1.5 tier II, tier III cities and

1.5 Why EV Adoption Is Crucial For India Home to one of the largest automobile industries in the world, India currently contributes a major percentage of the global car sales. Public transport continues to be the primary mode of transport in tier II, tier III cities and rural regions.

Given that over 1.2 Mn deaths occur in the country every year as a result of air pollution, according to a report by Greenpeace, the transition to more eco-friendly and renewable sources of energy is the need of the hour for India.In light of the growing pollution problem, the Government of India, over the last few years, has been increasingly promoting alternative mobility solutions, chief among which are electric vehicles. Because they are powered by electricity and not fossil fuels, EVs are relatively emission-free and therefore, hold the key to India’s burgeoning air pollution issue.

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Along those lines, the government unveiled the “National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020” in 2013, under which it has rolled out a slew of initiatives and programmes geared towards accelerating the adoption of electric vehicles in India. The plan, essentially, aims to deploy around 7 Mn hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the country by 2020.Realising the potential of EVs, the Indian government has also announced plans to make the country a 100% electric vehicle nation by 2030. To that end, in January 2017, the central government said that it would bear up to 60% of the research and development (R;D) cost for developing the indigenous low-cost electric technology.National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020, essentially, aims to deploy around 7 Mn hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the country by 2020.Having already floated two global tenders for the procurement of up to 20,000 EVs,the government, under the leadership of PM Narendra Modi, is now planning to extend financial support of up to $1.

3 Bn (INR 8,730 Cr) under the second phase of FAME India.While think tank NITI Aayog has created a special task force to come up with suggestions for the Union government, in a bid to make the transition to electric vehicles more seamless, various state governments have unveiled or are in the process of launching dedicated policies on EVs.In September 2017, for instance, Karnataka became the first Indian state to roll out its Electric Vehicle and Energy Storage Policy. Similarly, in October, the Telangana government prepared a draft policy on electric vehicles, with a focus on benefits for EV manufacturers.Among the other states that have rolled out – or are in the process of launching – policies on electric vehicles are Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Uttar Pradesh and others. Interestingly, Gujarat, WB, UP, Rajasthan and Maharashtra clocked the highest number of EV sales during FY2016-17, according to a report by the Society of Manufacturers of Electric Vehicles (SMEV).As per the findings of the study, Gujarat topped the list with sales of just over 4,330 units.

WB appeared in the second place with sales of 2,846 units, followed by UP which sold a total of 2,467 electric vehicles during the said period. Rajasthan reported sales of around 2,388 EV units, while Maharashtra came in fifth with sales of 1,926 units.”In addition, 25,000 e-vehicles were sold across India between 2016-17.

The study was conducted on all electric two-wheelers and four-wheelers which were sold during 2016-2017 and are successfully running in the mentioned states,” stated the report.In another study, ASSOCHAM and EY claimed that the electric vehicles (EV) market is expected to record double-digit growth rates with the rise in sales volume annually in India till 2020. The survey titled ‘Electric mobility in India: Leveraging collaboration and nascency’, further said that despite electric vehicles not being mainstream, stricter emission norms, reducing battery prices and increasing consumer awareness are driving EV adoption in India.1.6 Electric Vehicles: The Future Of MobilityGlobally, automobile exhaust is one of the biggest contributing factors of pollution, especially air pollution.

While the environmental impact of electric vehicles is somewhat obvious, there are other advantages to electric mobility solutions that conventional fossil fuel-powered vehicles don’t have.Keeping that in mind, here is a rundown of the some of the major advantages and disadvantages of electric vehicles over regular petrol or diesel-fuelled cars.Here are the key advantages Of EVs:No Fuel, Cheaper To MaintainBecause electric cars are powered by electricity and not gasoline, it drastically reduces the monthly spendings of car owners. According to Bloomberg, the consumption of fossil fuels by automobiles currently stands at 23 Mn barrels per day. However, with the increased popularity of EVs, the global gasoline consumption in the passenger vehicle segment will drop significantly within the next five years, as per a report by the International Energy Agency.

Although the initial cost of electric cars is quite higher than that of conventional vehicles, in the long-run, it is actually cheaper to own and maintain EVs. Ergon Energy states that the electricity needed to chargean EV is, on an average, around a third of the price of petrol per kilometre, especially in developed countries.Similarly, a battery electric vehicle (BEV) contains fewer components than a conventional petrol/diesel car, making servicing and maintenance a lot cheaper than petrol and diesel-powered vehicles.More Eco-Friendly, Lower Carbon FootprintGiven that the number of air pollution-related deaths have been on the rise lately, switching to electric cars, especially when it comes to public transport, could potentially reduce carbon emissions, thus slowing down climate change and global warming.In fact, electric cars are 100% emission free as they run on electrically powered engines. Consequently, they do not emit any toxic gases or smoke that could adversely affect the environment.

In this count, all-electric cars – particularly the ones powered by renewable energy – are much better than hybrid cars.However, in this regard, it should be noted that the source of electricity is also of importance in case of EVs. If the electricity is produced through environmentally-damaging means like coal power plants, which is often the case in developing countries, the environmental benefits of electric cars ultimately get negated.Less Noise Pollution, Smoother RideSince they are devoid of internal combustion engines and, in general, have less number of components, electric vehicles tend to be more silent than conventional vehicles. This, in turn, helps in curbing noise pollution, especially in crowded urban areas.

As an added advantage, electric motors, being lighter, offer a smoother drive with higher acceleration over longer distances than cars running on fossil fuels.Now, let’s look at some of the disadvantages of EVs:Range Anxiety, Lack Of Charging InfrastructureDespite the massive technological advancements, EV charging infrastructure remains inadequate in most parts of the world. Furthermore, most electric cars have a range that falls between 150 to 175 km on a single charge. This, inevitably, gives rise to range anxiety among car owners.

In the absence of charging points, especially during low-distance drives, there is the risk of being stranded, which albeit can be avoided through battery swapping. However, for widespread adoption of EVs, governments around the world need to be more proactive in building a robust and well-connected charging infrastructure.Long Charging TimesAs mentioned above, the charging process of EVs can take anywhere from 30 minutes (in case of fast charging) up to 24 hours, depending on the capacity of the battery and motors. Most, however, take around four to six hours to be fully charged, which is several times longer than the time it takes to refuel a petrol/diesel car.Lower Battery Life, High Battery CostsThe batteries currently used in electric vehicles have a lifespan of only around three to 10 years, depending on the make and model. The lower battery life often serves as a hindrance that affects the performance of electric cars. The higher costs of batteries, which are caused by the insufficient supply of raw materials, add to this problem.

1. of blood. 5. Most often, heart attacks

1. 5-8% of our body’s weight is of blood. 2.

To suck all the blood from an adult, you need 1,120,000 mosquitoes.3. The first blood bank was opened in 1937, in Chicago.4. A human contains 4.7 to 5.5 liters of blood.

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5. Most often, heart attacks occur on Mondays – 21% of cases and 2nd place takes Friday.6. To maintain the transparency, cornea have no blood vessel.it get nutrients from aqueous humor and from tear fluid.7. There are 4 types of blood groups- A, B, AB and O. 8.

Each blood group can be Rhesus+ or Rhesus-. 9. O negative is the universal donor and AB is the universal recipient.10. The blood has several components- RBC, WBC, Platelets, Plasma and many others.11. Red blood cells transport oxygen to all the part of the body. 12.

White Blood Cells in blood have defense mechanism. 13. Platelets have clotting function, it prevents the blood loss.14. The function of blood includes providing nutrients to the cells and collect wastes from the cells and of course oxygen transportation.15.

Every blood cell has a certain life span, for example, RBC circulates in the system for 120 days.16. Approximately 100 billion RBC are produced every hour to replace the dead RBCs.

17. Plasma makes 55% of total body’s blood volume.18. A healthy human has 20-30 trillion RBCs at any time.19. The detoxification of blood is performed by liver.20. All types of blood cells are produced in our bone marrow.

21. The blood plasma can be stored for 1 year in frozen sate.22. One pint of blood you donate can save 3 lives.23. AB- is the rarest blood type O+ is the most common blood type, but it may change according to countries.24. Baby is born with about a cup of blood.

25. The blood is filtered by kidneys. Everyday, our kidney can filter 400 gallons of blood.26. For 42 days hospital can store donated RBCs.27. Platelets cannot be stored for more than 5 days.

28. An adult human has 60,000 miles of blood vessels spread in the body. 29. People who donate blood don’t get paid, they are volunteers.30. There is a huge blood market, the blood is sold in millions to the patients.31. You can live with artificial heart, but there is no replacement for blood.

32. The heart of a healthy adult person is able to pump up to 12 liters daily.33. Every heart beat contributes to the release of an average of 130 ml.34.

Donated blood is tested for Hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis. 35. 1.3 million pints of blood is wasted every year because its expired.36. A special diet for blood groups is a myth.37.

The first ever successful blood transfusion was performed in 1600s on dogs.38. With the loss of one quarter of the blood develops a condition that threatens human life.39. It is a popular myth that blood donation is not good thing and it makes you weak.40. The anemic patients are transfused with blood to increase the level of plasma and RBCs.

41. Lungs performs the oxygenation of blood.42. In order to circulate the blood around the body, the heart creates such a pressure that it can release a blood stream 9 meters high.

43. James Harrison have rare blood group type, he had saved about 2 million of babies till now.44.

The blood is 90% water and 10% is other proteins, electrolytes, hormones, enzymes etc.45. In a relaxed state, 25% of the blood moves through the muscle tissues and kidneys.46. The red color of blood is due to presence of hemoglobin.47. Japanese scientists have identified some relationship between the blood type of a person and their character.48.

In the body of a pregnant woman, by the 20th week, 50% more blood is produced than the blood formed before fertilization.49. There are studies suggesting that coconut water is identical to the blood plasma.50. A Russian scientist tried to attain mortality by transfusing the blood but he died when he accidentally transfused the blood with malaria. 51.

Fish that inhabit the waters of the Antarctic have colorless blood. It lacks hemoglobin and erythrocytes.52. About 0.5 mg of gold is distributed in the human body through blood.53.

In Japan, a whole industry of individual products for each blood group like food, cosmetics, personal care products. 54. In late 90s, Saddam Hussein ordered to write the Quran with his blood. But now Muslim leaders don’t know what to do with this Quran.55. Ireland has a tradition- in returned to the half a liter of donated blood, half a liter of Guinness beer is offered.56.

In the car of US president there is always supply of blood in case of emergency.57. The famous soccer player, Cristiano Rolando have no tattoo on his body so that he can donate blood.58. The ancient Egyptians did not drink wine because of the color resemblance of wine with blood.59.

Blood donors in Sweden receive thank you message after donating blood and they also receive message when their blood is used for someone.60. The blood performs the thermoregulatory function.

1. Since people appear to be exposed to

1. Yourlastname 1 Student Name Professor Name Subject 18 Nov 2015 Media’s Investment in Promoting Body Dissatisfaction Introduction One cannot help but become aware that body image relates to population’s judgement with regards to their own bodies. The focus here lies in arguing that it happens as the majority of people are focused on comparing themselves to other individuals. Since people appear to be exposed to numerous media images, it is worth saying that media images occur as the major concept for a vast amount of these comparisons. Obviously, when people come to understanding the fact that their bodies emerge to be substandard due to such comparisons, they are likely to experience a serious depression; in addition, the category of those who tend to compare themselves to media images prove to be unable to cope with an extremely low self-esteem; and, consequently, they may easily develop the complex of incompleteness, which will result in exceptionally negative outcomes, including, for instance, the emergence of eating disorders, which often depend on the “woman’s view of her body” (Farley 101).

One cannot but encounter the fact that the impact of media on people’s perception of the aesthetics of sexual attractiveness as well as their own body appears to be mostly ironic, given that as the US citizens turned to be heavier, female models have become much thinner and male models appeared to be more muscled. In view of many widely-acknowledged sociologists as well as psychologists, it becomes apparent that one should distinguish several theories elucidating the way that the media impacts people’s body image, incorporating social2. Yourlastname 2 comparison theory, emerging self-schema interpretation, and third-person influence. On the basis of the above-said, one should be conscious that media is making it harder to find the real beauty due to the systematic displaying retouched photos and promoting body dissatisfaction. Contemplation upon People’s Perception The survey on body image – the way people tend to perceive their own bodies and how these viewpoints develop – was pioneered in the first quarter of 20th century (clearly 20s) by Paul Schilder.

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A peculiar thing is that Shilder’s definition of body image claims that one should consider it as “the picture of our own body which we form in our mind, that is to say, the way in which the body appears to ourselves” (Grogan 3). A number of the modern- day scholars advance an assertion that the aforementioned definition proves to underestimate all the sophisticated entity of the given field of studies; one should be conscious that body image is likely to refer to a number of different constructs starting from judgements in respect of the issues of weight, size, to being satisfied with the abovementioned areas. Evidently, the term “body image’ incorporates both the way the individuals perceive the bodies cognitively and feel about their appearance.

A particular attention should be drawn to the fact that the surveys on body image bear witness to that it actually affects many other dimensions of people’s life. Experiencing dissatisfaction with one’s body image is likely to bring in substantial challenges to pass. Taking a view of the strategy that the contemporary communication channels are focused on, it becomes absolutely clear that the media culture maintains the tendency of making the society feel pressured mainly about their body images; obviously, media promote “the unrealistic ‘Barbie-doll’ body shape” (Davis & Katzman 58). Therefore, the average3. Yourlastname 3 individual appears to be exposed to hundred of beauty images regularly, and such images, which may often possess a sexually-oriented appeal, mirror an imaginary body image that has nothing to do with the real body image. The principle of removing media body images from the reality of today’s people results in negative consequences, including people’s unwillingness to accept their imperfect bodies.

On the other hand, one should pay special attention to the fact that bodies portrayed by the media emerged to be much thinner as well; and those who contradict the slender ideal bodies “prejudice through their life span” (Grogan 10), respectively. Considering the issue of pressure about body image, it is worth saying that such a practice has undergone multiple phases of its formation; and, consequently, before the rise of the digital era, which can be characterized by the introduction of electronic mass media, the messages with regards to body images could be looked through in different books and newspapers – and going back to earlier days – in various paintings as well. Present-day media prove to have a financial investment in maintaining body dissatisfaction; obviously, media revenues are much dependent on drawing special attention to the body industry. Such a connection gives evidence that the link between communication channels and advertising unreal body images raises serious questions regarding the final outcomes of consumer trends (Vancura). Reconsidering Body Standards in the Media The ideal body shapes introduced by the communication channels have turned to be much thinner and fitter since the second half of the 20th century; and one should take into account the fact that comparing the reinterpretation of the body images among both genders, women’s body image has undergone much more substantial transformation.

At the same time, as for the US society, people became heavier here. To be precise, the number of obese4. Yourlastname 4 people has tripled. The movement towards thinner women’s body images has demonstrated a slow development since the early 20th century. It is important to admit that in the 1920’s through newspapers as well as the emerging cinematography, a much thinner body image was widely popularized. The ideal woman’s form has faced substantial changed during the Great Depression; all in all, the ideal form remained comparatively slender during the hard times of the Second World War. Regarding the postwar trend towards the issue of domesticity, it has resulted in occurrence of ultra-feminine figures, including such as, for instance, Marilyn Monroe who apparently had larger breasts yet much thinner waists; in any way, one should become aware that it was just a temporary shift of focus from thin body images. To put the matter differently, female models continued to shrink during the 1980’s and 1990’s.

It was the time of putting the females into much narrower body frames. On the basis of the aforementioned history of women’s change in beauty over the decades, one can come to understanding that the females’ norms of beauty images require being thin; concerning the males, they are told to possess sculpted muscles. Today’s people appear to exist within the framework of media-saturated space.

Numerous surveys suggest that the prevailing majority of all females tend to be hooked on reading magazines, the bulk of all people watch approximately 4 hours of television each day; additionally, the population is exposed to hundreds of body images while having a walk, reading the newspapers, and surfing the Web, which “remains largely unregulated” (Bell ; Dittmar 489). One should vividly see an entirely negative influence of such a constant exposure. The various studies suggest that the impact is usually felt in several fields.

The thing is that people tend to compare themselves to unreal body images they observe via communication channels, internalize these artificial images as the standard, and absorb the information that they have5. Yourlastname 5 to take into consideration the significance of their appearance. A peculiar thing is that the process of comparing oneself to stereotypic body images represented by media as well as internalizing the images as the principal argument is likely to negatively affect people; all in all, modern-day watching culture cannot tell the truth about self, and the fact that “fat bodies out of control no longer appeared powerful and competent” (Schwartz 122) does not make sense. Getting to Know the Trends in Body Dissatisfaction Obviously, the influence of media on body images appears to be rather complex; it is not just about the exposure that forces people to distinguish the shortcomings of their bodies; one should understand that the individuals are not struck equally by the exposure to unreal body images. The thing is that some people react rapidly to beauty photos and the others emerge to be resistant. The distinct reactions to media images can be explained by individual virtues. In other words, those being more self-conscious, focused on predominately the appearance and who suffer from eating disorders are more likely to be affected by the media – a mechanism deteriorating the everyday’s life of those who have weight problems (Pollack- Seid). The studies give evidence that the females consider the media as the key source of the comprehended societal pressure to follow the trend for a thin body.

A cross-sectional survey observing the trends within the area of body image satisfaction made it certain that females had reported relatively more satisfaction in 1960’s than in 1990’s,whereas the males’ attitude towards the body images had appeared to have the same body satisfaction between the abovementioned time frames; and, consequently, it is worth saying that some researchers consider mass media “to negatively impact females’ body image” (Agliata ; Tantleff-Dunn 7) only.6. Yourlastname 6 In view of many researchers, it becomes apparent that the construct of body comparison is likely to be a probable mediator of socio-cultural body dissatisfactions in both sexes. They advance an assertion that body comparison is firmly grounded on the social comparison interpretation, which focuses on the evaluative procedure that engages both searching for the message and making some critical decisions relative to other people. It is worth admitting that the social comparison theory proves body dissatisfaction to be caused by the way people usually interpret what is broadcasted; in addition, it is important to highlight the fact that media portrayal of the beauty image does not evoke equal effects among all the individuals. Conclusion Researchers managed to find an obvious link between exposure to the media’s promotion of the thin-ideal body and body dissatisfaction, which is increasing at a rapid rate.

The results of widely-recognized studies make it clear that females’ body dissatisfaction has increased dramatically over the decades; it has been assumed that this trend may be caused by the media’s focus on promoting an exaggerated portrayal of unreal body image. Since the average women’s body-mass index demonstrates an increasing spiral, it has been hypothesized that there might be the acceptance of larger body shapes, termed “real bodies”. Despite the fact that women’s body satisfaction has significantly increased over the past decades, the males’ body satisfaction remained mostly the same. Looking into the details of the researchers’ contemplation upon such body-satisfaction divergences, it becomes evident that their suggestions are mainly based on distinguishing the distinctions within the area of body comparison.7. Yourlastname 7 Works Cited Agliata, Daniel., and Stacey Tantleff-Dunn. The Impact of Media Exposure on Male’s Body Image.

Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23.1 (2004): 7-22. Print.

Bell, Beth., and Helga Dittmar. Does Media Type Matter? The Role of Identification in Adolescent Girls’ Media Consumption and the Impact of Different Thin-Ideal Media on Body Image. Sex Roles, 65.7-8 (2011): 478-490. Print. Davis, Cindy.

, and Melanie Katzman. Culture and Eating Disorders. In R. Lemberg, (Ed.), Eating Disorder Reference Book.

Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1999. Print. Farley, Shanon. Mass Media and Socio?Cultural Pressures on Body Image and Eating Disorders among Adolescent Women. Perspectives (University of New Hampshire) (2011): 100-107. Print.

Grogan, Sarah. Body image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women, and Children. New York, NY: Routledge, 1999. Print. Pollack-Seid, Roberta. Never Too Thin. New York, NY: Prentice Hall Press, 1989.

Print. Schwartz, Hillel. Never Satisfied: A Cultural History of Diets, Fantasies and Fat. New York: The Free Press, 1986. Print. Vancura, Diana. The Media Focus Too Much on Looks. Teen Decisions: Body Image.

Ed. Auriana Ojeda. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2003. Print.

1.1 an increased in manufactured of herbal

1.1 IntroductionMedicinal?plants have played a vital role in the?health of population. World Health Organization (WHO) has stated the?pharmaceutical aspects of the quality of medicines, intrinsic?safety and?efficacy of?pharmacologically?active substances. Guidance on this has been?published in the reports of the WHO Expert Committee on Essential Drugs, the?WHO?display?endorsing?data?arrangement, the WHO?pharmaceutical bulletin, and the?quarterly WHO drug?information. From?that point?significant?data is?extended into the?routinely?refreshed?United Nations Consolidated?rundown?of items?whose?utilization as well as?deal?have been?prohibited, ?pulled?back, ?extremely?limited or?not?affirmed by?governments.

Besides that, when there were new?migrants?from other countries where these traditional?or herbal?medicines?plays a vital?role, there is an increased in manufactured of herbal medicine. The consumers and health?care?providers in both developed?and?developing?countries also need to?be delivered?with latest and accurate information?on the beneficial?properties. In many parts of the world, undesirable and/or?undeclared substances have been present or have been unsubstantiated to be present in herbal medicines or medicinal plants every once a while. These substances have included pesticides, radioactive.. particles, and microbes including pathogens, mycotoxins, heavy? metals and arsenic. In order to reduce the risk of adverse events attributable to unsafe and poor-quality herbal medicines, WHO has focused on building up a progression of new specialized rules identifying with the safety? and quality assurance of herbal ?medicines, and to updating? existing technical documents in this field. These activities actualize parts of the WHO Traditional Medicine?Strategy: 2002– 2005 1.

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Within the overall?context of?quality?control?of herbal?medicines, with?particular?reference to biological, ?chemical, and radioactive ?contaminants, and pesticide?residues, WHO has likewise created?general ?worldwide? rules for surveying the wellbeing of conceivably??risky? substances in herbal medicine.The national experts and different partners in arrangement?of ?herbal?medicine are probably going to experience various?difficulties, including the setting?of models for?quality, their?selection, observing?and requirement in?order to ensure the quality and safety of these herbal?medicine. The national?approach and?regulations ought to likewise consider all local and special?needs. Techniques, both?general?and particular, for the assurance of the different?measures and?qualities are also stated in the guidelines. Without?applicable and fitting?national?benchmarks, there is a?hazard that these natural?solutions might be lost to customary?clients and end?up?inaccessible to new clients?for some reasons. These causes including: their neglecting to meet different trade, enrolment, import and export?prerequisites and increasing?cases of adverse?side?effects of herbal?medicine.The purpose of these?rules is to?characterize?fundamental?criteria for the evaluation?of quality, safety and efficacy of?herbal?medicines and thereby?to assist ?national?regulatory?authorities, scientific?organizations?and?manufacturers to undertake?an?assessment of the?documentation?and?submissions in?respect of?such products.

The things to be considered as a general rule in this assessment includes the?traditional?experience?means that long-term use?as?well as the?medical, ?historical and?ethnological?background?of those products. The definition of long-term use may vary according to the country but should be at least several decades. Therefore, the assessment should take into account a description in the medical or pharmaceutical literature or similar sources, or a documentation of knowledge on the application of an herbal medicine without a clearly defined time limitation. Marketing authorizations for similar products should be taken into account and also the harmful effects, of all herbal medicines. Promoting endorsements for relative things should be considered. Damaging effects, of each and every characteristic prescription.Without?confirmation?that these?medications are applicable?to need wellbeing?needs and that they?meet?adequate?norms?of value, ?security and?viability, any?wellbeing?administration?is?compromised.

Extensive?authoritative?and?specialized?exertion is?coordinated?to?ensure?that? patients?get medications?of good quality. 2 It is vital that the purpose of providing health for?all?that a?solid?arrangement?of medication?control be?brought to all the?country around?the world.Figure showed the focus of WHO guidelines on herbal medicine.1.2 The definition and main features of herbal medicines According to the WHO definition, herbal?drugs?contain as?active?ingredients?plant?parts or?plant?materials?in the?crude?or?processed?state?plus certain?excipients, i.e.

,?solvents, ?diluents or?preservatives. 3 Phototherapeutics?agents?are?standardized?herbal?preparations that?consists of?complex?mixtures?of one?or?more?plants?which are used in?most?countries?for the?management?of various diseases. Normally, it is unknown?of the?pharmacological?action?of?the?active?principles?of the?herbal medicine. One?elementary?characteristics?is the?fact that they?normally?do not?possess an?instant or?durable pharmacological?effect. As so, it is not used in treatment for?emergency cases.

4 Another?characteristics of herbal?medicines are their?comprehensive?therapeutic use?and accepted?by most?of the?population. Herbal?medicines are?commonly?used to treat?chronic?diseases when compare?to modern?medicines. Combinations, with?chemically?defined?active?substances or?isolated?ingredients?are not?considered to be?herbal medicines. Although homeopathic?preparations?may?frequently?contain plants, they?are also not?considered to be herbal?medicines. In addition, they are normally?marketed as?standardized?preparations?in?the?form?of liquid, ?solid (powdered?extract), or?viscous?preparations.

They are?prepared?by?maceration, ?percolation or?distillation (volatile?oils). Production?of fluid?extracts requires?ethanol, ?water, or?mixtures?of?ethanol and?water. Evaporation?of the?solvents?used in?the?process?of?extraction of the?raw?material?can produced?solid or powered?extracts. To increase?their therapeutic?efficacy, they are made more?concentrated. For instance, the?standardized?powder?extract?of Ginkgo?biloba have?the ratio of 50:1. It is also possible to?remove?some?secondary?metabolites?present?in the?plants?which?may produce?undesirable?side?effects. Contrasted?and?all?around characterized?engineered drugs, home grown?pharmaceuticals?display?some?stamped?contrasts, including?the?dynamic?standards?are?regularly obscure;?institutionalization, security?and?quality?control?are possible yet?difficult; all around?controlled?twofold?visually?impaired?clinical?and?toxicological?investigations?to demonstrate?their?adequacy?and?wellbeing?are?uncommon; observational?use?in?people?medication?is a vital?trademark; they?have an?extensive?variety?of?remedial?utilize and are?appropriate?for constant?medicines; the event?of?bothersome?reactions?is by all?accounts?less?successive with home grown?solutions, yet?very much?controlled?randomized?clinical?trials have?uncovered?that they?additionally?exist; they?normally cost?less?than synthetic?drugs.

2.0 Assessment of Quality of Herbal MedicineIt is important?to take?the? quality? control?and?standardization of herbal?medicine?seriously as this can?reduce?adulterations with?substandard?drugs, improper?authentication?and the?identity and?purity of herbal medicine?can be identified. Pharmaceutical?assessment?should?cover all?essential?parts?of the quality?assessment?of herbal?medicines. It ought to be adequate to make?reference to a?pharmacopeia?monograph?in the event?that one?exists. On the off chance?that no?such?monograph?is accessible, a?monograph?must be?provided and ought?to be set?out as in?an?official?pharmacopeia.

The?procedures?must all be in?accordance?with good?manufacturing practices.Crude plant materialTo ensure correct?identification?of a plant, the herbal?definition, including?genus, ?species?and?authority are ought?to be given. A?definition?and?depiction of the?piece?of the?plant from?which the?prescription?is made (e.g. leaf, ?blossom, ?root) ought to be given, together?with a sign?of whether?fresh, ?dried or?material?prepared?traditionally is utilized.

The?active?and?characteristic?constituents ought to be?indicated and, if?conceivable?substance?cut off points ought to be?characterized. Pollutions?either?by foreign?matter, impurities?and microbial?substance?should be?characterized?or restricted. ?Samples that representing?each lot of?plant?material?prepared, ought to be?validated by a qualified?botanist and should?be kept for?at least?a ten years?period. A?lot number?should be?assigned and this?should be?labelled on the product. Plant preparationsThe?comminuted?or powdered?plant materials, ?extracts, ?tinctures?, ?fatty or ?essential?oils, ?expressed?juices?and preparations?whose process?of production?involves?fractionation, ?purification or?concentration. On?the off chance that?different?substances?are added?amid fabricate with a?specific end goal? to change ?the plant?planning to a?specific?level of dynamic, the?additional substances?ought to be stated?in the?manufacturing?procedure. A?method?to identify?the identity and, where probable, the?assay?of plant?preparation should be added.

On the off chance that distinguishing?proof of an active?principle isn’t conceivable, it ought to be?adequate?to recognize?substances (e.g. “chromatographic?fingerprint”) to guarantee?predictable?nature of the readiness.Finished productThe?manufacturing?procedure and?formula, including the?measure of?excipients, should?be?portrayed in?detail. Its?final product?specification are ought to be characterized. A?technique?of?identification and, where?likely, evaluation?of the plant?material in the?completed?item?ought to be?characterized. The final?product?ought to?consent?to general?necessities?for specific?dosage?forms. For?imported?completed items, ?affirmation?of the?administrative?status in the?country of?origin is necessary.

The?WHO Certification?Scheme?on the Quality?of Pharmaceutical Products?Moving in?International?Commerce?ought to be applied.2.1 Standardization of Botanical herbs and Quality of their preparationsThere are?few? hundred ?of?constituents that are?presented?in plant?and some?of them?are?available at?a minimal?concentration. Disregarding?of the modern chemical?analytical?procedures?available, seldom do?phytochemical?investigations?succeed in isolating?and?characterizing all?secondary?metabolites that is found?in the?plant?extract. Aside from this, plant?constituents?change extensively?relying?upon a few?components?that hinder?the quality?control of phototherapeutic?materials.

There?are a few?stages?on quality?control and standardization?of herbal medicine. Be that as it may, the?source and?nature of?crude materials also plays an?essential role to?ensure the herbal?medicine meets the?standard?of quality?and stability.Different?factors, for?example, the?utilization of new plants, temperature, light introduction, water?accessibility, supplements, period?and time?of?collection, ?technique?for gathering, ?drying, ?pressing, stockpiling and?transportation of?crude material, ?age and part?of the plant?gathered can?influence?the herbal?medication’s quality and the?therapeutic?value. Some?plant?constituents are heat?labile and the plants?containing them?should be dried?at low?temperatures. Likewise, other?active?principles are?annihilated by the?enzymatic?processes that continue?for long?periods of?time after plant?collection and this?will affects the?composition?of the herbal?based drugs. Therefore, appropriate?standardization and?quality?control of crude?drug?material and the?herbal?preparations themselves?must be fixed.

In the?situations where the?active?principles are?obscure, investigative?on the?marker?substance are ought to be set?up. Yet, these?markers?have never?been?tested in?most cases to see?whether?they truly?represent for the?therapeutic?action labelled for the herbal drugs. As?pointed out?previously, aside?from these?variable?components, others, for?example, the?technique?for?extraction?and sullying?with?microorganisms, overwhelming? metals, ?pesticides, and?so on, can?likewise? meddle with the quality, ?security and?adequacy of herbal?drugs. Therefore, ?pharmaceutical?organizations?lean?toward?utilizing? developed?plants rather than?wild-collected?plants since they?demonstrate?little variety?in their constituents.

Besides, when?restorative?plants are?created by?development, the?principle?auxiliary metabolites can be?observed and?this can?determines the?best?time to?harvest the herbal?plants. 8, 9 Figure above: Summary for standardization and Quality Evaluation of Herbal drugs.2.2 Macroscopic study Visual?examination gives the?least?complex?and fastest means by which to build up?character, virtue?and quality. Plainly?visible?personality of therapeutic plant materials?depends on shape, measure, shading, surface?attributes, surface, break? qualities and appearance of the cut surface.2.3 Microscopic study For separating?comparable species, detail of?cell structure and?arrangement of the cells.

Select an?agent test of the?material and if it is dried parts?of a plant than it might require?softening before?readiness?for microscopy, ideally by being set in a?sodden climate, or by?absorbing water. Any water-solvent substance?can be?expelled?from the cells?by absorbing water. Starch?grains can be?gelatinized by?warming in water.2.4 Biological studyStarch grains, aleurone?grains, Fats, ?fatty oils, volatile?oils and?resins, Calcium oxalate/?carbonate?crystals, lignified?cell wall, Cellulose?cell wall, ?Mucilage and?Tannin.

2.4.1 Ash value This?requires a non-volatile inorganic?components. A high?ash value?reveals that there are?contamination, ?substitution, ?adulteration or carelessness in preparing the crude drugs.2.4.2 Total ash It usually consists of?carbonates, phosphates, silicates and silica. Total?ash is designed to measure?the total amount?of material produced after?complete?incineration of the drug material at as low?temperature as possible (about 450°C) to remove?all the carbons.

2.4.3 Acid insoluble ash Ash insoluble in?hydrochloric?acid is the residue?obtained after extracting the total ash with?hydrochloric acid. It gives?indication about?the earthy?matter. WHO method: 25 ml of hydrochloric acid (~70g/l).2.4.

4 Water soluble ash It is the?total ash content which is?soluble in water. It’s good?indicator of presence of previous?extraction of water?soluble salts in the drug or?incorrect preparation or amount of inorganic?matter.2.4.5 Extractive valueIt is the amount of?the active?constituents present in crude?drug material when extracted with specific solvent.

The method to determine extractive?values include cold method, hot method and soxhlet method. 2.4.6 Insoluble matterThere is the presence of woody?matter or vegetable?debris or pieces of bark?materials. For instance, in catechu the water?insoluble?matter?presence is: NMT 33% Alcohol insoluble matter: NMT 30%2.4.7 Total solid content The residue obtained when prescribed?amount of?preparation is dried?to constant weight under the specified condition (Residue?on evaporation). The powdered?extract: NLT 95%.

2.4.8 Volatile oil content Volatile oils are the liquid?components of the plant?cells, immiscible?with water, and volatile at ordinary?temperature and can be steam?distilled at ordinary?pressure. Many herbal drugs contain volatile?oil which is used as flavouring?agent.

2.4.9 Bitterness value Restorative?plant materials that have a solid?unpleasant taste are utilized?remedially, generally?as inviting?operators. Their?intensity animates?emissions in the gastrointestinal?tract, particularly of gastric?juice. The severe?properties of plant material are controlled?by contrasting the edge?intense convergence?of a concentrate of the?materials with that of a?weaken?arrangement of quinine hydrochloride. The intensity esteem is communicated in?unit identical to the ?severity of an answer?containing 1g of quinine hydrochloride R in 2000 ml.2.

4.10 Haemolytic activity Many medicinal?plant materials contain saponins. The most characteristic?property of saponins?is their ability to cause?haemolysis; when?added to a suspension?of blood, saponins?produce changes in?erythrocyte membranes, causing haemoglobin to?diffuse into the surrounding?medium. The haemolytic?activity of plant?materials, or a preparation?containing?saponins, is determined by?comparison with that of a?reference material.

2.5 Determination of aflatoxin in medical herbsIt permits?the quantitation of aflatoxin B1 at levels?lower than 2 mg/g. A moment extractant (CH3)2CO water) was tried and?contrasted with the proposed?methanol-water extractant.

A few post-section?derivatization alternatives (electrochemically?produced bromine, photochemical?response, and concoction?bromination) and additionally extraordinary?reconciliation?modes (stature versus zone) were likewise?researched. No distinctions?were discovered relying upon the decision of?derivatization framework or the flag?reconciliation mode?utilized. The strategy was tried for 3 diverse grids: Senna units, ginger root, and fiend’s paw. Execution attributes were built up from the after?effects of the examination.3.0 Assessment of Safety of Herbal Medicine Adverse??effects reported in?relation to herbal?products are?frequently attributable?either to poor?quality or to improper?use, and it is therefore?difficult to distinguish?genuine adverse?reactions to herbal medicines and herbal?products until the cause of such?events has been?identified. Thus, to ensure?that the herbal medicines are safe?to use, the adverse?impact of herbal?drugs must be identified, and the?organization that responsible in?management of problems and risk to?counteract adverse?events and great?correspondence of issues and safe?use for maximum?benefit of herbal medicines are critical.3.

1 Guiding principles for Assessing Safety of Herbal Medicine: 3.1.1 Foreign matterA sample?of herbs and herbal?medicines ought not to surpass the limits of foreign?matter set in?national, provincial?or international?pharmacopoeias.

Examples of foreign?matter includes?insects and other including?creature?excreta, and in addition different types of plants. All in all, any?substance other than the worthy?example of good?quality therapeutic?plant material is viewed as foreign?matter. An?unadulterated sample is rare and there is always some foreign?matter present?making it difficult to be pure.

Nevertheless no?noxious, risky or generally?hurtful outside?issue ought to be permitted. In this manner?following the?GACP should?guarantee that?defilement is kept?to a base. Evacuation?of bigger bits of foreign?matter from?entire and cut plants?is regularly done?by hand-arranging after plainly?visible examination. Foreign matters must be?inspected in all?final products.Contaminants3.1.2 Arsenic and toxic metalsThe provisional tolerable intake (PTI) values sets a?guidelines for controlling?the maximum?amounts of toxic metals and non-metals in medicinal plant material. These?standards are ought to be?recognized on a?regional or national basis.

For instance, Limit test for arsenicArsenic can be found?abundantly in?nature and its presence in herbal?medicines. A prominent?test technique?depends on the?processing of the plant?grid took after by subjection of the?digestate that is?similar to the colorimetric?test. The test?strategy portrayed?beneath utilizes?colorimetry and does?not utilize?lethal mercuric?bromide?paper.

The strategy?utilizes N-N-diethylmethyldithiocarbamate in pyridine and it responds?with hydrogen?arsenide to form a red– purple complex. The point of?confinement is?communicated?regarding arsenic (III) trioxide (As2O3).The utilization?of herbal?medicinal products is not generally?expected to contribute?fundamentally to the?introduction of the populace?to overwhelming?metal contaminants. It ought? to be known that the?contents of heavy?metals present in the herbal?drugs must always be kept?minimal.

In general it would be?desirable to harmonize?limits for toxic?metals and?standards, as this would have?many?benefits including the?simplification of universal?trade.3.1.3 Persistent organic pollutantsIt includes several?chemicals that are?insoluble in water and are steady?or stable?in nature. They are regularly?transported around the world?on account of their protection from?breakdown and they would possibly?damage?people and natural?life that ingest them. In a short period of time, they will not vanish from our surroundings since some are as yet being delivered and utilized as a part of numerous nations. Globally, through the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, some hard works are being made to control their?generation and discharge, and to substitute?them with different less?risky?pesticides. 3.

1.4 Radioactive contaminantsThe?measure of presentation?to radiation?relies upon the admission?of radionuclides?and its?criticalness depends thus on different?factors, for example, the?age, metabolic energy and?weight of the person?who ingests?them, also known as the dose?conversion factors. Amid the manufacturing procedure, the degree of contamination may be lessen. And that is why there are no?restrictions for radioactive?pollution in these rules and herbal?drugs ought to be tried on a?case-by-case?premise as?indicated by national?and local?measures. In such?a procedure, risk?management instead of risk?assessment can be set in light of the control?in national?regulation. 3.

1.5 Microbial toxinsMycotoxins?and, when proper, endotoxins?ought to be tried for?utilizing a fittingly approved?and delicate?technique. The measures?are ought to be beneath the cut?off points set in national?or provincial?models. It is suggested that in?performing investigations?for mycotoxins?specific care ought to be in?accordance with great practice?rules, for example, WHO great?practices for national pharmaceutical?control research canters.3.1.6 Microbiological contaminantsBacteriaMicroorganism?that must not be present in herbal?medicines intended for?internal use includes?Salmonella and?Shigella species.

Different?microorganisms ought to be?tried for and ought as far as possible?set out in?provincial, national or?universal pharmacopoeias. Distinctive?pharmacopoeias have?diverse testing?prerequisites and these are ought to be?counselled?when settling on the proper?decision when choosing herbal medication. No Salmonella species should be present in any of the culture media.Description of Salmonellacolonies appearing on different culture mediaMedium Description of colonyDeoxycholate?citrate agar Well-developed, colourlessXylose, lysine, ?deoxycholate agar Well-developed, red, with or without black centresBrilliant?green agar Small, transparent and colourless, or opaque, pink orwhite (frequently surrounded by a pink to red zone)(Taken from WHO Guidelines for assessing quality of Herbal medicine with reference to contaminants and residues)3.1.7 ResiduesPesticide residuesFollowing the?recommendations of the Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, the limits for pesticide?residues should be established?for food and?animal feed. These?references include an?acceptable daily?intake and the analytical?methodology for the?assessment of pesticide?residues.

At?present however there?are no standard?systems for task?of these?maximum residue?levels in the restorative?plant territory, in this way the strategies?utilized for sustenance?could likely be utilized for the?planning of a model. Verifiably the FAO and WHO have?built up maximum residue levels, in light of directed trials?and foundation of GAP (10) for the utilization of pesticides?for an assortment of sustenance?wares and mixes?of pesticides and?nourishment?products. The Codex Alimentarius?Commission has adopted a list of approved?pesticides for spices and their maximum?residue levels as shown in the table below. Examples maximum residue level of (a few) pesticides:Pesticide(CCPR-number)Group or sub-group of spices MRL(mg/kg)?Dimethoate (027) ? SeedsFruits or berries Roots or rhizomes 50.50.1 (*)?Disulfoton(074) Entire group028c 0.05 (*)?Endosulfan (032) ? SeedsFruits or berriesRoots or rhizomes 150.5?Ethion (034) ? SeedsFruits or berriesRoots or rhizomes 350.

3?Fenitrothion (037) SeedsFruits or berriesRoots or rhizomes 710.1?Dicofol (026) ?Seeds Fruits or berries Roots or rhizomes 0.05 (*)0.10.1?Vinclozolin (159) ? Entire spice group 0.05 (*)(*) At or about the limit of determination.

Referred from: The residue definitions remain the same as those recommended for the given pesticide in other plant commodities (http://www.codexalimentarius.net/mrls/pestdes/pest_ref/MRLs_Spices_e.pdf).

Maximum?limit of pesticide?residues for herbal materialsThe toxicological?assessment of pesticide?residues in herbal?medicines are ought to be done. It should be evaluate?according to the probable?consumption of the herbs by?patients. In the absence of a full?risk assessment and for?practical reasons, it is suggested?that the intake of?residues from herbal?products must be not?more than 1% of total?intake from all sources, including?food and?drinking-water (11). Since the?level of pesticide?build-ups may change?amid the process of?manufacturing, it is important to decide the?genuine amount of?deposits devoured in the last?measurement frame. It is always?recommended to take up the?approach of the?FAO in deciding?MRLs as herbal drugs are used in management of chronic?disease and prophylactic?reasons.

Acceptable residue level (ARL)An ARL (in mg of?pesticide per kg of therapeutic?plant material) can be?ascertained based on the most?extreme ADI of the pesticide?for people, as, prescribed by?FAO and WHO, and the mean?daily intake (MDI) of the?plant substances that contained?medicinal properties. Some?countries have built up national?prerequisites for?deposit constrains in?therapeutic plant materials. In the event that no such ?necessities exist, different?references can be?counselled, for example, different?pharmacopoeias or published?documents. According to WHO and?FAO, where such supplies?do not exist, the following?formula based on the acceptable daily?intake can be apply: ADI = maximum acceptable daily intake of pesticide (mg/kg of body weight)E = extraction factor, determined experimentally, which determines the transfer?rate of the pesticide from the medicinal plant?material into the dosage formMDI = mean daily intake in kilograms of medicinal plant material 60: this number represents a mean adult body weight of 60 kg; it may need to be adjusted for certain patient groups, nationalities, etc.

100: this number is a consumption factor of 100 reflects the requirement that no more than 1% of the total pesticide residue consumed should be derived from medicinal plant material.3.1.

8 Residual solventsThe expression”permitted?daily exposure” (PDE) is proposed as?pharmaceutically satisfactory?admission of leftover?solvents to maintain a strategic?distance from disarray?coming about because of varying?qualities for ADIs of a similar?substance.4.0 Assessment of Efficacy of Herbal Medicine Herbal?drugs has?turned into a famous?kind of health?care. Despite?the fact that few?contrasts exist amongst?herbs and regular?pharmacological medications, natural?prescription can be tried for viability?utilizing?customary trial?philosophy. A few particular?herbal concentrates?have been?exhibited to be?efficacious for particular?conditions. Despite the fact that the general?population is frequently?misdirected to trust?that every?single regular?treatment are safe, herbal?meds do convey?risks. Therefore, we have to know which herbal?drugs can produce more?advantages then harmful effects.

4.1 Clinical?Trials using Herbal?medicinesThese guidelines?for the assessment of herbal?medicines endeavour to identify?the?extended and diverse?history of traditional?medicine in the region?and the?contrasts between the?demonstrative?frameworks of present day?solution and the different?conventional drugs of the Member?States. Clinical?trials of natural?pharmaceuticals may have two kinds of?targets. One is to approve the?safety and?efficacy that is asserted for a customary?herbal drugs. The other is to raise?new herbs or look at?another sign for a current home grown?pharmaceutical or a difference?in measurements detailing, or course of?organization.

At times, trials?might be intended?to test the clinical?action of a?refined or semi-filtered?compound got from natural?drugs. This should cover all important aspects of efficacy assessment. A survey of the important writing ought to be completed and duplicates gave of the first articles or legitimate references made to them. If there is a research studies, it is ought to be considered.4.2 Activity of the Herbal medicamentsThe?pharmacological and clinical?impacts of the active?ingredients of herbal?medicines, if known, their?constituents with therapeutic?activity ought to be?indicated or depicted. 4.

3 Indications supported by proofThe indication(s) for the?utilization of the?medication ought to be determined. On account of conventional drugs, the?prerequisites for evidence of?viability ought to rely upon?the sort of indication. For treatment of?minor issue and for?non-particular signs, some unwinding in prerequisites for evidence of?adequacy might be legitimized, considering the degree of traditional use. ?Similar contemplations may apply to utilization?in prophylaxis. Singular?encounters recorded in reports?from doctors, ?customary wellbeing specialists or treated?patients ought to be considered. Where?conventional utilize has?not been built up, ?a suitable clinical proof ought to be needed when that?particular traditional herbal?meds has not been?established.4.4 Combination?productsEvaluation are ought to separate?amongst old and new?mixture of products as many herbal?meds comprise of a?blend of a few active?constituents, and due to experience the herbal?medicine are often used in?combination.

Indistinguishable?necessities for the evaluation?of old and new?blends would bring about?unseemly appraisal?of certain traditional?medicines.On account of generally?utilized mix items, the documentation?of conventional utilize, (for example, established?writings of?Ayurveda, customary?Chinese prescription, Unani, ?Siddha) and?experience may fill in as?confirmation of efficacy.A clarification of another?mix of surely understood?substances, including?compelling dosage extents and?similarity, ought to be required?notwithstanding the?documentation of conventional?learning of each single?fixing. Every dynamic fixing must add to the adequacy of the medication. To legitimize the efficacy of another fixing and its beneficial outcome on the combination drugs can be done by clinical?investigations. 5.0 Assessment of Herbal medicine for Intended use 5.1 Product information for the consumer and PromotionProduct labels and package inserts should be understandable to the consumer or patient.

The package information should include all necessary information on the proper use of the product.The following elements of information will usually?suffice, ?name of the product, quantitative?rundown of dynamic ingredient(s) measurements?frame, signs, ?dose (if proper, determined for?youngsters and the?elderly), method of?organization, term of utilization, major unfriendly impacts, if any overdose data, contraindications, notices, precautionary measures and significant medication?connections, use?amid pregnancy and lactation, expiry?date, part number and holder of the advertising?approval. (11)?Commercials and other special?material coordinated to?wellbeing staff and the overall population ought to be?completely predictable with?the affirmed bundle data.

6.0 ConclusionAs herbal?medicinal products are intricate?blends that begin from organic?sources, awesome?endeavours are important to ensure a?consistent and satisfactory?quality. The morphological?and microscopic?identifications are utilized to?determine the? authenticity of herbal?medicines, and the physical?and synthetic?characters are utilized to assess?the nature of?herbs in the current?quality measures. The unique?examinations have been universally?acknowledged as one of the?proficient techniques to control the nature?of herbs.

Notwithstanding?fingerprinting, different?parameters, for example, microbiological and?concoction pollutions, ?adulterants and?lethality including?genotoxicity are to be surveyed. The?safety and?efficacy of home grown pharmaceuticals are such a concern in?country which use a lot of herbal?medicine. Numerous?systems utilized as a part of the disclosure?and assessment of?traditional medications can be adjusted?to home grown?prescriptions. Such?assessments will increase the value?of natural?medications and doctors or patients will be more?aware of which?herbs to be taken or not to?be taken. These?rules for the appraisal?of herbal meds are?proposed to?encourage the work of regulatory?authorities, scientific?bodies and industry?in the?development, evaluation?and enlistment of such items.

The evaluation?ought to mirror?the logical learning?assembled in that field. Such appraisal could be the?reason for future?arrangement of home grown?medications in various parts?of the world. Different?sorts of traditional?medicines in addition to herbal? products may be evaluated?likewise. The viable?direction and control of herbal?meds moving in worldwide?trade likewise requires close?contact between national?establishments that can keep?under customary survey all parts?of generation and?utilization of natural solutions, and also to lead or support?evaluative investigations?of their viability, poisonous?quality, ?security, adequacy, ?cost and ?relative ?contrasted and different?medications utilized as a part of current?prescription. (12) ReferencesDe Smet PAGM (1997).

The role of plant derived drugs and herbal medicines in healthcare. Dr Cragg GM, Newman DJ & Snader KM (1997). Natural products in drug discovery and development. Journal of Natural Products, 60: 52-60.ugs, 54: 801-840.Akerele O (1993). Summary of WHO guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines.

HerbalGram, 28: 13-19.Bulletin of the World Health Organization (1993). Research guidelines for evaluating the safety and efficacy of herbal medicine. Geneva, 1-86.Zeisel SH (1999). Regulation of “nutraceuticals”. Science, 285: 1853-1855.

Petrovick PR, Marques LC & Paula IC (1999). New rules for phytopharmaceutical drug registration in Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 66: 51-55.Bauer R & Tittel G (1996). Quality assessment of herbal preparations as a precondition of pharmacological and clinical studies. Phytomedicine, 2: 193-198.Blumenthal M, Brusse WR, Goldberg A,Gruenwald J, Hall T, Riggins CW & RisterRS (1998).

The Complete German CommissionE Monographs. TherapeuticGuide to Herbal Medicines. The American Botanical Council, Austin, TX, USA.

Eskinazi D, Blumenthal M, Farnsworth N & Riggins CW (1999). Botanical Medicine: Efficacy, Quality Assurance, and Regulation.Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publisher,New York.

Pesticide residues in food – methods of analysis and sampling. Codex Alimentarius.Vol. 2A, Part 1, 2nd ed.

Rome, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, 2000.Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1998.WHO Guidelines for Assessing Quality of Herbal Medicines with Reference to Contaminants and Residues. (2007; 118 pages)Faculty of PharmacyWHO Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicine.Name : Brenda Ngu Yen QinID : P16090923Class No : 6Year : 2Sem : 2 Batch : 12Lecturer’s Name: Dr.

Mukesh Singh Sikarwar

1. and it is one of the highest

1. Colombia is the only country in South America with the access of both The Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.2.

South America’s oldest democracy is of Colombia.3. The official name of Colombia is The Republic of Colombia.4. Bogota is the capital of Colombia and it is one of the highest altitude cities in the world.5. Spanish is the official language of Colombia.6.

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Colombia is a second most biodiverse country in the world.7. Colombia is the fourth largest country in South America.

8. There are 8 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Colombia.9. The name ‘Colombia’ was given after Christopher Columbus.

10. Colombia produces about 12% of the total coffee produced in the world.11. There are 58 National Parks in Columbus which covers 11% of the global area of the country.12. The ‘River of Five Colors’ is in Colombia.

13. The Sierra Nevada in Colombia is second highest coastal mountain in the world.14. Colombia is leading producer of Green Gemstone called, Emeralds.15. Colombia lies on the Pacific Ocean’s Pacific Ring of Fire. It is a zone where earthquakes and volcanos are very common.

16. In the world, Colombia is the third largest exporter of coffee.17. Colombia is home to many endemic species of animals and plants.18. Colombians celebrates 18 holidays in a year, which is the second highest, first is India.

19. In Colombia, about 1,800 species of birds can be found.20. 90% of Colombia population is Catholic.21. Colombia shares the border with 5 countries- Peru, Ecuador, Brazil, Venezuela, and Panama.22.

It is compulsory in Colombia to play National anthem on radio and TV every day at 6 am and 6 pm.23. Graffiti is not a punishable crime in Colombia, instead, they support street art.24. The favorite breakfast of Colombia is milk soup with undercooked eggs and is called Changua.25. The mountain Cerro Rico was a discovery of Spain. The mountain had silver.

26. There is a celebration in Colombia when a girl turns 15 and is called “La Quinceañera” and the gift for a girl is gold.27. Colombia was ranked as the happiest country in the world twice.28.

18 years is the legal drinking age in Colombia.29. Aguardiente drink made from sugarcane is the National drink of the country.30. Tejo is the traditional and national sports of Colombia.31. The economy of Colombia is third largest in South America.

32. It is believed that human-settled in Colombia before 20,000 years.33. The population of Colombia is about 48.6 million.34. Colombia covers the area of 1,141,748 square kilometers of the earth. 35.

Colombia has a coastline of about 2,000 miles.36. There are only 14 species of Wax Palm in the world, and Colombia has 7 of them.37. After cancer, drug-related violence is the second most common cause of death.38. The highest peak in Colombia is the Pico Cristobal Colon at 19,020 feet.

39. Colombian men while talking or handshaking always looks in the eyes.40. The most popular sports of Colombia are Football, roller skating, boxing, baseball, and weightlifting.41. Pablo Escobar once offered to pay the debt of Colombia of $10 billion to improve his reputation.42.

There are approximately 300 beaches in Colombia, which are open for locals and tourists.43. Amazon Rainforest covers the one-third portion of Colombia.44. Colombian women are very concern about their figure, thousands of cosmetic surgeries are performed every year in Colombia.45. Spanish ruled Colombia for 300 years.46.

Colombia became independent from Spain in 1813.47. The government of Colombia bans alcohol on major country events like World Cup to avoid public violence.48. Colombia has the longest bike road in South America, it is 300 kilometers long.

49. Marigolds and lilies are for funerals in Colombia and are never given as a gift.50. The highest waterfall of Colombia is The Tequendama Falls.51. Colombia hosts one of the biggest salsa festival, carnival festival, theatre festival, festival of flowers and many more.

52. Flatbread prepared from corn flour with different fillings is a popular snack of Colombians.53. The famous musicians Shakira and Juanes are Colombian.54. The first Spanish settlement in Colombia was in Santa Marta.

55. There are more than 60 indigenous languages spoken in Colombia.56. Colombians use both maternal and paternal surnames.57. Colombian women got right to vote from 1975.58. Due to its location near the equator, there is hardly any change in season, they have sun throughout the year.

59. Scientists believe that more than 3,000 species of butterflies are found in Colombia.60. The drug lord Pablo Escobar was from Colombia.61. More than 70% of the population lives in cities.

62. The longest river of Colombia is Magdalena.63. The literacy rate of Colombia is 92.7%.

64. There are two National holidays- July 20 and August 7.65. If you want to learn scuba-dive in cheap price then Colombia is the best.66. Colombia is the top producer of cocaine.67.

Colombian Peso is the national currency of Colombia.68. The pink dolphins can be found in Colombia.69. Colombia is the third largest oil producing country in South America.

70. The life expectancy of Colombia is 74.18 years.


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