1

1. ‘Alaska’ name is derived from an Aleutian word alaxsxaq which means the “the object toward which the action of the sea is directed.”
2. Alaska is the northernmost and the largest state of all the states of United States and is one-fifth of the entire land area of the US.
3. On July 7, 1958, the U.S. Congress declared Alaska as the 49th state.
4. The total area of Alaska is as twice as Texas.
5. The capital of Alaska, Juneau, can be accessed only by sea or by air; it is the only capital of the US state without land communication.
6. Alaska was discovered by a Danish explorer, Vitus Bering in 1741.
7. In 1784 Gregor Shelekhov, a fur trader established the first settlement on Three Saints Bay on Alaska’s Kodiak Island.
8. It was sold by Russian in 7.2 million dollars but Russian rulers regretted later when gold deposits were found in Alaska.
9. The distance between the extreme points of Russia and Alaska does not exceed 3.5 km!
10. Alaska has more than three million lakes, about three thousand rivers, one hundred thousand glaciers and about seventy active volcanoes.
11. Alaska is the most popular state for flying in the U.S.
12. One third of Alaska is in the Arctic Circle. It’s very cold in Alaska.
13. The lowest temperature was recorded -62.2 degree Celsius in 1971.
14. In one of the cities in Alaska, the mayor for more than fifteen years was a cat.
15. In spite of the fact that bears are allowed to hunt, it is forbidden to wake sleeping bears in order to photograph them.
16. The flag of Alaska was drawn by a thirteen-year-old boy who took part in the competition for the best state flag and he won.
17. Golden stars on the blue flag of Alaska represent the constellation of the Big Dipper and the North Star, which enters the constellation of the Little Ursa.
18. Earthquake is very common in Alaska. The second strongest in the history of the earthquake occurred here, in 1964.
19. The 1964 earthquake was so powerful it was even heard in Africa.
20. The highest tsunami in the world was recorded in 1958 in Alaska, when the glacier hit the lake, causing a wave more than half a kilometer in height.
21. Alaska is considered the richest state of the United States.
22. The population of Alaska speaks 22 different languages.
23. Alaska has the lowest population density in comparison to all the other states.
24. Alaska has a pizza restaurant that delivers pizza on airplane.
25. There is a variety of frogs in Alaska that freezes in winter, the heartbeat stops, and the frog doesn’t breathe. But as soon as spring arrives frog return to the normal condition.
26. In Alaska, there is only one railroad that connects the cities of Seward and Fairbanks. But it’s special: a passenger can take a train from anywhere. All you have to do is show white scarf or handkerchief.
27. The coast of Alaska goes to three different water bodies – the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Bering Sea.
28. Alaska has about a fifth of all US oil reserves.
29. There are 20 highest peaks in the United States and 17 are in Alaska.
30. In 1897 during the Klondike Gold Rush, potatoes were so highly valued for their vitamin C content, that miners traded gold for them.
31. Interior Alaska is known for its many natural geothermal hot springs.
32. Alaska has no plants poisonous to the touch such as poison ivy or poison oak which are found in all other states.
33. Pribilof Island is home to about 1 million seals.
34. English and 20 other indigenous languages are official language of Alaska.
35. Alaska has more coastline than the other 49 states combined.
36. Because of their long summer days, Alaska is capable of producing some unusually oversized produce. Some notable specimens that have been harvested in recent years include a 35-pound broccoli, a 65-pound cantaloupe, and a 138-pound cabbage.
37. Tongass National forest, Alaska is the largest forest of US.
38. There are 107 men for every 100 women in Alaska, the highest male-to-female ratio in the United States.
39. Many hotels in Alaska offer Northern Lights wake-up calls upon request.
40. The Northern Lights can be seen 243 days a year in Fairbanks.
41. The largest salmon caught in Alaska was on the Kenai River. It weighed in at 97.5 lbs.
42. Barrow, Alaska has the longest and shortest day. When the sun rises on May 10th, it doesn’t set for nearly 3 months. When it sets on November 18th, residents don’t see the sun for nearly 2 months.
43. It is illegal to whisper in someone’s ear while they are moose hunting in Alaska.
44. Dog mushing is the state sport of Alaska
45. Most of America’s salmon, crab, halibut, and herring come from Alaska.
46. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline transports up to 88,000 barrels of oil per hour on an 800-mile journey to Valdez.
47. In year 2001, a drunken man fired at an oil pipeline, he has to pay 17 million dollars fine and received 16 years of jail.
48. Three groups of natives lived in Alaska: Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians.
49. Animals such as reindeer and moose are the property of the state.
50. If any accident happens then citizens are required to report this to the state authorities. Special services then take the animal, and its meat is distributed to poor families.
51. In Alaska, there is 1 bear for every 21 people.
52. In 1865, the Western Union Telegraph expedition, led by William Dall, surveyed the interior of Alaska for the first time, revealing its vast land and resources
53. Alaska is one of the few states that do not depend on production. The largest branches of private entrepreneurial activity are fishing and the seafood industry.
54. The economy of Alaska is maintained on the extraction of oil, gas, copper, gold, zinc, iron, reindeer, tourism and fishing.
55. In 1913, women in Alaska were granted the right to vote—six years ahead of the 19th Amendment
56. The Red Dog zinc mine in northwest Alaska is the world’s largest zinc producer.
57. The Adak National Forest in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, is the smallest National Forest in America, with only 33 trees
58. A company in Alaska has developed a powdered beer for backpacking
59. There is a mile-long zip line in Hoonah, Alaska, that starts 1,300ft above sea level and reaches speeds of up to 60mph
60. Alaska’s largest lake, Lake Iliamna, is roughly the size of Connecticut.
1.

1

1. Introduction

With the unpredictable economy and insecure future in South Africa, organisations are finding it difficult to forecast how changes ahead will affect their stakeholders. Stakeholder relations are at the core of corporate communications (Coombs and Holladay, 2007; Wu, 2007). Scholars have even suggested that public relations equal communication management which equates to stakeholder relations. Prior studies and literature on stakeholders has for the most part focused on social networks between organisations and their stakeholders (Bornsen et al., 2008; Mitchell et al., 1997; Na¨si, 1995). With this being said, social networks between publics comprise merely one part of the greater networks that sustain society and organisations. Strategic communication for organisations means looking past obvious stakeholders into prospective unexplored territory (Fox, 2008). A lack of this understanding will mean, numerous imperative stakes and stakeholders may potentially stay hidden, thus leaving the organisations potentially exposed to harm.

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Actor Networking Theory (ANT) aids map not only the stakeholders but also non-human articles that affect the success of organisations. ANT’s key contributions are evident in the greater understanding it offers of networks and their formation. ANT emphasises the significance of continuous negotiation and inscription, as well as acknowledges non-human entities as important parts of the corporate environment (Cooren and Fairhurst, 2008). Actor Networking Theory is particularly valuable for further investigation and development of the stakeholder theory due to it not aiming to forecast outcomes but instead allowing for variations by simply mapping the entire network and highlighting the process of translation, where actors persuade others to join their cause.

This paper tackles, the timely subject of different stakes in the corporate environment. Starting with what is known as well as the limitations of the current stakeholder theory, which is, not entirely understanding the non-human articles that can lead to new stakeholders: this is the concept derived from ANT. To illustrate, Mall of Africa under Attacq will be used as a case study to show how non-human articles such as infrastructure, technology, and market trends contribute to translating masses into opposing the organisation or leveraging wide support for it.

Firstly, the paper assesses, the definitions of a stakeholder then goes on to explain the necessity for a broader understanding of stakes. Secondly, appropriating from ANT, the paper commences the process of “translation,” which is where actors rally others into joining their network. The question explored is: who can current stakeholders and non-human articles potentially translate into joining their cause? This is explored in a Mall of Africa case study and is then followed by conclusions and discussion on practical implications for corporate communication in the retail industry and suggestions for future study.

2. Where is the gap in the stakeholder theory?

The stakeholder theory’s principles are clear: organisation networks limit and enable its functioning, this is with the assumption that a favourable working environment is advantageous and an unfavourable one destructive (Carroll, 1993; Freeman, 1984; Wood and Jones, 1995). However, stakeholders are articles and persons who also exist in the absence of the organisation (Rowley, 1997). Organisations merely incite some parts of pre-existing articles and scopes of influence and a social relation is moulded (Hallahan, 2000). Consequently, organisation success can be measured via the stakeholders’ and people’s views, and how well the organisation reacts and responds to them (Waddock and Graves, 1997). Regardless of the diverse frames of reference, most scholars concur that the word stakeholders means “any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organization’s objectives” (Freeman, 1984, p. 46).

Mutual dependence is the central idea in stakeholder theory, meaning persons or groups depend on the organisation to realise their aims as much as the organisation depends on them for its existence (Rhenman, 1964). An organisation is therefore a socio-technical system that empowers the realisation of different needs as “stakeholders make up the fragile ecosystem of any business” (Foley and Kendrick, 2006, p. 62). Therefore, dealing with stakeholders entails constantly “balancing and integrating various relationships and various objectives” (Freeman and McVea, 2001). This means the need to segment and prioritise stakeholders exists. In an attempt to decipher the multi-objective predicament of diverse stakeholder needs, Winn (2001) models a stakeholder decision-making process that segregates between stakeholders, objectives and issues.

The stakeholder theory has been criticised by some for failing to match the dynamism of public relations (Wu, 2007). The argument is that the stakeholder theory overstates the role of the organisation and oversimplifies the chaotic and multifaceted nature of the corporate environment (Steurer, 2006). Different actors affecting the organisational operations have not been stressed enough and numerous significant “stakes” stay unacknowledged by past studies. To date scholars continue debating whether or not non-human stakeholders can be equally as vital as human stakeholders (Starik, 1995). Vidgen and McMaster (1996, p. 255) on the other hand, boldly describe stakeholders as any “human or nonhuman organization unit that can affect as well as be affected by a human or nonhuman organization unit’s policy or policies.”

To bridge this gap, Actor Networking Theory and the process of translation are next introduced.

3. Actor Networking Theory and the translation process

Humans are not the sole beings with agency neither are they the sole entities to act as all actants play a part. Actor Networking (Callon, 1986) Theory proposes a shift in theory away from emphasis on supremacy and dominance of human subjects (Somerville, 1999, p. 8) meaning actants can be anything from landscaping to facilities to machines, anybody or anything with the ability to make a difference (Giddens, 1984). Very few studies to date have merged stakeholder theory and Actor Networking Theory. The process of translation has been studied but not in the retail context or rather industry. ANT has something to offer for the theory and practice of public relations, through description of the struggle between social as well as other actors (Somerville, 1999).

It vital to note that the lack of will or intention of non-human articles does not disqualify them from making a difference (Cooren and Fairhurst, 2008, p. 131). ANT does not intend to make these non-human articles stakeholders, nor does it aim to retrieve any agency from humans. The translation process has a lot in common with the notion of issues management, it is in fact similar to an “issue life cycle” analysis (Heath, 1997; Mahon and Waddock, 1992). Translation is a process of re-interpretation and re-presentation as it breeds ordering effects like organisations, institutions, or agents. A network of aligned interests is formed if the process of translation is successful.

Networks are contingent as translation is not always guaranteed to be successful. All networks are shaped by the inclusion of new components and variations in the relationship between actors over time, meaning there is no fixed final network. To mobilise full support, translations take different forms which include: re-presentation, re-interpretation or adoption of others’ interests to one’s own. This therefore means by translation one and the same interest or anticipation may be presented in different ways, thus mobilising broader support. Numerous linked or unrelated processes of translation can occur at the same time given that translations take place in the different organisational areas of responsibility and settings.

For instance, an organisation, i.e. retail centre (Mall of Africa) can concurrently be involved in industry lobbing, carry out negotiations with partners (long term exhibition contracts with BMW for instance), be covered in the news for its new services and products(digital assistance through technology in stores), participate in academic discussion (the future of retail, omni-channel and the omni-shopper), and be the target of online activism (anti-crime during the festive season for example. The translation process can play out in unanticipated ways, for example in some processes, the organisation could have a better shot to becoming central in the network obligatory passage points (OPP), to be discussed further in the paper, while in others it can simply be translated into an already existing network. The blogosphere is a good example of the amount and flux of existing networks visible. Blogosphre is where expertise and issues are continuously deliberated and renegotiated (Illia, 2003), and organisations are seldom the only ones at the core of those issues (for instance the Mall of Africa blog and other retail related blogs).

Translation usually follows three phases which are:
i. Problematisation, this being where the issue or problem to be deciphered is tackled and appropriate actors are decided upon. This therefore leads to the process of finding representatives and/or delegates to represent groups of actors. Primary actors’ (focal or strong actors) intention is becoming obligatory passage points (OPPs) for the network.
ii. Interessement, persuasion takes place at this phase: the primary actor negotiates and motivates with the others in an attempt to get them captivated and involved in the network.
iii. Enrolment, is the third phase after all this. It includes consent of the actors to the responsibilities defined for them and clarified during the earlier phases. At enrolment, communication is key for it moulds expectations and actions. For instance, those well informed and alert of approaching changes (like renovations of a mall leading to some stores being closed in phases) are less probable to be negotiated into a network of opposition. In the same breath, those conscious of arising issues like the rise in electronic check out points in stores like AmazonGo (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NrmMk1Myrxc) which could lead to the retrenchment of staff have the opportunity to take a proactive stand and aim to become OPPs in the initial stages of the forming network.

While in this paper these phases are separated, they are not always independent and from time to time different translations may overlap. It is vital to keep in mind that the translation process will not always occur in the intended way and that something could possibly happen to disrupt the network following a successful translation. Furthermore, more interests have to be negotiated, the network structure changes every time, and new translations take place. In conclusion, translation is the journey through which one article, for example Mall of Africa, guides other articles toward its wanted understanding and/or outcome. The aim is ultimately being able to speak on behalf of other actors in the network.

1

1.
a. The serpent is the instrument that looks like a snake.
b. The hurdy-gurdy is an instrument that is played by winding a crank.
c. The Rauschpfeife is a loud reed-cap instrument with a double reed.
d. The Zink has been called the most versatile of Renaissance wind instruments.
e. The Shofar was an instrument used by priests in Biblical times.
f. The Bladder Pipe uses an animal bladder
g. The Psaltery uses strings and was used in ancient times.
h. The Rebec uses a bow and originated in Asia

2. 5 instruments that I haven’t heard about before or that I want to know more about are the Bladder Pipe, Dulcian, Gamba, Gemshorn, and the Lizard.

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– The Bladder Pipe is a loud instrument with an animal bladder in the reed. it looks like two pipes one serving as a drone to the other. The sound is loud and kind of like a piano. It is played by blowing into the reed and covering where the air is released with your fingers like a flute. Used before medieval times.

– The Dulcian had two holes in the same piece of wood and connected at a u-curve. It sounds like a low bassoon. it is played like a flute. Used as part of the town band.

– Gamba is like a big violin. It has a wooden base and strings. it sounds like a violin. it is played like a violin. Used around the 1600s

-Gemshorn medieval horn made from the horn of an ox. It has a sweet tone. it is played by blowing into it. its played how you would fill up a balloon. By blowing into it. it was used as the only medieval flute with a “conical bore”.

– The lizard looks like a long snake. The shape helps the player cover the holes for the fingers better. Its played by blowing into it. It was used in 1575.

3. I like how the bladder pipe sounds best. It reminds me of a piano, I find it calming. The sound has highs and lows played so beautifully.

1

1. The name ‘Alaska’ is derived from an Aleutian word alaxsxaq which means the “object toward which the action of the sea is directed.”
2. Alaska is the largest state of all the states of United States and is one-fifth of the entire land area of the US.
3. On July 7, 1958, the U.S. Congress declared Alaska as the 49th state.
4. The total area of Alaska is as twice as Texas.
5. The capital of Alaska, Juneau, can be accessed only by sea or by air; it is the only capital of the US state without land communication.
6. Alaska was discovered by a Danish explorer, Vitus Bering in 1741.
7. In 1784 Gregor Shelekhov, a fur trader established the first settlement on Three Saints Bay on Alaska’s Kodiak Island.
8. It was sold by Russian in 7.2 million dollars but Russian rulers regretted later when gold deposits were found in Alaska.
9. The distance between the extreme points of Russia and Alaska does not exceed 3.5 km!
10. Alaska has more than three million lakes, about three thousand rivers, one hundred thousand glaciers and about seventy active volcanoes.
11. Alaska is the most popular state for flying in the U.S.
12. One third of Alaska is in the Arctic Circle. It’s very cold in Alaska.
13. The lowest temperature was recorded -62.2 degree Celsius in 1971.
14. In one of the cities in Alaska, the mayor for more than fifteen years was a cat.
15. In spite of the fact that bears are allowed to hunt, it is forbidden to wake sleeping bears in order to photograph them.
16. The flag of Alaska was drawn by a thirteen-year-old boy who took part in the competition for the best state flag and he won.
17. Golden stars on the blue flag of Alaska represent the constellation of the Big Dipper and the North Star, which enters the constellation of the Little Ursa.
18. Earthquake is very common in Alaska. The second strongest in the history of the earthquake occurred here, in 1964.
19. The 1964 earthquake was so powerful it was even heard in Africa.
20. The highest tsunami in the world was recorded in 1958 in Alaska, when the glacier hit the lake, causing a wave more than half a kilometer in height.
21. Alaska is considered the richest state of the United States.
22. The population of Alaska speaks 22 different languages.
23. Alaska has the lowest population density in comparison to all the other states.
24. Alaska has a pizza restaurant that delivers pizza on airplane.
25. There is a variety of frogs in Alaska that freezes in winter, the heartbeat stops, and the frog doesn’t breathe. But as soon as spring arrives frog return to the normal condition.
26. In Alaska, there is only one railroad that connects the cities of Seward and Fairbanks. But it’s special: a passenger can take a train from anywhere. All you have to do is show white scarf or handkerchief.
27. The coast of Alaska goes to three different water bodies – the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Bering Sea.
28. Alaska has about a fifth of all US oil reserves.
29. There are 20 highest peaks in the United States and 17 are in Alaska.
30. In 1897 during the Klondike Gold Rush, potatoes were so highly valued for their vitamin C content, that miners traded gold for them.
31. Interior Alaska is known for its many natural geothermal hot springs.
32. Alaska has no plants poisonous to the touch such as poison ivy or poison oak which are found in all other states.
33. Pribilof Island is home to about 1 million seals.
34. English and 20 other indigenous languages are official language of Alaska.
35. Alaska has more coastline than the other 49 states combined.
36. Because of their long summer days, Alaska is capable of producing some unusually oversized produce. Some notable specimens that have been harvested in recent years include a 35-pound broccoli, a 65-pound cantaloupe, and a 138-pound cabbage.
37. Tongass National forest, Alaska is the largest forest of US.
38. There are 107 men for every 100 women in Alaska, the highest male-to-female ratio in the United States.
39. Many hotels in Alaska offer Northern Lights wake-up calls upon request.
40. The Northern Lights can be seen 243 days a year in Fairbanks.
41. The largest salmon caught in Alaska was on the Kenai River. It weighed in at 97.5 lbs.
42. Barrow, Alaska has the longest and shortest day. When the sun rises on May 10th, it doesn’t set for nearly 3 months. When it sets on November 18th, residents don’t see the sun for nearly 2 months.
43. It is illegal to whisper in someone’s ear while they are moose hunting in Alaska.
44. Dog mushing is the state sport of Alaska
45. Most of America’s salmon, crab, halibut, and herring come from Alaska.
46. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline transports up to 88,000 barrels of oil per hour on an 800-mile journey to Valdez.
47. In year 2001, a drunken man fired at an oil pipeline, he has to pay 17 million dollars fine and received 16 years of jail.
48. Three groups of natives lived in Alaska: Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians.
49. Animals such as reindeer and moose are the property of the state.
50. If any accident happens then citizens are required to report this to the state authorities. Special services then take the animal, and its meat is distributed to poor families.
51. In Alaska, there is 1 bear for every 21 people.
52. In 1865, the Western Union Telegraph expedition, led by William Dall, surveyed the interior of Alaska for the first time, revealing its vast land and resources
53. Alaska is one of the few states that do not depend on production. The largest branches of private entrepreneurial activity are fishing and the seafood industry.
54. The economy of Alaska is maintained on the extraction of oil, gas, copper, gold, zinc, iron, reindeer, tourism and fishing.
55. In 1913, women in Alaska were granted the right to vote—six years ahead of the 19th Amendment
56. The Red Dog zinc mine in northwest Alaska is the world’s largest zinc producer.
57. The Adak National Forest in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, is the smallest National Forest in America, with only 33 trees
58. A company in Alaska has developed a powdered beer for backpacking
59. There is a mile-long zip line in Hoonah, Alaska, that starts 1,300ft above sea level and reaches speeds of up to 60mph
60. Alaska’s largest lake, Lake Iliamna, is roughly the size of Connecticut.

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