1. was divided into Northern states and

1. Civil War started when whole US was divided into Northern states and the Confederate States of America.2. Eleven states left the union and decided to form their own country.

These states were called the Southern States. 3. The Civil War was fought between 1861 and 1865.4. The war began on April 12, 1861, when Southerners fired at Fort Sumter in South Carolina.5. Approximately 3 million people fought in the war.

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6. 640,000 people died during in the Civil War.7. It was the bloodiest war in the history of US wars.8.

South Carolina was the first state to leave the Union.9. ‘The War Battle Between Two States’ was the other name given to the Civil War.10.

The 9-year old boy was the youngest to serve in the war.11. Abraham Lincoln was the elected president during the Civil war.12. During the war, infection in wounds was the chief killer.13. One out of every 65 Northern people and one in every 45 Southern people killed during the war.

14. Amputation of limbs was the most common operation performed by surgeons during the war.15.

Survival chances of soldiers during the war was 1 in 4.16. Civil War is known by 25 different names, the famous names are- “The Brothers War”, “The War of the Rebellion” etc.

17. The first time National Draft was used in America was during the Civil War. 18. In Civil War only 1% was an army, 9% were drafted and rest were volunteers.19.

Soldiers used to walk for 15 to 20 miles a day during the war.20. More soldiers died of diarrhea then soldiers killed in the war.

21. The war continued for 1,396 days and soldiers fought approximately every day.22.

300,000 horses died in the civil war.23. During the Civil War, the number of orphans was doubled in the US.24. 470,000 soldiers were prisoners during the war. 25. On May 26, 1865, the Southern soldiers surrendered to the Northern.

26. In 1860, in Mississippi and South Carolina there were more slaves than the free people.27.

2,625 soldiers and sailors were awarded medals during the war.28. Famous poet Walt Whitman served as a nurse during the Civil War.29. Walt Whitman also wrote countless letters for illiterate and dying soldiers to their family. 30. Northern wanted the war to unite the United States, to make it undivided country.

31. Southern wanted the war to protect the rights to own slaves.32. The end result of the Civil War was the ending of slavery.

33. In 1863, Lincoln declared a holiday on Thanksgiving to keep the country together.34. Photographer Mathew Brady clicked about 7,000 photographs of US Civil War, it was an important visual document of the war but the government did not buy it. 35. Approximately the full staff and all students of the University of Mississippi participated in Civil War.36.

Sgt. William Harvey Carney received the Medal of Honor. He was the first African-American to receive it.37. Sgt. William Harvey Carney was shot in the face, legs, arms, and shoulders but he didn’t let the American Flag touch the ground.38.

There is a colony in Brazil of more than 2,000 Confederate refugees who left the US after they lost the Civil War.39. To avoid being drafted, a man Cooter Brown remained drunk during the whole time of Civil War.40. In the war, the Southern lost so much, half of its wealth was gone, lost so many military men and also influenced the political stature.41.

Lemuel Cook was the last surviving veteran of the Civil War and died at the age of 106.42. In 1866, the government of Mississippi spent more than half of yearly budget to provide prosthetics to veterans of Civil War.43. Floating containers with explosives, designed submarines were used even during the American Revolution.44. For the surgeries, chloroform, ether, a glass of whiskey was given as an anesthetic.45.

Women were not allowed to fight in the war, but about 400 women served during the war in the clothes of men.46. About 10,500 battles were fought in the Civil War.47. At the time of Civil War, the former US President John Tyler became the Confederate.48. Robert E. Lee is said to be the Bloodiest General of Civil War.

49. former President Franklin Pierce tried to end the war by assembling all the former US Presidents. 50. The US Postal Service started delivering mails at home after seeing women standing in cold and waiting for letters from the Civil War.51. 40% of dead bodies of soldiers were never found or identified.52. Fountain Hughes was born as a slave, freed after the Civil war, he faced WW1, WW2, and beginning of Cold War.

53. During the Civil War, if any rich person got drafted they can pay a substitute to go to the war at his place.54. There are many other famous Civil Wars that are written in the pages of history like- Spanish Civil War, Chinese Civil War, Russian Civil War, etc.55. The number of people died in Civil War is more than deaths in any American conflicts.

56. The Battle of Antietam was fought for just one day but about 12,401 soldiers were killed and wounded.57.

In prison camp, more than 56,000 soldiers died due to hunger, diseases, and lack of resources.58. Due to use of advanced machines and techniques for the first time in the Civil War, it is considered as First Modern War.59.

The Civil War ended in Virginia.60. 28 May is celebrated as Memorial Day by USA.

1.1 loses of motion between reducer input

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The human problem our thesis work will solve is to reduce backlash in induction motor. Backlash been defined as a mechanical form of dead band that can cause positioning error on hole location, if the motion required to machine the holes causes a reversal in axis direction it also causes loses of motion between reducer input and output shafts, making it difficult to achieve accurate positioning in equipment such as instruments, machines tools etc.

The main causes of this problem electrically are vibrations from Electric motor as a result of high ripple torque in the induction motor.An induction motor is a type of an AC machine in which alternating current is supplied to the stator directly and to the rotor by induction from the stator. Induction motor can appear in a single phase or a poly phase. (Toufouti, et al, 2013).In construction, the induction motor has a stator which is the stationary portion consisting of a frame that houses the magnetically active angular cylindrical structure called the stator lamination.

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It stack punched from electrical steel sheet with a three phase winding sets embedded in evenly spaced internal slots.The rotor which is the rotatory parts of an induction motor is made up of a shaft and cylindrical structure called the rotor lamination. It stack punched from electrical steel sheet with evenly spaced slots located around the periphery to accept the conductors of the rotor winding (Ndubisi, 2006). The rotor can be a wound type or squirrel cage type. in a poly phase induction motor, the three phase windings are displaced from each other by 120 electrical degrees in space around the air-gap circumference when excited from a balanced poly phase source, those windings (stator winding) will produce a magnetic field in the air-gap rotating at synchronous speed as determine by the number of stator poles and the applied stator frequency (Bimal, 2011). In the controlling of electrical motor; the introduction of micro-controllers and high switching frequency semiconductor devices, variable speed actuators where dominated by DC motors.

Today, using modern high switching frequency power converters controlled by micro-controllers, the frequency phase and magnitude of the input to an AC motor can be changed and hence the motor’s speed and torque can be controlled. AC motors combined with their drives have replaced DC motors in industrial applications because they are cheaper, better reliability, less in weight, and lower maintenance requirement. Squirrel cage induction motors are most generally used than all the rest of the electric motors as they have all the advantages of AC motors and they are easy to build. The main advantage is that induction motors do not require an electrical connection between stationary and rotating portion of the motor.

Therefore, they do not need any mechanical commutators to the fact that they are maintenance free motors. Induction motors also have lesser weight and inertia, high efficiency and high over load capability. Therefore, they are cheaper and more robust, and less proves to any failure at high speeds. Furthermore, the motor can be used to work in explosive environments because no sparks are produced.Taking into account all the advantages outlined above, induction motors must be considered as the perfect electrical to mechanical energy converter. However, mechanical energy is more than often required at variable speeds, where the speed control system is not a trivial matter. The effective way of producing an infinitely variable induction motor speed drive is to supply the induction motor with three phase voltage of variable amplitude. A variable frequency is required because the rotor speed depends on the speed of the rotating magnetic field provided by the stator.

A variable voltage is required because the motor impedance reduces at low frequencies and the current has to be limited by means of reducing the supply voltage. (Schauder, 2013). Before the days of power electronics, a limited speed control of induction motors was achieved by switching the three stator windings from delta connection to star connection, allowing the voltage at the motor windings to be reduced. Induction motors also available with more than three stator windings to allow a change of the number of pole pairs.

However, a motor with several windings is very costly because more than three connections to the motor are needed and only certain discrete speeds are available. Another method of speed control can be realized by means of a wound rotor induction motor, where the rotor winding ends are brought out to slip rings (Malik, 2013). However, this method obviously removes themain aim of induction motors and it also introduces additional losses by connecting resistor or reactance in series with the stator windings of the induction motors, poor performance is achieved. With the enormous advances in converters technology and the development of complex and robust control algorithms, considerable research effort is devoted for developing optimal techniques of speed control for induction machines. Induction motor control has traditionally been achieved using field oriented control (FOC).

This method involves the transformation of stator currents in a synchronous manner that is in line with one of the stator fluxes. The torque and flux producing components of the stator currents are decoupled, such that the component of the stator current controlling the rotor flux magnitude and the component controls the output torquewill differ (Kazmier and Giuseppe, 2013).The implementation of this system however is complicated.

The FOC is also well known to be highly sensitive to parameter variations. It also based on accurate parameter identification to obtain the needed performance

1.0 the UK, have 4 of the

1.0 Introduction to the company Carlsberg started back in 1945 where a young Danish boy named JC Jacobsen, travelled from Copenhagen to Munich to get hold of a special yeast for his beer. From then on he named his brewery Carlsberg which was named after his son. Carlsberg currently employ 1700 people in the UK, have 4 of the top 20 beers in the UK and have travelled over 12.

5m.km in delivering for its customers (Carlsberguk.co.uk, 2016).

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The company’s main brand is Carlsberg Beer. As presented from figure 1 is a perceptual map of the beer market in the UK.. As you can see the brands that are posing a threat to Carlsberg are Heineken, Corona, Guinness, Becks and Budweiser.Carlsberg direct competitors include Carling, Fosters, Becks and Guinness as they all offer highly quality beer but all look to compete at a lower price within the market.

Budweiser, Stella Artois and Heineken are also direct competitors offering also highly quality beer but within a slightly higher price bracket. All of Carlsberg direct competitors are all competing for the same potential market. Carlsberg indirect competitors that produce alcoholic substitutes of beer include cider brands such as Strongbow and Thatcher’s, alcopops brands such as WKD and Sourz, spirit brands including Smirnoff and Captain Morgan’s, and Wine brands such Echo falls and Hardy’s. Carlsberg market share in 2015 was 12% behind Budweiser with 13% and Molson Coors on 22% with the market leader in the UK Heineken on 24% (Beer, 2015). Carlsberg market share has fallen and its operating profit in 2016 for the six month period fell to £500m which is 4% down from the same period in 2015, (Perrett, 2016).

Current markets where Carlsberg is generating most of its sales and building strong market positions include a large part of Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia (Carlsberg Group, n.d.). Critical Success factors and PrioritisationCSF1: Develop existing 0% product and market stronger.Referring back to the Tows analysis one of the external factors that pose a threat to Carlsberg includes the rising health concerns that alcohol consumption is having on people (HuffPost, 2017). An internal factor that posed as a weakness to Carlsberg is the lack of innovation (MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.

, 2017), which potentially could be one of the factors that contributed to Carlsberg’s recent drop of market share, which had fallen 4% down in 2016 (Perrett, 2016). Therefore the threat of rising health concerns and the lack of innovation that Carlsberg faces both link together to generate the first Critical success factor which is to develop existing 0%product and to market stronger. Carlsberg already produce a low calorie, zero percent beer that has lacked in market sales, by increasing awareness and having a more extensive and targeted marketing campaign towards Carlsberg 0.0% target market would improve popularity of the product.

Therefore implementing a market penetration pricing strategy for Carlsberg’s existing 0%product would prove beneficial as it sets a low initial price for the product. This essentially quickly attracts a new customer base and increases sales volume (Watkins, n.d.). CSF2: S1-T2: Develop brand loyalty in global markets.Introduce divergent products to established customers When analysing Carlberg strengths, one of the main advantage that they have is their brand loyalty (Bhasin, 2017). This is the result of their history and hard work that has been invested into the company. A 2014 BarTAB report found that the young adulthood two-thirds of beer drinkers found the brand name plays an important factor in choosing a drink (Upfront Analytics, 2015).

This proves that Carlsberg can use this to there advantage. A threat that they also face is the aggressive competition that is posed by their close competitors including their indirect competitors who also causing problems for Carlsberg and many other beer giants as consumers are moving away from beer in favour of other alcoholic beverages and consumers are also starting to overlook mass produced beer for ‘craft’ drinks produced locally (Roderick, 2017). Therefore, the strength of Carlsberg brand loyalty and their threat of aggressive competition both link together to generate the second cirtical success factor which is to introduce divergent products to established customers. Carlsberg latest results show that volume sales have dropped 4% to 56.7m hectolitres during the first half of this year (Roderick, 2017). Therefore by using their loyal customer base to increase sales by introducing craft beer and providing a wider variety of craft beers would put Carlberg in a strong position against both direct and indirect competitors. Current marketing mix:ProductPrice:Carlsberg product is known for it’s premium mild beer.

Carlberg provides a premium product and qualitive product although it’s prices are very reasonable and competitive. Carlberg utilises different prices for it’s different products. Whist the brand has also invested into new markets and maintained a penetration pricing policy to attract a new customer base. PlaceThe beer market is expanding at a greater rate because of the higher volume of consumption amongst consumers. Carlsberg distributes to more than 150 countries worldwide (Carlsberg Group.

(n.d.). Carlsberg has numerous outlets to provide products to its consumers including handling Duty free and travel retail business among highly respected airports, airlines, ferry lines and border trade (Carlsberg Group. (n.d).

Calrsberg intermediaries include retailers varying from supermarkets, bars, pubs and restaurants all offering Carlberg products (Carlsberg Group. (n.d). This is an indirect method of distributing products to their buyers which Carlberg is currently using. Promotion Carlsberg has an outstanding global presence and in order to remain as one of the top-most groups, it has undertaken excellent branding and advertising policies that have helped it to maintain its position.

It has targeted the youth with their mild-section variants. For people who are sports lovers the brand has opted for sponsorship of teams including endorsement by Liverpool FC celebrating the 25th year anniversary of sponsorship of Liverpool F.C.The company is continuously reinventing itself in terms of marketing policies. Social networking is the preferred medium nowadays and hence it has launched innovative ads and engaged social media to target techno-savvy customers. Some of its logos include a swastika and an elephant.Carlsberg is an international brand and has adopted an aggressive promotional strategy to penetrate new markets.

Free samples have been distributed as part of their penetration and promotional policyPeopleCarlberg planning team reaching out to customer’s shelves and counters and to their suppliers’ suppliers. They ensure that they products always in stock in warehouses and that right quantities are also avaliable. On a global scale their planning team develops customer service as planning is built on strong relationships and skills. This is essential for Carlsberg as they operate in many countries and will have to make changes to their customer serivce in order to staisfy customers problems. All of carlsberg potential employees are provided with a professional induction plan (Carlsberg UK, n.d.).

Carlsberg uses on the job coaching, mentoring and job shadowing as they prefer to use a hands on method drifting away from delivering formal training (Careersatcarlsberg.co.uk, n.d.). They believe that ‘the biggest success comes through boldness and daring’ (Carlsberg UK, n.d.).

These are all ways in which Carlsberg adds value to customers experience.ProcessesThe systems and processes of the organization are influential over the execution of the service. It is important that you have a well tailored process in place in to minimise costs (The Marketing Mix, n.d.

). Carlsberg breweries worldwide are all governed and constantly monitored by on site quality control sections to ensure that the beer produced is always of the highest standards and the quality and taste is consistent (Photos Photiades Group, n.d.). Physical Evidence Physical evidence is also related to how a business and it’s products are perceived in the marketplace. Carlsebrg is one of the market leaders and market leaders tend to have a presences and and establishment about their business in the marketplace as for example when you think of Beer, you think of Carlsberg and you know exactly their presence in the marketplace and have established a phyical evidence. The digital world is an example of physical evidence which Carlberg uses as they promote a fast and effiecnt response to customer enquires, this is consistent as they have a fast responsive company website. In addtion Carlberg provides phycial evidence through other digital methods such as blogs, social media platforms including twitter and facebook.

RecommendationsRecommendations for CSF1 Develop existing 0% product and market stronger.Product As all products will follow a life cycle it is important that Carlsberg can predict how far their product has gone on the life-cycle to increase it’s competitive edge. Therefore I recommend Carlsberg to consider releasing different flavoured non alcoholic beers over a certain period of time by doing this can be used as an attempt to remain relevant in the competitive market.Price Carlsberg zero percent beer has lacked in market sales. Therefore I recommend that Carlberg implement a market penetration pricing strategy for Carlsberg’s existing 0%product. This would prove beneficial as it sets a low initial price for the product.

This essentially quickly attracts a new customer base and increases sales volume. PlaceI reccomend that Carlsberg look to introduce a direct method of distribution so consumers have an option to buy directley from Carlsberg. This can involve introdcuing a eccomerce website providing an alternative option for consumers to purchase the product and can benefit both parties. It benifts the consumers as it is much more time efficient than going to a wholesaler or retailer and benifts Carlsberg as it increases the ways in which consumers can buy and in result help influence sales. Promotion Having a more extensive and targeted marketing campaign towards Carlsberg 0.0% target market would improve popularity of the product. Carlsberg already Sponsor Liverpool FC but I also recommend that Carlsberg partner up with FIFA as the World cup is coming up soon and reaches a 3.

2 billion in home television audience (FIFA.com, 2015). This would in return hopefully improve popularity of the product through TV advertisement and sponsorship.

1. 3.5 km! 10. Alaska has more than

1. The name ‘Alaska’ is derived from an Aleutian word alaxsxaq which means the “object toward which the action of the sea is directed.”2. Alaska is the largest state of all the states of United States and is one-fifth of the entire land area of the US.3.

On July 7, 1958, the U.S. Congress declared Alaska as the 49th state. 4. The total area of Alaska is as twice as Texas. 5.

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The capital of Alaska, Juneau, can be accessed only by sea or by air; it is the only capital of the US state without land communication.6. Alaska was discovered by a Danish explorer, Vitus Bering in 1741.

7. In 1784 Gregor Shelekhov, a fur trader established the first settlement on Three Saints Bay on Alaska’s Kodiak Island.8. It was sold by Russian in 7.2 million dollars but Russian rulers regretted later when gold deposits were found in Alaska.9. The distance between the extreme points of Russia and Alaska does not exceed 3.5 km!10.

Alaska has more than three million lakes, about three thousand rivers, one hundred thousand glaciers and about seventy active volcanoes.11. Alaska is the most popular state for flying in the U.

S.12. One third of Alaska is in the Arctic Circle. It’s very cold in Alaska.13. The lowest temperature was recorded -62.2 degree Celsius in 1971.

14. In one of the cities in Alaska, the mayor for more than fifteen years was a cat.15.

In spite of the fact that bears are allowed to hunt, it is forbidden to wake sleeping bears in order to photograph them.16. The flag of Alaska was drawn by a thirteen-year-old boy who took part in the competition for the best state flag and he won.17. Golden stars on the blue flag of Alaska represent the constellation of the Big Dipper and the North Star, which enters the constellation of the Little Ursa. 18. Earthquake is very common in Alaska.

The second strongest in the history of the earthquake occurred here, in 1964.19. The 1964 earthquake was so powerful it was even heard in Africa.

20. The highest tsunami in the world was recorded in 1958 in Alaska, when the glacier hit the lake, causing a wave more than half a kilometer in height.21. Alaska is considered the richest state of the United States.22. The population of Alaska speaks 22 different languages.

23. Alaska has the lowest population density in comparison to all the other states.24. Alaska has a pizza restaurant that delivers pizza on airplane. 25. There is a variety of frogs in Alaska that freezes in winter, the heartbeat stops, and the frog doesn’t breathe. But as soon as spring arrives frog return to the normal condition.

26. In Alaska, there is only one railroad that connects the cities of Seward and Fairbanks. But it’s special: a passenger can take a train from anywhere. All you have to do is show white scarf or handkerchief. 27. The coast of Alaska goes to three different water bodies – the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Bering Sea.28.

Alaska has about a fifth of all US oil reserves.29. There are 20 highest peaks in the United States and 17 are in Alaska.30. In 1897 during the Klondike Gold Rush, potatoes were so highly valued for their vitamin C content, that miners traded gold for them.31.

Interior Alaska is known for its many natural geothermal hot springs.32. Alaska has no plants poisonous to the touch such as poison ivy or poison oak which are found in all other states.33.

Pribilof Island is home to about 1 million seals.34. English and 20 other indigenous languages are official language of Alaska. 35. Alaska has more coastline than the other 49 states combined.36. Because of their long summer days, Alaska is capable of producing some unusually oversized produce. Some notable specimens that have been harvested in recent years include a 35-pound broccoli, a 65-pound cantaloupe, and a 138-pound cabbage.

37. Tongass National forest, Alaska is the largest forest of US.38. There are 107 men for every 100 women in Alaska, the highest male-to-female ratio in the United States.39. Many hotels in Alaska offer Northern Lights wake-up calls upon request.40.

The Northern Lights can be seen 243 days a year in Fairbanks.41. The largest salmon caught in Alaska was on the Kenai River. It weighed in at 97.

5 lbs.42. Barrow, Alaska has the longest and shortest day. When the sun rises on May 10th, it doesn’t set for nearly 3 months. When it sets on November 18th, residents don’t see the sun for nearly 2 months.

43. It is illegal to whisper in someone’s ear while they are moose hunting in Alaska.44. Dog mushing is the state sport of Alaska45. Most of America’s salmon, crab, halibut, and herring come from Alaska.46.

The Trans-Alaska Pipeline transports up to 88,000 barrels of oil per hour on an 800-mile journey to Valdez.47. In year 2001, a drunken man fired at an oil pipeline, he has to pay 17 million dollars fine and received 16 years of jail. 48. Three groups of natives lived in Alaska: Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians.

49. Animals such as reindeer and moose are the property of the state.50. If any accident happens then citizens are required to report this to the state authorities.

Special services then take the animal, and its meat is distributed to poor families. 51. In Alaska, there is 1 bear for every 21 people.52. In 1865, the Western Union Telegraph expedition, led by William Dall, surveyed the interior of Alaska for the first time, revealing its vast land and resources53.

Alaska is one of the few states that do not depend on production. The largest branches of private entrepreneurial activity are fishing and the seafood industry.54. The economy of Alaska is maintained on the extraction of oil, gas, copper, gold, zinc, iron, reindeer, tourism and fishing.

55. In 1913, women in Alaska were granted the right to vote—six years ahead of the 19th Amendment56. The Red Dog zinc mine in northwest Alaska is the world’s largest zinc producer.57.

The Adak National Forest in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, is the smallest National Forest in America, with only 33 trees58. A company in Alaska has developed a powdered beer for backpacking59. There is a mile-long zip line in Hoonah, Alaska, that starts 1,300ft above sea level and reaches speeds of up to 60mph60. Alaska’s largest lake, Lake Iliamna, is roughly the size of Connecticut.

1. people of Oromia, Amhara and Konso society

1. IntroductionIn this introductory section, the blueprint of the study such as background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, scope, significance, and limitation of the study will be discussed. 1.1.

Background of the Study Ethiopia was in an unremitting chaos and unstoppable ethnic conflicts. Because of the mob protest, many of the protesters lost their lives, injured and arrested by different criminal cases largely from the people of Oromia, Amhara and Konso society from Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia Region; since 2014 but not limited only in the above regions. However, Allo (2017) argued that public protests dated back since 2011 by Muslim protestors. “Protests by members of Ethiopia’s Muslim community began in December of 2011, when representatives of the Muslim community from across the country gathered in Addis Ababa to protest the government’s interference in their religious affairs, laying the basis for a nationwide movement” (Allo, 2017, P.

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37). Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (2017), hereafter (ACLED) reported, Addis Ababa University Students, who are from the Oromo ethnic group demonstrated by opposing the Addis Ababa Master Plan intended to expand Addis Ababa, the capital, in June 2014. This type of remonstrations transformed to secondary school students, farmers and the entire population of the Oromo and expanded to the other regions stated above. “Looking beyond Oromia, simultaneous protests in Amhara significantly escalated the threat against the ERPDF’s brutal one-party rule. When Amhara protestors took to the streets to express their own grievances, the geographic scope and intensity of the protest suddenly expanded and deepened” (Allo, 2017 p. 41). As a result, democratic rights were violated and the constitutions faced an opposition. The government has tried many efforts in finding solutions for public unrests and constitutional violations.

ACLEd reported that “The government ultimately declared an unprecedented state of emergency on 8 October 2016, imposing tight restrictions that have since successfully curbed the protests” (ACLED, 2017, p.1). The state of emergency postponed for four additional months and lifted up. However, within a short period of time grievances started again.

The second state of emergency avowed as a result on instability from different corners. Despite the fact the country continued more than a year under the state of emergency, the protest was unstoppable because of the government’s limited response to calls for deep structural reforms by protesters show its lack of interest in solving protesters’ grievances or addressing the democratic deficit in the county (Africa Confidential, 20 January 2017). When the problem reaches its climax and covers all over the country ethic disputes between regions of country from the north to south, east to west, the public including university students were in catalyzing the reformation.

EPRDF has also made a deep-rooted reform frequently but no more change have seen (the legislative committee report of EPRDF in December, 2017). The 2017 public protest of Kero (youth in Oromiffa) of Oromia and the Fano of Amhara (youth in Amharic) continued their struggle and the government of Ethiopia and the ruling party obliged to change the Prime Minister. The former Prime Mister Haiemariam Dessalegn resigns from power voluntarily to be one of the solution finders for the country to the other “charismatic leaders” different local media reported ( Fana, EBC, AMMA, Addis TV and OBN…).Then Dr. Abiy Ahimed (PhD) becomes the leader of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia since 2nd April 2018 and the chairperson of EPRDF, who is the first Oromo leader since 1991 (BBC, reported). After taking oath, the newly elected prime minister made an inauguration speech.

From the observation of the researcher, Ethiopian political landscape is going to the way of Peaceful; the peoples are on the move of unity, love, and democracy relatively. Abiy Ahimed (PhD) seems getting public support as the engineer of the Ethiopia’s renaissance and the sustainability of his party, Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). He is from the ruling party (EPRDF), part of HPR, the chair of Oromia people’s democratic organization (OPDO).Still there was a shift of power from Hailemariam to Abiy but the country was under state of emergency. Abiy made his first in augural speech on Monday 2nd April 2018, a few days later he has started discussions with the peoples of all regions, and he have made diplomatic relationships with Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Djibouti, Somalia and Eritrea for the sake of mutual benefit and strong diplomatic relations. As a result, the people of the country have been giving him support to the newly elected leader without any visible economic or political change. Reasonably, the change might be a result of his rhetorical communication ability to persuade the audience. That is why the people who was opposing dramatically made supportive demonstrations.

The public rally held at Mesquel Square, to the cities and towns of regions of the country and to different corners of the world by Ethiopian diaspora, including America could give some insight. Based on this fact the researcher has initiated to conduct a study on the approaches and strategies how the prime mister political persuade the people. Rhetorical speech has an importance to influence the audience ‘to do things in a way he wanted to be done’ (Chissano, 2016). 1.

2. Statement of Research ProblemLike other type of communication, the central theme of political communication emphasizes the creation of mutual understanding between the politicians and the public through teaching, informing and urging for further action as different scholars agreed, the impact might be positive or negative. Graber (2005) defined political communication as the ‘transmission of message from sender to receiver through channels of communication with the objective of political goal’. According to Graber (1993), the message that conveyed to the audience changes the attitude of individuals, groups, and society in general. Public speaking is the one that politicians do to get to be heard and listened by the people in democratic system of government.

Ceasa, Thurow, Tulis, and Bessette (1981) note that leaders use public speeches to “govern the nation” (p.159) through discourse strategies, which are employed to gain people’s hearts and minds.The meaning of politics varied up on contexts and purposes. As Chilton (2004) define, “politics is viewed as a struggle for power, between those who seek to assert and maintain their power and those who seek to resist it. … conspicuously based on struggles for power; whether democracies are essentially so constituted is disputable. On the other hand, politics is viewed as cooperation, as the practices and institutions that a society has for resolving clashes of interest over money, influence, liberty, and the like” (p. 3). Politics is also the art of government in which the drive of political communication is persuasion (Demirdö?en, 2010).

In the meantime, equally conflict and disagreements are available in human life, politics will exist. Miller defines politics as “a process whereby a group of people, whose opinions or interests are initially divergent, reach collective decisions which are generally accepted as binding on the group and enforced as common policy” (Miller, 1991 p. 390 cited in Demirdö?en, 2010). Thus, above-mentioned definitions of politics by different scholars have a common ground that political process typically involves elements of persuasion in order to maintain power of future goal. Coming to the Ethiopian politics, it was to the contrary, referring the past two years.

The people and the governing body were in antagonistic relationship. As mentioned in the background of this study, conflicts between people with people and the government was a visible phenomenon, every person could be a witness internally and internationally.To resolve these continuous instabilities, the government has made positional arrangements from prime minister to the lower level administrative system. This change did not result effective, continuous and progressive changes and until Prime Minister Abiy Ahimed (PhD) comes to power in 2 April 2018, the ruling party (EPRDF) was in a crisis. The newly assigned prime minister started his job predominantly to wave the people towards unity, peace, and stability with a metaphor ‘Medemer’ literary mean teaming up through public discussions, with his rhetoric speeches to change the image of the public against the deformed political appearance of the ruling party.

His speeches got a live coverage by the national and regional television stations and continuous publications on newspapers that he has made in different cities and towns of the state. Furthermore, different online media channels uploaded the speeches, which help the speaker to be addressed the entire world. Consequently, not only the participants on his speech, the total population of Ethiopia could view and be influenced positively or negatively. The public rally held at Mesqel Square on 23 June 2018 could be an indication of the people’s attitude towards the ruling party as enemy has changed, and are saying WOW (WAKUM, 2018) By conducting an observational pilot study, the researcher initiated to evaluate the communication strategy of Dr. Abiy by using rhetorical communication methods. It is a well-known fact that there are plenty of rhetorical speech studies in the world and few in Ethiopia but as much as the researcher knowledge, no research has been conducted on communication rhetoric of Dr .

Abiy AHIMED. Getachew (2014) has conducted a research on “The Rhetoric of Community Participation: Ngos’ Discourses and Deliberative practices with Communities in Ethiopia and …. Has conducted by using rhetorical theory but it is different from the prime minister”. Ludi, et al (2013) conducted a research on the title “Rhetoric vs. realities: An assessment of rainwater management planning and implementation modalities in Oromia and Amhara regions, Ethiopia”. Both of the previously mentioned researches hardly related with the current study. Therefore, the research will contribute a body of knowledge on the area of rhetoric skills to affect others in Ethiopia.

1.3. Objective of the ResearchThe study has the following general and specific objectives.1.3.1. General ObjectiveThe objective of this study is to analyze the rhetoric of Ethiopia’s Prime Minster Dr. Abiy Ahimed (PhD) public speeches held on the House of Peoples Representative and different locations of the country.

1.3.2. Specific ObjectivesThe researcher aims to• Find out the construction and use of rhetorical cannons on the Prime Minister speech;• Assess the extent of rhetorical proofs used in the Prime Minister speech;• Determine the major ideologies and worldview of the prime minister.

1.4. Research QuestionsThis study aims to answer the following research questions. • How did the Prime Minister use and develop rhetoric cannon in his speeches?• To what extent did the Prime Minister use rhetorical components in his speeches?• What is the ideologies and worldview of the Prime Minister?1.5.

Scope of the StudyThe research scope delimited to three of the speeches. Inaguaral speech of the newly assigned prime minister speech after his oath, the speech held at Hawassa stadium of his first meeting with the southern nation, nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia region and the Ethio-Eritria peace deal are the scope of the sample. The reason about the selection is that the inaguaral speech is the most important, the Hawassa stadium speech was unique in comparison with the other regions speech, and the Ethio-Eritirea peace deal selected from its importance in strengthening the two countries perspective. Additionally, the researcher focuses on only the message construction and delivery strategies, and the ideologies expressed in his speech. No other linguistic features of the speech have assessed.

1.6. Significance of the StudyThe research has different significances. Primarily because it focuses on the rhetoric of Dr. Abiy Ahimed, the Prime Minister of Ethiopia, and no research has conducted on his rhetoric and limited availability of rhetorical studies in Ethiopia; it could contribute by filling knowledge gaps. Additionally it will have significance, as a stepping-stone for researchers who has a desire to conduct studies both on Dr. Abiy and rhetoric studies. 1.

7. Limitation of the StudyThe study is limited only in three of his addresses. This is due to the inaccessibility of fully recorded videos and audios for analysis. It was very help full if other speeches of the prime minister were analyzed and trend analysis has made by using other critical rhetoric methods.

However, through cross checking of both printed version of the speech from Addis Zemen Newspaper and the record of the Ethiopia Television live transmission of inaguaral ceremonythe researcher will alleviate the problem.CHAPTER THREERESEARCH DESIGN3. Introduction The study aims at evaluating the rhetorical cannon use and proofs in the Ethiopian Prime minister Dr. ABIY AHIMED after coming to power. This chapter encompasses the methodology used, the methods and data collection instruments of the research, the sample and sample population, ethical considerations and the analysis and presentation of data sections.3.1. Research MethodologyTo answer the questions mentioned in chapter one the speeches of the Prime Minister Dr.

ABIY AHIMED will be collected and analyzed. The analysis will be done by using the neo-classical theory of rhetoric and generic critical rhetoric theory. I.e. used to evaluate the cannons and proofs used and its purpose, and the critical theory of ideology and generic rhetoric will be used as a theoretical frame works. It is a kind of qualitative study aims to analyze contents that broadcasted through mass media (print and Electronics). Qualitative research helps to understand the world and construct meanings based on the social- cultural setting/situations.

This type of researches is hardly used for generalization, rather it contributes for knowledge.3.2. Population of the studyDr. ABIY AHIMED has made many addresses including from his prime minister office to the grass root levels of a country and in different parts of the world.

The speeches incorporates from his first inaguaral ceremony to the last 100 days are the total population of the study. This is because the researcher believed that this season was marked by controversial and it is enough to answer the questions raised on this study. Other speeches are made after the audience reaction to his persuasive. 3.

3. Sample SizeThe samples of this study are speeches addressed by Dr. ABIY AHIMED of Ethiopian prime minster that covers starting from his first day inaugural speech to last 100 days. After 100 days many things are changing and he has already started implementing what he was promising, meant that the audience might not be persuaded not only by his speeches but also his acts.

Moreover, act by itself has its own artifact that could be assessed as another study. Hence, the researcher does not want to go through this one; anybody who has interest could conduct it. As a result, from the speeches within 100 days three of speeches will be selected and analyzed.Sampling design According to Kotari (2004) the are two types of sample design based on sample selection element and representational bias. Additionally in any research, there are two sampling techniques; random and nonrandom. According to Kumr (2011), random sampling are done to minimize the researcher’s bias and leads to generalization of a given phenomenon, whereas qualitative sampling techniques are made to minimize cost and helps people to understand the world in an interpretative manner for knowledge development, meaning construction and understanding of multiple reality. Finally the samples are selected in non-random manner by through purposive sampling technique. “Rhetorical analysis focuses on how messages are delivered, and with what (intended or actual) effects.

Researchers who take this approach rely on the identification of structural elements, tropes, styles of argumentation, speech acts, and the like; Kathleen Hall Jamieson’s book Packaging the Presidency ( 1984) is an example of such an analysis. Efforts to study negotiations (Harris, 1996 ) , what works and what doesn’t, might be described as rhetorical analyses as well” (Krippendorff, 2004. p, 16).


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