfaces. In the third step, people should take action on clearly communication with customers and provide customers enquiry lines with technicians turning up when the customers expected. The last balanced scorecard is relating to net profit and shareholder’s revenue.

So, the Chorus can implement new financial accounting system and check how much money we will spend in the next year, then it can be avoid waste money. This is why we should use balance scorecard to solve the problem.

3.2 Swot Analysis
SWOT analysis is an examination of an organization’s internal strengths and weaknesses, its opportunities for growth and improvement, and the threats the external environment presents to its survival. The main or primary aim of strategic planning is to bring an organisation to a balance that could be helpful to survive with the external environment and to maintain the balance over time. Organisations always aim to maintain this balance by evaluating new programs and services with the intent of maximising organisational performance. SWOT analysis the preliminary decision making tool. CITATION Ber18 l 5129 (Berry, 2018)There are some steps involved in SWOT analysis such as:
STEP 1: This step involves the collection and evaluation of key data. Depending on the company/organisation, these data might include population demographics, new technologies available and some more. After collection and analysation of data, the organisations capabilities in these areas are assessed.
STEP 2: In this step, the data collected by the organisation will be sorted into four categories: Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats. The first two i.e. Strength and weakness generally stem from factors within the organisation, whereas opportunities and threats usually arise from external factors
STEP 3: This step involves the development of SWOT matrix for each business alternative under consideration.
STEP 4: This step helps in incorporating the SWOT analysis into decision making process to determine which business alternative best meet the organisation’s overall strategic plan.

4.0 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
1. SWOT analysis
Swot analysis is a process where the management team identifies the internal and external factors that will affect the company’s future performance. The question here arises is why do we do SWOT analysis?
Using Resources Efficiently
Evaluation of company’s strength helps it determine how to allocate the resources in a manner that will result in the highest possible potential for revenue growth and profitability of the organisation. The company often find out that it has competitive strengths that have not been fully utilised in the past.
IMPROVING OPERATIONS
Weaknesses are not permanent; they are just temporary and can be rectified. When the management comes across weaknesses, it is not to assign blame for past shortfalls in the company and its working. For an effective operation, it is always important for a company to do a realistic assessment of weaknesses, which can also help in prevention of strategic blunders. Current weaknesses can-and must-be turned into future strengths. Continuous improvement in all areas of a company’s operations is an important aspect of staying ahead of competitors.
© Discovering Opportunities
In SWOT analysis it is very essential for the management team to identify emerging opportunities so that it would be easy for them to take advantages of them right now and tries to forecast longer term opportunities so advance planning can be made. Potential growth in business requires seeking out new opportunities, including new customer groups, broader product distribution, developing new categories of product and services and geographical expansion. Chorus covers majority or maximum areas of NZ to provide broadband facilities. Chorus covers Ashburton, Auckland (including Pukekohe, Waiuku, Waiheke), Blenheim, Dunedin, Fielding, Gisborne, Greymouth, Invercargill, Kapiti (including Paekakariki, Raumati, Paraparaumu,Waikanae), Levin, Masterton, Napier ; Hastings, Nelson, Oamaru, Palmerston North, Queenstown, Rotorua, Taupo, Timaru, Wellington (including Hutt City, Upper Hutt and Porirua) or Whakatane.

DEALING WITH THE RISKS
Companies faced many threats, which are even beyond their control. These do not come from the direct competitors but these could have a negative impact on performance. Changes in regulatory environment can have an adverse impact on performance .SWOT analysis helps a company to be better prepared for whatever it will encounter in the external environment. The Telecommunications (New Regulatory Framework) Amendment Bill recently covers the establishment of a new regulatory framework for fibre services. It made an involvement of government and Commerce Commission in regulating activity and prices.
Chorus is also concerned about the business line restrictions. As Chorus has a tie up with the government of NZ, they will work with them during the remaining stages of Bill’s passage to help ensure that the final framework does not stop innovation and does not even affect their partnership with them.
CHORUS
2017 2016 2015
Liquidity ratios Current ratio 0.77 0.69 0.71 Account receivable to working capital ratio -411 -387 -351 Sales to working capital -408 -384 -348 Profitability Ratios Sales to asset 0.23 0.25 0.26 Accounts Receivable turnover 7.5 6.4 6.10 Percentage profit margin on Sales 0.15 0.13 0.13 Coverage Ratios Debt to Total Assets 0.79 0.79 0.79 Debt to Equity 3.70 3.70 3.69 Times Interest earned 1.91 1.82 1.75 Expense to Sales Ratio Percent Depreciation to sales 26.35 26.09 25.75 Equity Muliplier 4.70 4.70 4.7 ENABLE
Ratio Analysis
2017 2016 2015
Liquidity Ratios Current Ratio 1.17 2.23 8.34
Account Receivable to Working Capital 1.73 0.73 0.53
Sales to working capital 0.06 0.18 0.02
Activity Ratios Accounts receivable turnover 0.05 0.16 1.5
Sales to Total Assets 0.0 0.010 0.010
Percent profit margin to sales -64.9 38.8 -740.6
Profitability Ratios Percent Rate of return on Assets 0.016 2.44 -3.41
Percent Rate of Return on Equity 0.048 8.30 -48.04
Debt to Total Assets 0.67 0.71 0.93
Equity Multiplier 3.1 3.40 14.1
Debt to Equity 2.06 2.40 13.09
Financial Analysis and Interpretation
Current ratio (Current Assets/ Current Liabilities)
Current ratio reflects the number of times short-term assets cover short-term liabilities. It gives a fair indication of company’s ability to service its current obligations. High ratio is always preferable as it indicates a strong ability to service short-term obligations. Composition of current assets is a key factor in the evolution of this ratio.

Chorus
Current ratio of chorus limited is satisfactory as it increases from 0.69 in 2016 to 0.77 in 2017. In 2016, it dropped a bit as compared to 2015 but now it is on the track that is good for the company.

Enable
Current ratio for Enable is going down from last 3 years. From 8.34 in 2015 it comes to 1.17 in 2017. This sharp decline in not favourable for Enable. This shows that company’s ability to convert raw materials and inventory into finished products is low.

Accounts receivable to working capital ratio
Trade accounts receivable/ (Current assets-Current liabilities)
This ratio gives clear number of dependency of working capital on the collection of receivables. Lower number for this ratio is always preferable.

Chorus
The account receivable to working capital ratio for Chorus comes to -411 in 2017 from -387 in 2016. In 2015, it was the highest in three years at -351. It shows shat company’s performance is improving from previous years.
Enable
The accounts receivable to working capital ratio is not giving a good indication for enable as it increases from 0.53 in 2015 to 0.73 in 2016 to 1.73 last year.
Sales to working capital ratio
Sales/ (Current assets-current liabilities)
It is another ratio to measure liquidity and the ability to cover short-term obligations. This ratio relates the ability of a company to generate sales using its working capital to determine how efficiently working capital is been used. Lower number is preferred as it indicates company’s satisfactory level of working capital.

Chorus
Sales to working capital declines in last three years from -348 in 2015 to -408 in year 2017. It reveals that company’s working capital level is strong but company has to make some special efforts to generate additional sales using working capital.

Enable
Enable’s working capital ratio was best in 2015 at 0.02 that increases to 0.18 in 2016. In 2017, it declines to 0.06. It indicates that company is in satisfactory level as compared to the last year.
Sales to total Assets ratio
Sales/Total Assets
High number of this ratio indicates that company is successful in generating sales by using its assets. This ratio measures company’s ability to produce sales using assets efficiently.
Chorus
Sales to total assets ratio is declining from last three years for Chorus. In 2015 it was 0.26 which comes down to 0.25 in 2016 which declines to 0.23 in 2017. This is alarming for Chorus as it shows that company is not able to generate sales by using its assets.
Enable
Sales to assets ratio is almost the same in 2015 and 2016 but it decrease to 0 in 2017 which indicates that company has to take some actions to increase their sales.
Account Receivable ratio
Sales/Trade Accounts Receivable
This shows that how successful a company is in collecting its outstanding receivables. It measures the number of times receivables turnover in a year. Higher number is always preferable.
Chorus
Accounts Receivable ratio is best in 2017 with 7.5 in three years. It was lowest in 2016. Increase in 2017 shows that company is efficient in achieving its objectives.

Enable
Accounts receivable for enable is declining every year from 2015(1.5) to 0.16 in 2016, it comes to 0.05 in 2017, which is surely not in favour of the company. This could even lead the company to be in high Debts. High debt rate could result in low investment and finally in low revenue.

Debt to Total Assets
Total Liabilities/Total Assets
Debt to Total Assets ratio shows the proportion of company’s assets which are financed through debts. If ratio comes out to be less than 0.5 then it shows that company’s assets are financed through equity. If ratio is more than 0.5 then most of company’s assets are financed through debts. This ratio is an indicator of financial leverage. Higher percentage indicates more leverage and more risk.

Chorus
Debt to total assets ratio remains the same for Chorus in all three (2015, 2016, 2017) years. As I mentioned above, chorus is financing assets through debts.
Enable
Debt to total assets ratio for enable declines from last three years. In 0.93 in 2015 to 0.71 to 2016 it falls to 0.67 in 2017.
Debt to Equity Ratio
Total Liabilities/ Total equity
This Financial ratio indicates the relative proportion of shareholder’s equity and debt used to fiancé company’s assets. This ratio is also known as risk. High ratio generally means that a company has been aggressive in financing its growth with debt.
Chorus
Debt to equity ratio for Chorus increased from 3.69 in 2015 to 3.70 in 2016 and 2017. It is in favour of company, as it does not increase much in last three years, which indicates that there is not too much risk for Creditors and short, long term, financial security for a company.

Enable
Debt to equity ratio for enable has decreased from 13.09 in 2015 to 2.40 in 2016. Enable experiences further decline in 2017 to 2.06. It indicates a solid performance in this area for the company.
Percent Profit margin to sales
This ratio gives us a clear picture of how much profit a company makes on each dollar received. It also indicates how well a company could potentially deal with higher costs or lower sales in the future.
Chorus
Percent profit margin on sales for chorus increase to 0.15 in 2017 as compared to the baseline 0.13 in 2016 and same in 2015 with 0.13. This shows that sales may be contributing enough to the company’s bottom line.
Enable
Percent profit margin to sales for enable decreases in 2017 and reached in negative. It reached to low as -64.9 in 2017. In 2016, it was positive with 38.8. It indicates that company was in good condition last year in comparison to current year.
Equity Multiplier Ratio
Total Asset/Total Equity
This ratio measures company’s financial leverage. Use of more debts than equity to finance company’s assets purchase results in high equity multiplier ratio. This ratio is a variation of debt ratio.
Chorus
Equity multiplier ratio for chorus remains almost same for last three years, which indicates that. It shows that company owned most of its assets rather than financing it. This is favourable for Chorus.
Enable
Equity multiplier ratio was highest for Enable in 2015 with 14.1, which decreased to 3.40 in 2016. Company’s performance is improving from year by year, as it comes down to 3.10 in 2017, which shows that more of company’s assets are now owned than financed.
Set criteria for chorus mentioned below – the most important criteria for chorus are to mainly dominate the market. New Zealand is not the big country that means only one company can rule the market if they want to establish themselves in the dynamic environment. In 2018 also chorus is still the major fibre supplier in the market in New Zealand
Reasonable range of possible solutions for chorus to increase their market share mentioned below –
1) Aggressive marketing – the kind of marketing strategy that chorus practice is very protective and dull they should follow aggressive approach which will be helpful for them to increase their market share of fibre.
2) Providing more services to their suppliers – chorus can provide more services to their suppliers which will be helpful to increase their market capital. Currently chorus is one of the largest suppliers of optic fibre in the market, but in the last 5 years the level of competition in the market.

3) Increased efficiency and effectiveness – chorus can increase their efficiency and effectiveness which means they make best use of the resources without any further wastage within specific period of time. The operation cost is getting expensive nowadays this approach will save their as the result they will see increased revenue in the company.
4) Market development – chorus can develop their market or say extent their market by adding more services to their suppliers. Right now chorus only deals with optic fibre but there are various opportunities where the company has immense potential to grow its parts and succeed.
5) Improved current services fast and forward – at the moment the internet speed provided by all the suppliers in New Zealand in not that fast and effective as compared to countries like United States. In these countries are already using 5g network, which allows them to access fast internet services at cheap price as the result more people uses the internet.

6) Cheap plans –Chorus is one of the biggest fibre suppliers in new Zealand , but the price at which they deal with other companies to provide them fibre is very high as the result after all the commission from supplier to dealer the customer gets very expensive plans, which makes it accessible to only few section of society as new Zealand is a small country if chorus wants to earn more revenue them they should make cheap plans so that every citizen can use their plans. No company is New Zealand offers less than 20 dollar plans which makes it even harder for the weaker section of population to afford to buy it.

Best solution chosen on the basis of set criteria is aggressive marketing strategies – chorus should choose aggressive marketing as their best solutions to their strategy in order to help them grow them in the market. The kind of competition in the market this marketing strategy will help to them with a boost to increase their market share and generate more revenue. Since the formation of chorus their marketing and advertisement is very dull and out-dated. The fact that new Zealand is the growing market and it is one of the youngest country all over the world do the need of internet will be their always. The amount of opportunities available in New Zealand in immense. It is about which every company will do their marketing effective they will be able to achieve its desired results. Chorus has the highest amount of potential because of its reliability and level of goodwill it has created in the eyes of the customers. This goodwill is a very useful asset for them but they need to be aware about the increase the level of competition in last few years. The competition is getting very immense only the best one will survive and remaining companies will have to suffer the consequences. Chorus has still got lot of time left to think about their marketing policies and plans. Marketing strategy plays a very crucial role as it generally shapes the company structure. In this dynamic environment here future is very uncertain for companies to survive attack is the best form of defence. Aggressive marketing will give them the boost that they want with their functioning. It will help them to establish themselves even more and fight with their competitors even more strongly. Chorus has Establish themselves in the market now what they want is to take this initiate move forward as set next level of market for them. there is no doubt that chorus has huge potential to rule the market not even in new Zealand if they do well they can expand their business in neighbouring countries like Australia and even big countries like – India, china and United states of America. Aggressive marketing will make their buyers and suppliers even more aware of the brand it will create that amount of goodwill in between the society that chorus can achieve its high standards.

Conclusions – there is no doubt that the chorus company has huge potential to rule the market but it has their own limitations too. The amount of competition is increasing very immensely. Now that the market is expanding themselves other companies like spark, Vodafone, enable are also very aware of that and on the basis of that they had formed their strategy too. During 2014, chorus used to earn huge profit from their business, but now time has changed. The chorus share price has shown positive amount of progress since 2014 as in 2015 their share price went down but they recovered very fast from it. The technology is changing day by day it not easy for any company to keep on evolving themselves day by day in order to sustain themselves in the market. There is always scope and room for improved the quality for the company every successful companies in the market had evolved their services and product line which makes them superior from other. Chorus needs to change their strategy to more of attacking form of marketing and advertisement. Since chorus started they had shown impressive amount of growth in its sector.
Challenges identified mentioned below for chorus –
More intense market competition –
Competitor awareness –
Changing government policies –
Expensive manufacturing price –
Less skilled staff –
Not easy to deal with customer taste and preferences –
References
Chorus (2017). Financial annual reports. Retrieved May 26 , 2018 from https://company.chorus.co.nz/reports
Who is Chorus ((2017). Who is Chorus Retrieved May26, 2018 from https://www.chorus.co.nz/who-is-chorus
Kaplan, R. S., ; Norton, D. P. (2001). The strategy-focused organization: How balanced scorecard companies thrive in the new business environment. Harvard Business Press.

1

1.1 Introduction

During last summer vacation, we had visited the SWAMI TEXTILE. For our IDP project. Swami Textile is a dyeing factory, where the threads are dyeing in bulk. Main components those used for dyeing threads are Boiler, Process equipment, Pipes, Colour Mixture for mixing the different colours. Here steam application is as a process steam. Product quality depends upon quality of steam. So Steam is the main parameter for satisfactory operation. Steam quality depends upon various factors like feed water, boiler fuel, type of boiler, steam carrying pipes, distance between steam generation point and area of application.

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The whole unit of dyeing incorporates a wood fired water tube boiler, steam carrying pipes, dyeing containers with number of nozzles filled with different colours, and a chimney for exhaust gases. Steam generated by the boiler is used as a process steam for dyeing purpose. Heat carried by steam is used for transferring heat to the threads bundle to impregnate the colour into threads properly.

During Dyeing operation, Water is fed to the boiler at room temperature by pump. Steam generation takes place in wood fired water tube boiler using wood as a fuel in the furnace. Steam is carried from boiler tubes to point of application where steam is used for heating the threads. First threads are coloured by sprays and then heat is used threads for drying purpose. Steam used for this purpose should be such that it would be dry enough to make thread dry but it should wet also so that threads are no burned out. So, Steam of uniform quantity is necessary. Flue gases produced by burning of fuel will be disposed to atmosphere through metal chimney.

2
OVER VIEW OF PLANT
2.1 Over view of Swami Text Pvt. Ltd.
2.2 Operation of Plant – 2.2.1 Operating parameters
2.3 Existing Condition of Plant

2.1 Over view of Swami Text Pvt. Ltd.
Fig. 2.1 Schematic Plant layout of Swami Text Pvt. Ltd.
Figure shows the schematic diagram of plant with dimensions where the yarn drying is carried out. It consists of boiler with economizer placed vertically, steam carrying pipes, control valves, feed water arrangement, process equipments. Feed water is first heated in the economizer, and then it is further heated by the hot flue gases formed in the combustion chamber. This heated water then converted into the dry saturated steam by taking latent heat of vaporization from hot gases.

Steam is then carried to the 1st floor where the process equipments are placed. Steam is carried by pipes are insulated by glass wool so that the heat transfer loss is minimum during flow through pipes. Steam is then used for process heating in process equipment drums in which the dyeing process is carried out. In these drums thread bundle is placed in such a way that the dyeing to thread is uniform throughout the bundle. In drums proper pressure is built up in process equipment and then dyeing to threads is carried out.
2.2 Operation of plant

During last summer vacation, we had visited the swami textile for our IDP project. Swami textile is a dyeing factory, where the threads are dyeing in bulk. Main components those used for dyeing threads are boiler, process equipment, pipes, and colour mixture for mixing the different colours. Generally, steam, in industries, is either used for power generation or as a process steam. Here steam is used as a process steam. Steam generated by the boiler is used as a process steam for dyeing purpose. Heat carried by steam is used for giving heat to the threads bundle to impregnate the colour into threads properly. Product quality depends upon quality of steam. So steam is the main parameter for satisfactory operation. Steam quality depends upon various factors like feed water, fuel used for combustion, type of boiler used, steam carrying pipes, distance between generation of steam location and area of application.

Figure. 2.2 Photo of Thread dyed in the Swami Textile Pvt. Ltd.
During dyeing operation, water is fed to the boiler from water tank through economizer where temperature of water is increased to 800c. From where water is pumped by centrifugal pump running by 1hp motor. Boiler is fired tube boiler in which water is converted in to steam of temperature around 140 to 1600c and pressure of 2 to 3 kg/cm2. Steam is generated in wood fired water tube boiler by combustion of wood in the furnace. Steam generated in boiler tubes are carried to the process equipments through pipes, where steam is utilized for heating the threads. First threads are coloured by sprays and then steam is used to heat those threads for drying purpose. Steam used for this purpose should be such that it would be dry enough to make thread dry and at temperature of 1300c and pressure of 3 kg/cm2, but it should wet also so that threads are no burned out. So, steam of uniform quantity is necessary. Wood burnt in furnace will give heat to water and produces steam. Flue gases produced by burning of fuel will disposed to atmosphere through chimney. Steam supplied to the processing vessel is condensed and lead to the water tank and same water is fed to the boiler as feed water.
2.2.1 Operating parameters

• Boiler pressure (pb) = 3-4 kg/cm2
• Boiler temperature (tb) = 150 c0
• Enthalpy of steam at boiler outlet (eb) = 2759.329 kj/kg of steam (from steam table)
• Final pressure or pressure in dyeing drum (pd) = 3 kg/cm2
• Temperature in dyeing drum (td) = 1300c

2.3 Existing Condition of Plant

Fig.2.3 Existing Boiler
The working condition of actual existing boiler is shown in photograph. Boiler is shown and required mountings like pressure gauge, temperature gauge, water level indicator is mounted. Economizer is shown where heat is transferred from hot flue gases to inlet feed water. Water is preheated around 80 0c then water is heated to final temperature in boiler around 150 0c.

Fig.2.4 Steam Pipe lines
Fig 2.4 Shows insulation condition of steam pipeline. Steam carrying pipeline is insulated using material glass wool. Flow control valve and coupling is shown in figure.

Fig.2.5 (a) Valves

Fig.2.5 (b) Flow control valve
Fig 2.5 (a) and (b) shows control valve various flow control valves are also used to control the flow of valve as shown in figure. Direction control valves are also used where there is requirement of flow of steam at two places.

Fig.2.6 Filter and oil separator
Figure shows the filter and oil separator. Oil is separated here from the fluid. Filter is provided to filter it to reduce the intensity of contaminants from the fluid.

Fig.2.7 7 Sampling vessel
Figure shows the sampling process vessel, Where the steam of required quantity is used for dyeing to check the quality of product that is to be made by that steam.
Before the starting the production of dyeing in large quantity, it is required to check first quality of color mixture that is done at this vessel.

Fig.2.8 Horizontal process vessel
Figure shows horizontal process vessel in which the cone of thread is applied horizontally. It can be put easily in the vessel as compared to vertical vessel.

3
ISSUES
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Major Issues -Inefficient steam system –

3.1 Introduction

Process carried out in factory need steam of should be dry enough to give amount of heat to threads for drying them. But the problem is that steam coming to the process application area, is not dry enough to give satisfactory results. Steam produced at boiler is of required quality but when it reaches to application area it is of low quality. This is major concern for the factory employees. It also affects operation of process equipment as the equipment has to work under this faulty condition and this will lead to premature failure of process equipment.

Even this wet steam cause many other problems like corrosion of gauges, less heat transfer due to layer of water, premature failure due to corrosion of gauges, improper working of equipment under this condition, poor quality of product, higher fuel consumption and higher expense on fuel. This all problem is due to wet steam so we find that this problem is important to consider and there is lot of scope of savings in terms of cost as well as energy.

Another problem was occurring with chimney. Main function of chimney is disposal of waste hot flue gases, produced at the end of combustion process in the furnace, to atmosphere. Here factory is using wood fired water tube boiler, so the wood is fired in the combustion chamber to produce steam in water tubes for process. Then this hot gases coming out of furnace is used for preheat water in economizer. Hot flue gases passing through economizer, will then come to chimney from where it will dispose to atmosphere. Chimney of circular cross section is used.

Here the main problem in industry is that chimney is blocked in 6 to 7 days because of disposal of carbon on surface of the chimney wall. Because of this workers have to clean the chimney every week otherwise the combustion process cannot be proceeded due to choke up of chimney. Boiler operation is off during cleaning of chimney and this makes the boiler to cool down. When the cleaning is done, the boiler can be used. When boiler is started again, it will take some hours to heat it up then it can give actually heat to the water to produce steam.

This will lead to time consuming process as well as productivity is also affected. Due to this problem factory has to face the problems like less productivity, required more time to clean chimney and fully utilization of equipment is not achieved.

3.2 Major Issues

During visit we had found that there is certain problem in plant regarding to chimney and Quality of steam. Factory workers and senior employees decided to support and help us in our project. They were ready to give any kind of information related to plant based on our project. As in factory two problems are there, so we have decided to include both problems in our project.

1) Inefficient steam system

3.2.1 Inefficient steam system:

Steam quality is an important factor that affects the quality of product and fuel consumption of process, process time and is directly related to cost of product and cost of fuel. Process carried out in factory need steam of enough dryness fraction that is steam should be dry enough to give amount of heat to threads for drying them and wet enough so that it will not damage the threads.

Here we found that steam coming to the process application area, is not dry enough to give satisfactory results. Steam reached at application area is of less dry. Steam produced at boiler is of required quality but when it reaches to application area it is of low quality. This is major concern for the factory employees. It also affects operation of process equipment as the equipment has to work under this faulty condition and this will lead to premature failure of process equipment.

Even this wet steam cause many other problems like Corrosion of gauges, less heat transfer due to layer of water, premature failure due to corrosion of gauges, improper working of equipment under this condition, poor quality of product, higher fuel consumption and higher expense on fuel. This all problem is due to wet steam so we find that this problem is important to consider and there is lot of scope of savings in terms of cost as well as energy.

Fig. 3.1 Steam Distribution System

As shown in fig. insulation of steam pipelines is not sufficient and it leads to high heat loss in steam. As piping work and insulation provided is done by local person, also installation of boiler is not as per standards. Low boiler effectiveness leads to high consumption of fuel and low productivity. Hence re-design of steam system is necessary.

By proper inspection and observation during the training period in swami textiles, we concluded some of the reasons behind it.
Some of the main reasons we have considered are,
1. Use of low quality wood fire boiler the steam quality is poor at the generation so that it is getting wet near to point of application. Wood has lower calorific value and improper maintenance may cause of lower quality steam.
2. Lower steam quality is because of poor insulation technique or degraded material used for insulation.
3. Improper designed pipelines and unnecessary length of the steam carrying pipe cause the pressure drop in the pipe & it leads to condensation.

4
ANALYSIS FOR STEAM SYSTEM
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Boiler – 4.2.1 Boiler Specification – 4.2.2. Cost analysis of existing boiler
4.3 Alternative Solution (Thermal Oil Boiler) – 4.3.1. Actual working and design of oil thermal boiler – 4.3.2 Construction –4.3.3. Horizontal and Vertical Design – 4.3.4. Cost analysis for oil thermal boiler
4.4 Gas fired boiler – 4.4.1. Introduction – 4.4.2 Cost analysis for Gas fired boiler
4.5. Pipe Sizing – 4.7.1 Energy Conservation- 4.7.2 Steam line size calculations
4.6 Insulation of Steam Distribution System – 4.6.1 Existing Condition Of Insulation in Plant – 4.6.2 Heat Gain / Loss from Cylindrical Surfaces like Pipes – 4.6.3 Economical Insulation Thickness

4.1 Introduction
The main issue is with the steam quality used for process heating. The steam quality is decrease as it reaches to the process equipment. By proper inspection and observation during the training period in swami textiles, we concluded some of the reasons behind it.
Some of the main reasons we have considered are,
1. Due to use of inefficient wood fired boiler the quality of steam is lowered at the generation so that it is getting wet near to the process equipment. Wood has lower calorific value and improper maintenance may cause of lower quality steam.
2. Decreased quality of steam may be because of lower quality insulation on the steam carrying pipes or thickness of insulation is more than the critical thickness of insulation for given condition. So improper insulation is the major factor affecting the quality of steam.
3. Improper pipeline diameters and unnecessary length of the steam carrying pipe cause the pressure drop in the pipe, so the condensation of steam takes place. Sometimes it also lowers the velocity, and this cause the loss of heat to the surrounding by heat transfer.

We considered these three major problems and find out the feasible solutions with the help of respected project guide Prof. U.V.Joshi and respected plant manager Mr. B.C.Suhagiya during our project hours.

We undertake the 3 of the problems consequently one after another with suitable calculated proper solutions.
4.2 Boiler
Swami textile is using wood fired water tube boiler for steam generation. Steam is generated by firing of wood. Wood fired boiler has lots of its own disadvantages. Lower combustion efficiency, lower calorific value, higher moisture content, and higher ash problem, human health problem because of ash and carbon particles suspended in atmosphere.
4.2.1 Boiler Specification:

• Boiler pressure (pb) = 3-4 kg/cm2
• Boiler temperature (tb) = 150 0C
• Enthalpy of steam at boiler outlet (eb) = 2759.329 kj/kg of steam (from steam table)
• Feed Water Temperature = 80 0C
• Max. Pressure = 7 kg/cm2
• Size of the Boiler = m3

Fig. 4.1 Actual Boiler Design

At first sight it is recommended to replace fuel of boiler like use of gas fired boiler using compressed natural gas. There are lots of advantages that affect the life of boiler and condition of boiler. Direct advantages are no or less ash deposition on the wall of boiler so less maintenance is required, less production loss, higher thermal efficiency and higher heat conduction rate to the water.
4.2.2. Cost analysis of existing boiler
? Wood fired boiler first cost = Rs.4, 50,000.
? Wood fired boiler life = 3 to 4 year depend on fuel and water condition
? Wood rate = 5 Rs./k.g.
? Per day use of wood = 200 to 300 k.g.
? Per day cost of wood = Rs.1000 to 1500
? If we consider Rs.1250 per day cost of wood, then per year cost of wood = 1250 * 365 = Rs.4,56,250/year
? Maintenance cost for cleaning boiler per year as per contact given to the agency = 25000
? Total running and maintenance cost for wood fired boiler per year = 456250 + 25000 = Rs. 4,76,250
4.3 Alternative Solution (Thermal Oil Boiler)

Fig. 4.2 Range of operating temperature for various oils for thermal oil boiler

Ensuring low thermal fluid film temperature is essential in designing the thermal oil heaters. The correct design prevent cracking of the fluid and it means that thermal oil boilers are basically quite different in design compared to steam/water boilers. For instance, where water heaters and steam boilers can be heated using a pool of hot water, the thermal fluid in contrary must be heated by forced circulation ensuring high velocity of the thermal fluid at all time. It is recommended that potential users of a thermal oil heating systems make special efforts in order to ensure that the chosen supplier of the thermal oil system is both skilled and experienced in these fields.

4.3.1. Actual working and design of oil thermal boiler

Thermal oil heaters (also called thermal oil boilers, thermal fluid boilers or hot oil units) are developed and designed especially for demanding process heating operations where no compromise on quality are accepted and where reliability is the key word.

The solutions comprising boilers are not based on low purchase price – the heaters are developed to ensure low over-all costs including low maintenance and operational costs.

Fig. 4.3 Photo picture of thermal oil boiler

Consequently the boilers heaters are made of first class material and component, without any compromise on quality. The pressure part is designed as standard between 10 bar and up to 40 bar pressure (although operation often are atmospheric and pressure less).
The heaters for thermal oil (heat transfer fluid) are delivered as complete and fully equipped units with all necessary armatures, instrumentations and safety features.
4.3.2 Types of Thermal Boilers:

Fig. 4.4 Closed Type

Fig.4.5 Open Type

4.3.3. Horizontal and Vertical Design

Fig.4.6 Horizontal and vertical design of oil thermal boiler
Table 4.1 Dimension of oil thermal boiler according to load
Max. Capacity
Kw Max. Heat
capacity

mcal/h A
mm B
mm C
Mm D
mm E
mm F
mm Wt.
empty

kg Wt.
service

kg
70 60 1800 1400 1300 1100 1700 Ø150 400 450
140 120 2100 1700 1400 1200 2100 Ø150 500 600
235 200 2500 2000 1600 1300 2100 Ø210 650 800
350 300 2800 2300 1700 1400 2200 Ø210 1000 1200
600 520 3100 2500 1900 1600 2400 Ø355 1700 2200
1000 860 3900 3300 2200 1800 2600 Ø400 2400 3200
1500 1300 4300 3700 2500 2000 2800 Ø500 3600 4800
2000 1720 4800 4100 2600 2100 2900 Ø560 4000 5500
2350 2000 5300 4600 2800 2200 3100 Ø560 4300 5800
4.3.4 Cost analysis for oil thermal boiler

? Cost of boiler- 10 lakhs
? Cost of maintenance is around-10,000/yr

Life of boiler is 10-12 years. So, eventually the operating cost per year is much lower than that of above 2 types of boiler. From all above data, it is beneficial to use oil thermal boiler because of its long life, better operation at higher temperature and pressure.

4.4 Gas Fired Boiler
4.4.1 Introduction:
Gas fired boiler employs gas like natural gas or LPG for firing. Wood has low combustion efficiency and low calorific value as compared to natural gas. Natural gas has high combustion efficiency and high calorific value so that it gives more heat to water by firing less gas.
Cost of natural gas is higher than wood. Its price is around 60 rupees per liter.

Fig. 4.7 Gas Fired Boiler
Table 4.2 Technical specification for Gas Fired Boiler

4.4.2 Cost analysis for Gas fired boiler:

Cost for establishment of natural gas pipe line is 5,00,000 rupees, in that area where SWAMI TEXTILE is situated.

• Gas fired boiler price is around 10,00,000 rupees.
• Life of boiler is 5 to 6 years.
• Maintenance cost for this boiler is around 15000 rupees/year
• Cost of fuel is 55 Rs/liter and it is much higher than that of wood.

So the overall cost for the gas fired boiler is much high. Also it is useful for any industry to invest 10,00,000 Rs just for gas pipe line so gas fired boiler is not suitable for given conditions.

4.5 Sizing of Pipe

Steam is used mechanical power and heat. A bad designed steam distribution system leads to the steam heat loss. A optimum design leads to the best quality of steam at application.

Following points decide the system efficiency and provide solution for the system.
The primary function of pipe is to provide desired quality steam and after usage it is required to convert in to water and supplied back to the boiler. Heat loss in overall distribution arrangement is 3 to 10% ideally. The management of energy can help to reduce the heat loss by providing proper insulation, repairing the leaks and by providing steam taps as well as by providing water treatment.

The losses are :
• Pressure loss.
• Leakages in taps, valves & gauges etc. .
• Bad insulations

Principal factors determine pipe sizing in a steam system:

1. The pressure loss at the boiler should not exceed the 20% of the maximum allowable pressure. This pressure drops consist of—line loss, elbows, valves, etc. Remember, pressure drops are a loss of energy.

2. Steam velocity. Erosion and noise increase with velocity. Reasonable velocities for process steam are 6,000 to 12,000 fpm, but lower pressure heating systems normally have lower velocities. Another consideration is future expansion. Size your lines for the foreseeable future. If ever in doubt, you will have less trouble with oversized lines than with ones that are marginal.
3. Well designed steam taps
4. Insulation of each and every pipe.
5. All steam mains should be properly laid with optimum size and drained and should be air vented.
6. Distribution system should be designed for least pressure drops.

A practical and well-designed distribution system must be placed based on the ideal as well as practical situations to reduce production cost and increase productivity.

4.5.1 Energy Conservation

• Steam piping layout
A good steam distribution system should be consisting of adequately configured, sized and supported. The environment of the system where it is to be placed should be considered for designing the system as larger diameter pipe will lead to less pressure drop and will make lesser noise than the smaller diameter pipe.
The drainage is an important factor. Piping must be designed with required drip legs to provide better condensation to the drainage steam. These drip legs experience two conditions which are normal condition and start up. These both should be considered for designing the pipe lines.
Moisture separators with traps are very critical part of the design. These are used to collect moisture particles. Automatic air vents should be provided at dead end of steam pipes to allow air which cannot be condensate to remove.

• Design consideration for steam pipe sizing

Required steam quality is entirely based on proper sizing of pipeline and design of proper sizing of pipe is based on velocity and pressure drops.
Pipe sizing can be designed from general criteria accepted worldwide based on the quality required for the steam that is superheated, wet or saturated.
Following are the velocities for various types of steams are:

• Superheated 50-70 m/sec
• Saturated 30-40 m/sec
• Wet or Exhaust 20-30 m/sec
Pipes which are not under used should be isolated quickly to eliminate the heat loses. The transmission of steam from source to point of application should be quick and through shortest distance.

• Steam pressure

The steam pressure must be adjusted in relation with the pressure generated and the pressure needed at point of application.

However, while designing, it is required to consider steam distribution pressure at source, or at little high average pressure; if the generation is at high pressure. Distribution the steam at the same pressure that of source has the following advantages:

• Lower steam velocity leads to reduce erosion of pipe and reduces noise.
• It will provide steam with required pressure at point of application.
• Low cost while designing with small diameter pipe.

4.5.2 Steam line sizing calculation

• Operating Pressure ( P ) :- 4 kg/square cm
• Operating Temperature ( T ) :- 150
• Mass flow Rate ( ? ) :- 0.0625 TPH
• Design Pressure ( Pd ) :- 4*1.2= 4.8 kg/square cm
• Design Temperature (Td ) = Operating Temperature + 10
= 150 + 10
= 160
• Specific Volume At Design Temperature and Design Pressure From Steam Table
? = 0.4709 m³/kg
• Allowable Stress (? ) = 1202kgf/cm² ( From ASME B31.1 Power Piping Table a’1)
• Assume Velocity ( V ) = 22 m/s
• Required Inner Diameter Of Pipe, ( d )

d =
d=0.022m
d=22mm
• Select Outer Dia. Of Pipe From ANSI B36.10 Carbon Steel Seamless Pipe Data Book

D0 = 33.4mm

• Minimum Thickness ( Tm ) = + A
= + 0.75
= 8 mm

• Theoretical Velocity =
=
= 14.68 m/s

Theoretical velocity is less than the assumed velocity so that the calculated diameter is suitable for steam carrying pipe for these conditions.
As above all the pipe sizing can be calculated and is given in the sheet format.

4.6 Insulation of Steam Distribution System

4.6.1 Current insulation condition:

The plant had very badly insulated piping system. Its insulation was done 2 years ago and at present the condition of steam pipe insulation is very poor.

The figure 4.9 shows a photograph piping system. It is visible from picture that insulation is bad and needs repairing and also at some places insulation is missing, causing great heat loss. Glasswool used as a insulator and many places in pipes where the material is not available and it leads to the loss in the heat. So we have collected the data about different insulation material. Also we have given list of local insulation carrying consultancy. Here are some insulation material properties

Fig 4.8 Photograph of part of steam distribution system

Function of insulation are:

• To conserve energy to avoid heat loss or heat gain
• To maintain temperature of system
• To avoid heat loss from heat carrying fluid
• To stop condensation
• To avoid corrosion or exposure to corrosive atmosphere as well as fire
• Process with good efficiency like heating, ventilation and cooling.
• To absorb noise from the mechanical equipment.

Selection of insulation material is very critical and following points should be considered.

Very important. The following design and installation considerations must be noted:
• Type of insulation that is rigid, flexible, ease of handling, installation, and adjustment.
• Ease to modify, repair, and alter.
• Requirement of skilled and unskilled labor.
• Safety ; environment considerations.
• Weight of insulation material and density of same
• Replacement and removal should be easy
• Performance of material.

4.6.2 Heat Gain / Loss from Cylindrical Surfaces like Pipes

To evaluate the heat gain or loss from the cylindrical surfaces it has different equation from than the equation for the flat surfaces. The heat will be transferred to pipe wall through the flowing material and after that heat will be absorbed by the atmosphere. In case of insulation the heat dissipation will be less in atmosphere.
It is not possible to calculate exact amount of heat dissipated since it is affected by:

• Color, texture, and shape of the casing.
• Vertical or horizontal orientation of the casing.
• Air movement or wind speed over the casing.
• Exposure to thermal radiation, e.g. sunlight – all of these in addition to the temperature
• Parameters, etc.

Because of the number of complicating factors, generalizations must be utilized. The theoretical methods for calculating heat transfer for pipe or any other cylindrical objects like tanks, is depends on the thickness of insulation and the area of outer surface.

Table 4.3 Steam line losses for non-insulated pipes of different diameters

Pipe Diameter Heat loss (kCal/hr for 100 M Bare pipe)
(Steam pressure(kg/cm2g)
1.0 10 20 40
25 13210 26892 35384 46706
50 22174 45291 59444 79259
100 39158 80203 105679 141534
200 69824 98130 191543 257121
300 99546 207584 274576 369876

Table 4.4 Different types of material used for insulation.

Material Density
(kg/m3) Thermal conductivities (W/m 0C) Max
temp.
00C 1000C 2000C 3000C
Polystyrol 20-50 0.032 70
Cork 100-200 0.032 80
Glass wool (non fiber) 40-60 0.031 0.050 200
Long fiber 80 0.031 0.048 0.073 0.110 500
Short fiber 100 0.036 0.051 0.051 0.102 700
Rockwool ; glass wool 40-250 0.028 0.039 800
Asbestos 80-250 0.042 600

4.6.3 Economical Insulation Thickness:

Fig 4.9 Cost v/s year for insulation
The cost of insulation will increase if the insulation material thickness will be higher than required. So the cost of losses will be go high. The thickness should be in such a way that the conserved heat loss should be more than the cost of insulation. So at optimum thickness the saving will be higher than the insulation cost.

Figure 1 gives idea about the calculate the economic thickness.

5
CONCLUSIONS
5.1 Conclusions

5.1 Conclusions

Following are some results we obtained in this project which will help to optimize the steam distribution system.

1. Initially the best and economical solution is to insulate the pipes. Insulation on overall system was very poor and old. The rust pipes are inefficient and very risky. We suggested them to implement the proper insulation with high thermal resistant material to cope with the problem.

2. Secondly to see in long term it is advisable to do necessary changes in boiler.
3. If the pipe carrying the steam has diameter more than or less than required diameter, it will lead to major problem like loss of steam heat due to condensation, loss of velocity, pressure drop, noise and sometime it may burst.
So, the proper pipe diameter is required for the satisfactory utilization of steam quality. Line sizing has been calculated using suitable formulas and it is concluded that it has been undersized previously. So we have calculated the optimum diameter for given conditions of steam.
4. There is not any technical person in SWAMI TEXTILE. So the plant layout, their working strategy and dealing with the difficulties occurring during operation was very poor. No technical guidance during operation can cause lots of loss of energy, steam, fuel and work.

So we also concentrate on other problem regarding to boiler. During this, we concentrate on the boiler fuel alternation like using natural gas instead of wood. We gathered the information about the oil thermal boiler. All the analysis and also cost analysis helped us to determine that oil thermal boiler is best suited.

We also convinced the owner of factory for replacement of boiler and proper insulation.

1

1. The first name given to Brazil by the colonialists was “Terra do Santa Cruz” – “land of the Holy Cross.”
2. In terms of population, Brazil takes the 5th place.
3. Brazil prepares the most delicious coffee drinks.
4. The largest and richest city in Brazil is Sao Paulo.
5. There is no official religion in this country.
6. In Brazil, in each apartment, there are about 3 bathrooms
7. the capital of Brazil, Brasilia was built in just 41 days.
8. Brazil has the most brutal police.
9. No one arrives on time in Brazil.
10. Approximately 1.5 million Japanese lives in Brazil, it is the largest number of people outside Japan.
11. In Brazil, about 15% of the population cannot read and write.
12. Women in Brazil got voting rights in 1946.
13. Brazil was the first country in South America to allow women in armed forces.
14. Brazil holds the 60% of total Amazon Rainforest.
15. There are 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Brazil.
16. Brazil is considered the largest producer of apples.
17. Alone Brazil occupies half of South America’s total landmass.
18. When married, women in Brazil do not change names, but simply combine 2 names.
19. Portuguese ruled Brazil for more than 300 years.
20. The Brazilian national team has won FIFA World Cup 5 times.
21. Almost all cars in Brazil go on biofuel.
22. Brazilians are considered the most talkative people.
23. The national sport of Brazil is football, therefore in all cities of this state, there is at least 1 stadium.
24. Cocoa is considered to be the favorite drink of Brazilian people.
25. Cheese bread is considered a classic breakfast for all Brazilians.
26. In Brazil, there is the largest tropical forest.
27. At night, drivers in Brazil are allowed to ride when the traffic light is red.
28. In Brazil, the crime rate is very high.
29. Brazil has the largest number of species of plant, mammal and freshwater fish in the world.
30. Till 1961, Rio de Janeiro was the capital of Brazil.
31. In ancient times, Brazil was a colonial state.
32. There are about 4,000 airports in Brazil.
33. Traffic Jams in big cities of Brazil is so common and can reach up to waiting for 3-4 hours.
34. Brazilian speak the Portuguese language.
35. In total, about 6% of the country’s population live in slums.
36. The largest stadium in Brazil is Maracana, it has the capacity of more than 78,000 thousand people.
37. Brazil is the member of UNESCO.
38. Only Brazilian athletes participated in all world championships.
39. Brazil is the largest exporter of coffee.
40. Here flows the largest river in the world – the Amazon.
41. Baia do Sancho beach is considered to be the most beautiful beach in Brazil.
42. Every year in Brazil visits 6 million tourists.
43. Brazil carnival lasts for 4 days and it is declared a national holiday.
44. The national dish of Brazil is Feijoada.
45. In Sao Paulo outdoor advertising is ban.
46. Smoking in public is banned in Brazil, even E-cigarettes are banned.
47. Carnival in Rio De Janeiro is the biggest festival of the world.
48. Brazilians are an open and positive people. They like dancing, beer, and football.
49. São Vicente is the oldest city in Brazil.
50. the 40-meter-high statue of Christ in Rio de Janeiro is in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
51. Only in Brazil, there is a law that allows you to reduce your prison sentence for reading books.
52. Jaguar is the national animal of Brazil.
53. In Brazil, 15% of the world’s fresh water is concentrated.
54. Pico da Neblina is the highest mountain in Brazil.
55. There are three time zones in Brazil.
56. The life expectancy of Brazil is 75 years.
57. Brazil has more species of monkeys than any other country.
58. Bororo is the group of people in Brazil who all have the same blood group ‘O’.
59. There are approximately 4 million plants in Brazil.
60. Christmas is considered the main event in Brazil.

1

1.1 Introduction
Medicinal?plants have played a vital role in the?health of population. World Health Organization (WHO) has stated the?pharmaceutical aspects of the quality of medicines, intrinsic?safety and?efficacy of?pharmacologically?active substances. Guidance on this has been?published in the reports of the WHO Expert Committee on Essential Drugs, the?WHO?display?endorsing?data?arrangement, the WHO?pharmaceutical bulletin, and the?quarterly WHO drug?information. From?that point?significant?data is?extended into the?routinely?refreshed?United Nations Consolidated?rundown?of items?whose?utilization as well as?deal?have been?prohibited, ?pulled?back, ?extremely?limited or?not?affirmed by?governments. Besides that, when there were new?migrants?from other countries where these traditional?or herbal?medicines?plays a vital?role, there is an increased in manufactured of herbal medicine. The consumers and health?care?providers in both developed?and?developing?countries also need to?be delivered?with latest and accurate information?on the beneficial?properties.
In many parts of the world, undesirable and/or?undeclared substances have been present or have been unsubstantiated to be present in herbal medicines or medicinal plants every once a while. These substances have included pesticides, radioactive.. particles, and microbes including pathogens, mycotoxins, heavy? metals and arsenic. In order to reduce the risk of adverse events attributable to unsafe and poor-quality herbal medicines, WHO has focused on building up a progression of new specialized rules identifying with the safety? and quality assurance of herbal ?medicines, and to updating? existing technical documents in this field. These activities actualize parts of the WHO Traditional Medicine?Strategy: 2002– 2005 1. Within the overall?context of?quality?control?of herbal?medicines, with?particular?reference to biological, ?chemical, and radioactive ?contaminants, and pesticide?residues, WHO has likewise created?general ?worldwide? rules for surveying the wellbeing of conceivably??risky? substances in herbal medicine.

The national experts and different partners in arrangement?of ?herbal?medicine are probably going to experience various?difficulties, including the setting?of models for?quality, their?selection, observing?and requirement in?order to ensure the quality and safety of these herbal?medicine. The national?approach and?regulations ought to likewise consider all local and special?needs. Techniques, both?general?and particular, for the assurance of the different?measures and?qualities are also stated in the guidelines. Without?applicable and fitting?national?benchmarks, there is a?hazard that these natural?solutions might be lost to customary?clients and end?up?inaccessible to new clients?for some reasons. These causes including: their neglecting to meet different trade, enrolment, import and export?prerequisites and increasing?cases of adverse?side?effects of herbal?medicine.

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The purpose of these?rules is to?characterize?fundamental?criteria for the evaluation?of quality, safety and efficacy of?herbal?medicines and thereby?to assist ?national?regulatory?authorities, scientific?organizations?and?manufacturers to undertake?an?assessment of the?documentation?and?submissions in?respect of?such products. The things to be considered as a general rule in this assessment includes the?traditional?experience?means that long-term use?as?well as the?medical, ?historical and?ethnological?background?of those products.
The definition of long-term use may vary according to the country but should be at least several decades. Therefore, the assessment should take into account a description in the medical or pharmaceutical literature or similar sources, or a documentation of knowledge on the application of an herbal medicine without a clearly defined time limitation. Marketing authorizations for similar products should be taken into account and also the harmful effects, of all herbal medicines. Promoting endorsements for relative things should be considered. Damaging effects, of each and every characteristic prescription.

Without?confirmation?that these?medications are applicable?to need wellbeing?needs and that they?meet?adequate?norms?of value, ?security and?viability, any?wellbeing?administration?is?compromised. Extensive?authoritative?and?specialized?exertion is?coordinated?to?ensure?that? patients?get medications?of good quality. 2 It is vital that the purpose of providing health for?all?that a?solid?arrangement?of medication?control be?brought to all the?country around?the world.

Figure showed the focus of WHO guidelines on herbal medicine.

1.2 The definition and main features of herbal medicines
According to the WHO definition, herbal?drugs?contain as?active?ingredients?plant?parts or?plant?materials?in the?crude?or?processed?state?plus certain?excipients, i.e.,?solvents, ?diluents or?preservatives. 3 Phototherapeutics?agents?are?standardized?herbal?preparations that?consists of?complex?mixtures?of one?or?more?plants?which are used in?most?countries?for the?management?of various diseases. Normally, it is unknown?of the?pharmacological?action?of?the?active?principles?of the?herbal medicine. One?elementary?characteristics?is the?fact that they?normally?do not?possess an?instant or?durable pharmacological?effect. As so, it is not used in treatment for?emergency cases. 4 Another?characteristics of herbal?medicines are their?comprehensive?therapeutic use?and accepted?by most?of the?population. Herbal?medicines are?commonly?used to treat?chronic?diseases when compare?to modern?medicines. Combinations, with?chemically?defined?active?substances or?isolated?ingredients?are not?considered to be?herbal medicines. Although homeopathic?preparations?may?frequently?contain plants, they?are also not?considered to be herbal?medicines.

In addition, they are normally?marketed as?standardized?preparations?in?the?form?of liquid, ?solid (powdered?extract), or?viscous?preparations. They are?prepared?by?maceration, ?percolation or?distillation (volatile?oils). Production?of fluid?extracts requires?ethanol, ?water, or?mixtures?of?ethanol and?water. Evaporation?of the?solvents?used in?the?process?of?extraction of the?raw?material?can produced?solid or powered?extracts. To increase?their therapeutic?efficacy, they are made more?concentrated. For instance, the?standardized?powder?extract?of Ginkgo?biloba have?the ratio of 50:1. It is also possible to?remove?some?secondary?metabolites?present?in the?plants?which?may produce?undesirable?side?effects. Contrasted?and?all?around characterized?engineered drugs, home grown?pharmaceuticals?display?some?stamped?contrasts, including?the?dynamic?standards?are?regularly obscure;?institutionalization, security?and?quality?control?are possible yet?difficult; all around?controlled?twofold?visually?impaired?clinical?and?toxicological?investigations?to demonstrate?their?adequacy?and?wellbeing?are?uncommon; observational?use?in?people?medication?is a vital?trademark; they?have an?extensive?variety?of?remedial?utilize and are?appropriate?for constant?medicines; the event?of?bothersome?reactions?is by all?accounts?less?successive with home grown?solutions, yet?very much?controlled?randomized?clinical?trials have?uncovered?that they?additionally?exist; they?normally cost?less?than synthetic?drugs.

2.0 Assessment of Quality of Herbal Medicine
It is important?to take?the? quality? control?and?standardization of herbal?medicine?seriously as this can?reduce?adulterations with?substandard?drugs, improper?authentication?and the?identity and?purity of herbal medicine?can be identified.
Pharmaceutical?assessment?should?cover all?essential?parts?of the quality?assessment?of herbal?medicines. It ought to be adequate to make?reference to a?pharmacopeia?monograph?in the event?that one?exists. On the off chance?that no?such?monograph?is accessible, a?monograph?must be?provided and ought?to be set?out as in?an?official?pharmacopeia. The?procedures?must all be in?accordance?with good?manufacturing practices.

Crude plant material
To ensure correct?identification?of a plant, the herbal?definition, including?genus, ?species?and?authority are ought?to be given. A?definition?and?depiction of the?piece?of the?plant from?which the?prescription?is made (e.g. leaf, ?blossom, ?root) ought to be given, together?with a sign?of whether?fresh, ?dried or?material?prepared?traditionally is utilized. The?active?and?characteristic?constituents ought to be?indicated and, if?conceivable?substance?cut off points ought to be?characterized. Pollutions?either?by foreign?matter, impurities?and microbial?substance?should be?characterized?or restricted. ?Samples that representing?each lot of?plant?material?prepared, ought to be?validated by a qualified?botanist and should?be kept for?at least?a ten years?period. A?lot number?should be?assigned and this?should be?labelled on the product.
Plant preparations
The?comminuted?or powdered?plant materials, ?extracts, ?tinctures?, ?fatty or ?essential?oils, ?expressed?juices?and preparations?whose process?of production?involves?fractionation, ?purification or?concentration. On?the off chance that?different?substances?are added?amid fabricate with a?specific end goal? to change ?the plant?planning to a?specific?level of dynamic, the?additional substances?ought to be stated?in the?manufacturing?procedure. A?method?to identify?the identity and, where probable, the?assay?of plant?preparation should be added. On the off chance that distinguishing?proof of an active?principle isn’t conceivable, it ought to be?adequate?to recognize?substances (e.g. “chromatographic?fingerprint”) to guarantee?predictable?nature of the readiness.

Finished product
The?manufacturing?procedure and?formula, including the?measure of?excipients, should?be?portrayed in?detail. Its?final product?specification are ought to be characterized. A?technique?of?identification and, where?likely, evaluation?of the plant?material in the?completed?item?ought to be?characterized. The final?product?ought to?consent?to general?necessities?for specific?dosage?forms. For?imported?completed items, ?affirmation?of the?administrative?status in the?country of?origin is necessary. The?WHO Certification?Scheme?on the Quality?of Pharmaceutical Products?Moving in?International?Commerce?ought to be applied.

2.1 Standardization of Botanical herbs and Quality of their preparations
There are?few? hundred ?of?constituents that are?presented?in plant?and some?of them?are?available at?a minimal?concentration. Disregarding?of the modern chemical?analytical?procedures?available, seldom do?phytochemical?investigations?succeed in isolating?and?characterizing all?secondary?metabolites that is found?in the?plant?extract. Aside from this, plant?constituents?change extensively?relying?upon a few?components?that hinder?the quality?control of phototherapeutic?materials. There?are a few?stages?on quality?control and standardization?of herbal medicine. Be that as it may, the?source and?nature of?crude materials also plays an?essential role to?ensure the herbal?medicine meets the?standard?of quality?and stability.

Different?factors, for?example, the?utilization of new plants, temperature, light introduction, water?accessibility, supplements, period?and time?of?collection, ?technique?for gathering, ?drying, ?pressing, stockpiling and?transportation of?crude material, ?age and part?of the plant?gathered can?influence?the herbal?medication’s quality and the?therapeutic?value. Some?plant?constituents are heat?labile and the plants?containing them?should be dried?at low?temperatures. Likewise, other?active?principles are?annihilated by the?enzymatic?processes that continue?for long?periods of?time after plant?collection and this?will affects the?composition?of the herbal?based drugs. Therefore, appropriate?standardization and?quality?control of crude?drug?material and the?herbal?preparations themselves?must be fixed. In the?situations where the?active?principles are?obscure, investigative?on the?marker?substance are ought to be set?up. Yet, these?markers?have never?been?tested in?most cases to see?whether?they truly?represent for the?therapeutic?action labelled for the herbal drugs.
As?pointed out?previously, aside?from these?variable?components, others, for?example, the?technique?for?extraction?and sullying?with?microorganisms, overwhelming? metals, ?pesticides, and?so on, can?likewise? meddle with the quality, ?security and?adequacy of herbal?drugs. Therefore, ?pharmaceutical?organizations?lean?toward?utilizing? developed?plants rather than?wild-collected?plants since they?demonstrate?little variety?in their constituents. Besides, when?restorative?plants are?created by?development, the?principle?auxiliary metabolites can be?observed and?this can?determines the?best?time to?harvest the herbal?plants. 8, 9

Figure above: Summary for standardization and Quality Evaluation of Herbal drugs.

2.2 Macroscopic study
Visual?examination gives the?least?complex?and fastest means by which to build up?character, virtue?and quality. Plainly?visible?personality of therapeutic plant materials?depends on shape, measure, shading, surface?attributes, surface, break? qualities and appearance of the cut surface.

2.3 Microscopic study
For separating?comparable species, detail of?cell structure and?arrangement of the cells. Select an?agent test of the?material and if it is dried parts?of a plant than it might require?softening before?readiness?for microscopy, ideally by being set in a?sodden climate, or by?absorbing water. Any water-solvent substance?can be?expelled?from the cells?by absorbing water. Starch?grains can be?gelatinized by?warming in water.

2.4 Biological study
Starch grains, aleurone?grains, Fats, ?fatty oils, volatile?oils and?resins, Calcium oxalate/?carbonate?crystals, lignified?cell wall, Cellulose?cell wall, ?Mucilage and?Tannin.

2.4.1 Ash value
This?requires a non-volatile inorganic?components. A high?ash value?reveals that there are?contamination, ?substitution, ?adulteration or carelessness in preparing the crude drugs.

2.4.2 Total ash
It usually consists of?carbonates, phosphates, silicates and silica. Total?ash is designed to measure?the total amount?of material produced after?complete?incineration of the drug material at as low?temperature as possible (about 450°C) to remove?all the carbons.
2.4.3 Acid insoluble ash
Ash insoluble in?hydrochloric?acid is the residue?obtained after extracting the total ash with?hydrochloric acid. It gives?indication about?the earthy?matter. WHO method: 25 ml of hydrochloric acid (~70g/l).

2.4.4 Water soluble ash
It is the?total ash content which is?soluble in water. It’s good?indicator of presence of previous?extraction of water?soluble salts in the drug or?incorrect preparation or amount of inorganic?matter.

2.4.5 Extractive value
It is the amount of?the active?constituents present in crude?drug material when extracted with specific solvent. The method to determine extractive?values include cold method, hot method and soxhlet method.
2.4.6 Insoluble matter
There is the presence of woody?matter or vegetable?debris or pieces of bark?materials. For instance, in catechu the water?insoluble?matter?presence is: NMT 33% Alcohol insoluble matter: NMT 30%
2.4.7 Total solid content
The residue obtained when prescribed?amount of?preparation is dried?to constant weight under the specified condition (Residue?on evaporation). The powdered?extract: NLT 95%.

2.4.8 Volatile oil content
Volatile oils are the liquid?components of the plant?cells, immiscible?with water, and volatile at ordinary?temperature and can be steam?distilled at ordinary?pressure. Many herbal drugs contain volatile?oil which is used as flavouring?agent.
2.4.9 Bitterness value
Restorative?plant materials that have a solid?unpleasant taste are utilized?remedially, generally?as inviting?operators. Their?intensity animates?emissions in the gastrointestinal?tract, particularly of gastric?juice. The severe?properties of plant material are controlled?by contrasting the edge?intense convergence?of a concentrate of the?materials with that of a?weaken?arrangement of quinine hydrochloride. The intensity esteem is communicated in?unit identical to the ?severity of an answer?containing 1g of quinine hydrochloride R in 2000 ml.

2.4.10 Haemolytic activity
Many medicinal?plant materials contain saponins. The most characteristic?property of saponins?is their ability to cause?haemolysis; when?added to a suspension?of blood, saponins?produce changes in?erythrocyte membranes, causing haemoglobin to?diffuse into the surrounding?medium. The haemolytic?activity of plant?materials, or a preparation?containing?saponins, is determined by?comparison with that of a?reference material.

2.5 Determination of aflatoxin in medical herbs
It permits?the quantitation of aflatoxin B1 at levels?lower than 2 mg/g. A moment extractant (CH3)2CO water) was tried and?contrasted with the proposed?methanol-water extractant. A few post-section?derivatization alternatives (electrochemically?produced bromine, photochemical?response, and concoction?bromination) and additionally extraordinary?reconciliation?modes (stature versus zone) were likewise?researched. No distinctions?were discovered relying upon the decision of?derivatization framework or the flag?reconciliation mode?utilized. The strategy was tried for 3 diverse grids: Senna units, ginger root, and fiend’s paw. Execution attributes were built up from the after?effects of the examination.

3.0 Assessment of Safety of Herbal Medicine
Adverse??effects reported in?relation to herbal?products are?frequently attributable?either to poor?quality or to improper?use, and it is therefore?difficult to distinguish?genuine adverse?reactions to herbal medicines and herbal?products until the cause of such?events has been?identified. Thus, to ensure?that the herbal medicines are safe?to use, the adverse?impact of herbal?drugs must be identified, and the?organization that responsible in?management of problems and risk to?counteract adverse?events and great?correspondence of issues and safe?use for maximum?benefit of herbal medicines are critical.

3.1 Guiding principles for Assessing Safety of Herbal Medicine:
3.1.1 Foreign matter
A sample?of herbs and herbal?medicines ought not to surpass the limits of foreign?matter set in?national, provincial?or international?pharmacopoeias. Examples of foreign?matter includes?insects and other including?creature?excreta, and in addition different types of plants. All in all, any?substance other than the worthy?example of good?quality therapeutic?plant material is viewed as foreign?matter. An?unadulterated sample is rare and there is always some foreign?matter present?making it difficult to be pure. Nevertheless no?noxious, risky or generally?hurtful outside?issue ought to be permitted. In this manner?following the?GACP should?guarantee that?defilement is kept?to a base. Evacuation?of bigger bits of foreign?matter from?entire and cut plants?is regularly done?by hand-arranging after plainly?visible examination. Foreign matters must be?inspected in all?final products.

Contaminants
3.1.2 Arsenic and toxic metals
The provisional tolerable intake (PTI) values sets a?guidelines for controlling?the maximum?amounts of toxic metals and non-metals in medicinal plant material. These?standards are ought to be?recognized on a?regional or national basis. For instance,
Limit test for arsenic
Arsenic can be found?abundantly in?nature and its presence in herbal?medicines. A prominent?test technique?depends on the?processing of the plant?grid took after by subjection of the?digestate that is?similar to the colorimetric?test. The test?strategy portrayed?beneath utilizes?colorimetry and does?not utilize?lethal mercuric?bromide?paper. The strategy?utilizes N-N-diethylmethyldithiocarbamate in pyridine and it responds?with hydrogen?arsenide to form a red– purple complex. The point of?confinement is?communicated?regarding arsenic (III) trioxide (As2O3).

The utilization?of herbal?medicinal products is not generally?expected to contribute?fundamentally to the?introduction of the populace?to overwhelming?metal contaminants. It ought? to be known that the?contents of heavy?metals present in the herbal?drugs must always be kept?minimal. In general it would be?desirable to harmonize?limits for toxic?metals and?standards, as this would have?many?benefits including the?simplification of universal?trade.

3.1.3 Persistent organic pollutants
It includes several?chemicals that are?insoluble in water and are steady?or stable?in nature. They are regularly?transported around the world?on account of their protection from?breakdown and they would possibly?damage?people and natural?life that ingest them. In a short period of time, they will not vanish from our surroundings since some are as yet being delivered and utilized as a part of numerous nations. Globally, through the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, some hard works are being made to control their?generation and discharge, and to substitute?them with different less?risky?pesticides.

3.1.4 Radioactive contaminants
The?measure of presentation?to radiation?relies upon the admission?of radionuclides?and its?criticalness depends thus on different?factors, for example, the?age, metabolic energy and?weight of the person?who ingests?them, also known as the dose?conversion factors. Amid the manufacturing procedure, the degree of contamination may be lessen. And that is why there are no?restrictions for radioactive?pollution in these rules and herbal?drugs ought to be tried on a?case-by-case?premise as?indicated by national?and local?measures. In such?a procedure, risk?management instead of risk?assessment can be set in light of the control?in national?regulation.
3.1.5 Microbial toxins
Mycotoxins?and, when proper, endotoxins?ought to be tried for?utilizing a fittingly approved?and delicate?technique. The measures?are ought to be beneath the cut?off points set in national?or provincial?models. It is suggested that in?performing investigations?for mycotoxins?specific care ought to be in?accordance with great practice?rules, for example, WHO great?practices for national pharmaceutical?control research canters.

3.1.6 Microbiological contaminants
Bacteria
Microorganism?that must not be present in herbal?medicines intended for?internal use includes?Salmonella and?Shigella species. Different?microorganisms ought to be?tried for and ought as far as possible?set out in?provincial, national or?universal pharmacopoeias. Distinctive?pharmacopoeias have?diverse testing?prerequisites and these are ought to be?counselled?when settling on the proper?decision when choosing herbal medication. No Salmonella species should be present in any of the culture media.

Description of Salmonellacolonies appearing on different culture media
Medium Description of colony
Deoxycholate?citrate agar Well-developed, colourless
Xylose, lysine, ?deoxycholate agar Well-developed, red, with or without black centres
Brilliant?green agar Small, transparent and colourless, or opaque, pink or
white (frequently surrounded by a pink to red zone)
(Taken from WHO Guidelines for assessing quality of Herbal medicine with reference to contaminants and residues)
3.1.7 Residues
Pesticide residues
Following the?recommendations of the Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, the limits for pesticide?residues should be established?for food and?animal feed. These?references include an?acceptable daily?intake and the analytical?methodology for the?assessment of pesticide?residues. At?present however there?are no standard?systems for task?of these?maximum residue?levels in the restorative?plant territory, in this way the strategies?utilized for sustenance?could likely be utilized for the?planning of a model. Verifiably the FAO and WHO have?built up maximum residue levels, in light of directed trials?and foundation of GAP (10) for the utilization of pesticides?for an assortment of sustenance?wares and mixes?of pesticides and?nourishment?products.

The Codex Alimentarius?Commission has adopted a list of approved?pesticides for spices and their maximum?residue levels as shown in the table below. Examples maximum residue level of (a few) pesticides:
Pesticide
(CCPR-number)
Group or sub-group of spices MRL
(mg/kg)
?Dimethoate (027) ? Seeds
Fruits or berries
Roots or rhizomes 5
0.5
0.1 (*)
?Disulfoton(074) Entire group028c 0.05 (*)
?Endosulfan (032) ? Seeds
Fruits or berries
Roots or rhizomes 1
5
0.5
?Ethion (034) ? Seeds
Fruits or berries
Roots or rhizomes 3
5
0.3
?Fenitrothion (037) Seeds
Fruits or berries
Roots or rhizomes 7
1
0.1
?Dicofol (026) ?
Seeds
Fruits or berries
Roots or rhizomes 0.05 (*)
0.1
0.1
?Vinclozolin (159) ? Entire spice group 0.05 (*)
(*) At or about the limit of determination.

Referred from: The residue definitions remain the same as those recommended for the given pesticide in other plant commodities (http://www.codexalimentarius.net/mrls/pestdes/pest_ref/MRLs_Spices_e.pdf).

Maximum?limit of pesticide?residues for herbal materials
The toxicological?assessment of pesticide?residues in herbal?medicines are ought to be done. It should be evaluate?according to the probable?consumption of the herbs by?patients. In the absence of a full?risk assessment and for?practical reasons, it is suggested?that the intake of?residues from herbal?products must be not?more than 1% of total?intake from all sources, including?food and?drinking-water (11). Since the?level of pesticide?build-ups may change?amid the process of?manufacturing, it is important to decide the?genuine amount of?deposits devoured in the last?measurement frame. It is always?recommended to take up the?approach of the?FAO in deciding?MRLs as herbal drugs are used in management of chronic?disease and prophylactic?reasons.

Acceptable residue level (ARL)
An ARL (in mg of?pesticide per kg of therapeutic?plant material) can be?ascertained based on the most?extreme ADI of the pesticide?for people, as, prescribed by?FAO and WHO, and the mean?daily intake (MDI) of the?plant substances that contained?medicinal properties. Some?countries have built up national?prerequisites for?deposit constrains in?therapeutic plant materials. In the event that no such ?necessities exist, different?references can be?counselled, for example, different?pharmacopoeias or published?documents. According to WHO and?FAO, where such supplies?do not exist, the following?formula based on the acceptable daily?intake can be apply:

ADI = maximum acceptable daily intake of pesticide (mg/kg of body weight)
E = extraction factor, determined experimentally, which determines the transfer?rate of the pesticide from the medicinal plant?material into the dosage form
MDI = mean daily intake in kilograms of medicinal plant material 60: this number represents a mean adult body weight of 60 kg; it may need to be adjusted for certain patient groups, nationalities, etc.

100: this number is a consumption factor of 100 reflects the requirement that no more than 1% of the total pesticide residue consumed should be derived from medicinal plant material.

3.1.8 Residual solvents
The expression”permitted?daily exposure” (PDE) is proposed as?pharmaceutically satisfactory?admission of leftover?solvents to maintain a strategic?distance from disarray?coming about because of varying?qualities for ADIs of a similar?substance.

4.0 Assessment of Efficacy of Herbal Medicine
Herbal?drugs has?turned into a famous?kind of health?care. Despite?the fact that few?contrasts exist amongst?herbs and regular?pharmacological medications, natural?prescription can be tried for viability?utilizing?customary trial?philosophy. A few particular?herbal concentrates?have been?exhibited to be?efficacious for particular?conditions. Despite the fact that the general?population is frequently?misdirected to trust?that every?single regular?treatment are safe, herbal?meds do convey?risks. Therefore, we have to know which herbal?drugs can produce more?advantages then harmful effects.
4.1 Clinical?Trials using Herbal?medicines
These guidelines?for the assessment of herbal?medicines endeavour to identify?the?extended and diverse?history of traditional?medicine in the region?and the?contrasts between the?demonstrative?frameworks of present day?solution and the different?conventional drugs of the Member?States. Clinical?trials of natural?pharmaceuticals may have two kinds of?targets. One is to approve the?safety and?efficacy that is asserted for a customary?herbal drugs. The other is to raise?new herbs or look at?another sign for a current home grown?pharmaceutical or a difference?in measurements detailing, or course of?organization. At times, trials?might be intended?to test the clinical?action of a?refined or semi-filtered?compound got from natural?drugs.
This should cover all important aspects of efficacy assessment. A survey of the important writing ought to be completed and duplicates gave of the first articles or legitimate references made to them. If there is a research studies, it is ought to be considered.

4.2 Activity of the Herbal medicaments
The?pharmacological and clinical?impacts of the active?ingredients of herbal?medicines, if known, their?constituents with therapeutic?activity ought to be?indicated or depicted.
4.3 Indications supported by proof
The indication(s) for the?utilization of the?medication ought to be determined. On account of conventional drugs, the?prerequisites for evidence of?viability ought to rely upon?the sort of indication. For treatment of?minor issue and for?non-particular signs, some unwinding in prerequisites for evidence of?adequacy might be legitimized, considering the degree of traditional use. ?Similar contemplations may apply to utilization?in prophylaxis. Singular?encounters recorded in reports?from doctors, ?customary wellbeing specialists or treated?patients ought to be considered. Where?conventional utilize has?not been built up, ?a suitable clinical proof ought to be needed when that?particular traditional herbal?meds has not been?established.

4.4 Combination?products
Evaluation are ought to separate?amongst old and new?mixture of products as many herbal?meds comprise of a?blend of a few active?constituents, and due to experience the herbal?medicine are often used in?combination. Indistinguishable?necessities for the evaluation?of old and new?blends would bring about?unseemly appraisal?of certain traditional?medicines.

On account of generally?utilized mix items, the documentation?of conventional utilize, (for example, established?writings of?Ayurveda, customary?Chinese prescription, Unani, ?Siddha) and?experience may fill in as?confirmation of efficacy.

A clarification of another?mix of surely understood?substances, including?compelling dosage extents and?similarity, ought to be required?notwithstanding the?documentation of conventional?learning of each single?fixing. Every dynamic fixing must add to the adequacy of the medication. To legitimize the efficacy of another fixing and its beneficial outcome on the combination drugs can be done by clinical?investigations.
5.0 Assessment of Herbal medicine for Intended use
5.1 Product information for the consumer and Promotion
Product labels and package inserts should be understandable to the consumer or patient. The package information should include all necessary information on the proper use of the product.

The following elements of information will usually?suffice, ?name of the product, quantitative?rundown of dynamic ingredient(s) measurements?frame, signs, ?dose (if proper, determined for?youngsters and the?elderly), method of?organization, term of utilization, major unfriendly impacts, if any overdose data, contraindications, notices, precautionary measures and significant medication?connections, use?amid pregnancy and lactation, expiry?date, part number and holder of the advertising?approval. (11)
?Commercials and other special?material coordinated to?wellbeing staff and the overall population ought to be?completely predictable with?the affirmed bundle data.

6.0 Conclusion
As herbal?medicinal products are intricate?blends that begin from organic?sources, awesome?endeavours are important to ensure a?consistent and satisfactory?quality. The morphological?and microscopic?identifications are utilized to?determine the? authenticity of herbal?medicines, and the physical?and synthetic?characters are utilized to assess?the nature of?herbs in the current?quality measures. The unique?examinations have been universally?acknowledged as one of the?proficient techniques to control the nature?of herbs. Notwithstanding?fingerprinting, different?parameters, for example, microbiological and?concoction pollutions, ?adulterants and?lethality including?genotoxicity are to be surveyed. The?safety and?efficacy of home grown pharmaceuticals are such a concern in?country which use a lot of herbal?medicine. Numerous?systems utilized as a part of the disclosure?and assessment of?traditional medications can be adjusted?to home grown?prescriptions. Such?assessments will increase the value?of natural?medications and doctors or patients will be more?aware of which?herbs to be taken or not to?be taken.
These?rules for the appraisal?of herbal meds are?proposed to?encourage the work of regulatory?authorities, scientific?bodies and industry?in the?development, evaluation?and enlistment of such items. The evaluation?ought to mirror?the logical learning?assembled in that field. Such appraisal could be the?reason for future?arrangement of home grown?medications in various parts?of the world. Different?sorts of traditional?medicines in addition to herbal? products may be evaluated?likewise. The viable?direction and control of herbal?meds moving in worldwide?trade likewise requires close?contact between national?establishments that can keep?under customary survey all parts?of generation and?utilization of natural solutions, and also to lead or support?evaluative investigations?of their viability, poisonous?quality, ?security, adequacy, ?cost and ?relative ?contrasted and different?medications utilized as a part of current?prescription. (12)
References
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Dr Cragg GM, Newman DJ & Snader KM (1997). Natural products in drug discovery and development. Journal of Natural Products, 60: 52-60.ugs, 54: 801-840.

Akerele O (1993). Summary of WHO guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. HerbalGram, 28: 13-19.

Bulletin of the World Health Organization (1993). Research guidelines for evaluating the safety and efficacy of herbal medicine. Geneva, 1-86.

Zeisel SH (1999). Regulation of “nutraceuticals”. Science, 285: 1853-1855.
Petrovick PR, Marques LC & Paula IC (1999). New rules for phytopharmaceutical drug registration in Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 66: 51-55.

Bauer R & Tittel G (1996). Quality assessment of herbal preparations as a precondition of pharmacological and clinical studies. Phytomedicine, 2: 193-198.

Blumenthal M, Brusse WR, Goldberg A,Gruenwald J, Hall T, Riggins CW & RisterRS (1998). The Complete German CommissionE Monographs. TherapeuticGuide to Herbal Medicines. The American Botanical Council, Austin, TX, USA.

Eskinazi D, Blumenthal M, Farnsworth N & Riggins CW (1999). Botanical Medicine: Efficacy, Quality Assurance, and Regulation.Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publisher,New York.

Pesticide residues in food – methods of analysis and sampling. Codex Alimentarius.

Vol. 2A, Part 1, 2nd ed. Rome, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, 2000.

Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1998.

WHO Guidelines for Assessing Quality of Herbal Medicines with Reference to Contaminants and Residues. (2007; 118 pages)
Faculty of Pharmacy
WHO Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicine.

Name : Brenda Ngu Yen Qin
ID : P16090923
Class No : 6
Year : 2
Sem : 2
Batch : 12
Lecturer’s Name: Dr. Mukesh Singh Sikarwar

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