1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study Education is a lifelong process. In this process, teachers play an important role. For this purpose, teachers must be equipped with necessary knowledge, attitude, behavior and skills. In fact, they require performing their tasks effectively in the classroom according to the situation. However, unfortunately Teacher Education, in Pakistan has remained the most neglected sector of our national system of education.
In spite of the fact that each educational policy since 1947 to-date have emphasized the need for improving teacher education programs (Bregm& Muhammad, 1998). The problems of employed women will vary with the nature of job, sector in which she is working and doing their jobs. Fairly large proportion of teaching community is comprised of female teachers, which is one of the major service sectors chosen by women in the Pakistan state (Yasmeen, 2005). In this study, the researcher interested in finding out the problems that the beginning teachers faced in the first six of their professional carrier. The purpose of the study is not only defining the beginning teachers’ problems but also examining how to overcome these problems. The female teacher faces many challenges and often have many problems. Teaching is a profession where 30% to 50% leave teaching, after facing these problems (Hover ; yeager, 2004). So, the earlier years of a teacher’s experience can affect directly whether the teacher continues teaching profession or choice to any other profession (Rivkin & hanushek 2005).
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The study of teacher2 problems has a long history. Common problems of beginning teachers has been the subject of my study .For a female teacher’s first six month on the job is often difficult. This time is hard not only on students, but also on the teachers themselves. The extraordinary need for more teachers comes at a time in which the demands on teachers are increasing. Schools are expected to serve an increasingly diverse population and to provide more educational and other services to students and their families than ever before. These new teachers will teach in a wide variety of contexts and settings.
They will teach in urban, rural, and suburban schools. They will teach the rich, the middle class, and the poor. They will teach students who are more ethnically, culturally, and linguistically diverse than any country in the world (Christina Cara, 2006). They will teach students who have strong family support and a caring, nurturing environment, and many who lack this support system.
They will teach students at a variety of ability levels and with a variety of learning needs. At the very time the teachers who found themselves for the challenges and complexities of the teaching profession. The eight problems perceived most often are classroom discipline, motivating students, dealing with individual differences, assessing students’ work, relationships with parents, organization of class work, insufficient and/or inadequate teaching materials and supplies, and dealing with problems of individual students. Overall, The eight areas of potential challenges and concerns of new teachers are Personal ,Professional, Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment, Relationships with Students and Focus on Student Learning, Organizational Systems for the Teacher, the Classroom, and Students, ,Collegial Interactions, Parents and Community (Grant, 2006).
3 The initial years of service are generally considered to be the first six months to five years of teaching. We have come to think of these years as the induction period, or the time in which the teacher becomes more familiar with their job responsibilities, the work setting, and professional norms and expectations (Paula, 2006). The entry period is a crucial time in the development of a teacher. We can leave teachers to struggle or get by as best they can during this period, or we can structure and guide this entry period so that it is a period of rich, continued learning and development that leads to success and expert practice. Induction programs have been developed as a way to effectively and thoughtfully introduce new teachers to their responsibilities and bring newcomers into the profession. The goal of systematically planned program of induction is to help new teachers not just survive, but to succeed. 1.2 Statement of the Problem It has been observed that many teachers leave their profession soon after joining because of many reasons not-withstanding academic and professional training.
This study focused on the problems faced by female teachers in the first six months of their career in district Abbottabad. 1.3 Research Objectives The objectives of research were: 1. To identify the problems faced by female teachers in the first six months of their career. 2. To provide necessary suggestions to overcome those problems.4 1.4 Research Questions In finding out the problems faced by female teachers in the first six months of their career in district Abbottabad, the following research questions were formulated.
1. What are the problems faced by female primary school teachers? 2. What are the causes of the problems of female primary school teachers? 3. What measures should be taken to overcome all the problems? 1.5 Significance of the Study This study is significant in the sense that; it will provide help to the administration, policy makers and teachers themselves. This study will also provide help to Secretaries, Directors, E.
D.Os and other educational officers to know the problems which are usually faced by female teachers in the first six months of their career. It will help to bring reforms for the improvement of educational system. Objectives of education can be achieved and implemented in the best manner. Teachers will perform their services well and to full satisfaction. The study will provide basis for further researchers in the field of education. So the standard of education can only be raised by solution of problems faced by beginning female teachers.
It needs serious attention of the Government, society and department of education. 1.6 Delimitation of the Study The findings of this present study were subject to the following limitations: 1. The study area was confined to only one district that is district Abbottabad. Thus the results of study were applicable only to similar kind of situation. 2. The study was based on a certain time period (i.e.
six months).5 3. Because of limitation of time and other resources involved in research, the present study was restricted to a limited number of samples that is taken from ten government schools and ten private schools of district Abbottabad. 1.7 Hypotheses The teachers faced the problems: 1. of transportation 2. Mostly time management of class. 3.
Dealing with dull student and extra ordinary students. 4. As a result of Frequent Transfers.
5. As a result of lack of Physical and Learning Resources. 6. As a result of lack of Community Involvement, parents not understanding the teacher statement related to their Childs. 7. As a result of Overloaded Classes at the same time. 8.
Due to lack of staff members. 1.8 Research Methodology An effort was made to study the problems faced by the female teacher in the first six months of their carrier in district Abbottabad. This Research presents the methods used while conducting the present research study which includes overall design of the study, study period, population, Sample selection, and development of questionnaires, pilot testing of questionnaires, data collection procedure, and data analysis. To conduct this study district Abbottabad was selected as major area of study.6 1.8.1 Population Population of this study included the newly appointed teachers in district Abbottabad.
1.8.2 Sampling For Sample selection, ten government school and ten privates schools were taken from district Abbottabad. 1.8.3 Research Instrument In present study pretested and standardized questionnaires were used as research tool.
It was prepared to collect responses on the problems faced by female teachers in the first six months of their career. The questionnaire was developed by the researcher after a comprehensive review of the related literature and by the guidance of supervisor. The questionnaire comprised of 17 questions related to required study. The language of the questions was very simple, tangible and clear so that there may be no ambiguity in comprehension or interpretation.
Each questions carried five options for answers. Strongly agree, agreed, in difference, disagreed, and strongly disagreed. 1.8.
4 Data collection Before administering the questionnaires permission was obtained from school head teachers. The questionnaires were administrated in April, 2018.With the help of school head teachers, researcher surveyed the newly appointed teachers of school and filling the responses after asking the question in loud voice. 1.8.5 Data Analysis The analyzed data was interpreted to have meaningful finding. Percentage of new teachers responses for each items in the questionnaires were analyzed in order to7 determine the items that were given the most importance with respect to the problems faced by newly appointed teachers in school. Conclusion was drawn from these findings and finally on the basis of finding and conclusion, recommendation was made for the implementation of this study.
1.9 Operational Definitions School: It means an institution where children get education. Facilities: Something that permits the easier performance of an action, course of conduct, etc. Sampling: In research terms a sample is a group of people, objects, or items that are taken from a larger population for measurement. Community: A group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common.
8 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Education is development and a key to success. Existing scientific and technological development can only be attributed to education (Bregman and Muhammad, 1998). The standard of education of a country determines its position among the other nations of the world. In this regard countries with high achievements in the fields of education and research lead the world. Education influences living standard as it turns the population of a country into useful human capital and works as an agent of positive change (Hoodbhoy, 1998). However, it is worth noting that teachers, as builders of the nation, hold an essential role in the process of education. In this sense the quality and standards of education are strongly associated with the quality and effectiveness of its teachers. Unfortunately in Pakistan very little attention has been paid to the education sector in general and the recruitment of quality teachers in particular.
Resultantly, Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rate and quality educations (Farooq, 1990). This study attempts to examine the problems faced by school teachers such as, academic, employment and promotion procedure, administrative and power structure, financial, training, curriculum, parental relations, and examination in district Abbottabad located in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. 2.1 Problems as a Result of Prevailing Society We are living in a society where every one of us like their daughters/women to be treated and taught by female nurse and teacher but intensively hate and dislike9 our women/girls/female to part in education or services hence the matter seems quite ambiguous. 2.2 Problems as a Result of Economic Conditions Owing to getting a smaller amount of financial support, the side of education system has remained the most under paid and poor in performance especially in female.
This fact has rendered the education sector as the most unattractive profession in the country. Teacher community, being the most finically poor in society, often look for other sources of earning such as going abroad for working and run their own businesses at the cost of their professional integrity (Zafar, 2003). In this regard teachers are less motivated towards and take least interest in their school duties. In many cases teachers get salaries without attending the schools because of their businesses.
This has retarded the process of quality teaching and learning in schools (Shahzadi and Perveen, 2002). 2.3 Problems as a Result of Household Activities Sometimes due to huge family and laborious work the female teachers become so busy and involved that she does not pay full attention to school and teaching profession although government has done much to uplift the miser and pity conditions of teachers but still much efforts and determination is required to overcome this problem (Riasatat,el,2005). 2.
4 Problems as a Result of Frequent Transfers Female Teachers in Pakistani schools are constantly at the sweet will of education officers and school administration. The transfers are usually made on the basis of favoritism and nepotism. Due to this practice most of the teachers remain in high mental agony, disturbance and pressures (Khan, 1980). Often transfers to10 remote areas are made to teach a lesson to the teachers who are either disobedient or have affiliation with opposing political party. Sometimes the newly transferred teachers do not find enough time to get adjusted to the new environment. The practice of frequent transfer of teachers creates not only disturbances for the female teachers itself but for their families, children but also affects the quality of schooling and learning in the girls schools (Farooq, 1993).
2.5 Problems as a Result of Political Interference Education system of Pakistan now a day’s very highly politicized. In common cases teachers are inducted on the basis of their political affiliations rather than on merit, who often serve as political workers instead of performing their professional duties. If a teacher has no political affiliation to any political party then it is very hard to maintain his present place and position.
Similarly due to political tie in the education sector, over and over again the established process of selection is despoiled. These politically chosen ineffectual teachers become a permanent burden on the economy and a cause of the fall down of the educational system (Shah, 2003). Further, their illegal promotions and politics in the schools get in the way the educational progress in terms of quality schooling and learning as well as expose the spirit of dexterity among the teaching society. It is also important to point out here that often teachers who do not pay attention to the dictations of the political actors are harshly punished in social or financial terms and sometimes transferred to far-flung areas especially hard for female teachers.
This lack of professional freedom of female teachers has deficiently exaggerated the degree of success of their duties. They work with slightest curiosity and motivation (Saleem, 2002).11 2.6 The Problems as a Result lack of Physical ; learning Resources The lack of teaching and learning aids in schools creates difficulties in the teaching process especially for female. Some girl’s schools even do not have basic aids such as black boards, attendance registers, offices, libraries, laboratories and up-to-date books. Even the majority of schools have lack of classrooms.
In majority of girls schools there are no proper playgrounds for the physical development of students and teachers (Qureshi, 2002). This has created more monstrous problems for female teachers as they cannot provide the students wider opportunities for learning and development. Since teachers are expected to cover courses well in time, however, in the given conditions they fail to create meaningful learning environment in schools (Hussain, 2001). 2.7 Problems as a Result of Social Recognition According to Rehman (2002) teaching is considered the most important and critical position in the entire education systems well as a deferential professions in all societies of the world. It is considered one of the main pillars of a society (Adams, 1998).
In some countries teaching is taken as the most honorable and lucrative profession. In developed nations teachers are adored and occupy a reverential social position in society. However, in Pakistan teachers, particularly school teachers, in theory are exalted but the reality is the other way round. In Pakistan, teaching Profession does not enjoy a great social status in the society. Teaching is considered the most underpaid and less attractive profession as compared to other professions like medical or engineering and so on. Malik (1991) discovered that in Pakistan the social status of teachers is accepted only at the extent12 of Holy Scripture. For example, ideologically teaching is deemed as the prophetic profession and teachers as the promoters of prophetic job. However, in practice this does not exist.
Teachers stand at the last edge of the social ladder in society. This phenomenon has decreased the self-esteem of teachers. In these conditions the profession of teaching is the most little attractive field of service for the youth. Normally teaching is the last option in the priority list of different professions. 2.8 Problems as a Result of Community Involvement Teachers are not given due respect in their society that is why teaching profession is constantly losing its respect and qualified people join other professions.
Only people having low caliber and ability join teaching profession .Schools are community in miniature. Teachers are important change agents, mentors and academic leaders of the society. In Pakistani, government, schools the concept of parental participation is very poor.
Teachers normally face negative remarks form the parents’ side as any (badly) performance of the students is related to the performance of the teachers only (Muhammad, 2002). Students who fail or show low marks in the examination, the teachers are held responsible for this without realizing that the performance of the students is associated with the role of school administration, parents and teachers. It is injustice to only hold teachers responsible for the bad results of the students in examination and so on. There is lack of awareness on the part of the parents and community that parents and community is equal stakeholder in the development of the student (Illahi, 1986). 2.9 Problems as a Result of Lodging and Amenities Government does not give any housing lodging to female primary school teachers.
Female teachers posted in far-flung areas or outstations where they had to13 face the problem of lodging and protection. Especially female teachers cannot have enough money to rent out houses on the money which is given to them and by a hair’s breadth make their living. Due to non- availability of executive housing female teachers make extended absentees and are not capable to carry out their duties with complete concentration and happiness (Government of Punjab, 2004). Accommodation is a major irritant in the sound family life of teachers.
Due to absence of official accommodation, majority of the time of a teacher is spent in finding an accommodation. It has been observed that when finally a teacher finds an accommodation his next transfer is almost due. Due to which teacher greatly disturbed. It has been experimental that female teachers who are posted in far-off areas are more worried in return transfer to their close stations from the time of transfer to the school. This practice depressingly affects the recital of the female teachers which leads to commotion and mental agonies. 2.
10 Problems as a Result of Male Clerical and Class-4 Staff This is another alarming issue in most of our female schools. Firstly there is hardly clerical staff present in female schools. If it is present somehow in their schools it is in the shape of men and every ones know that female feel hesitance dealing with men in the Islamic society, similarly class-4 staff seldom present in female schools if present so it is in the form of men which very hard for female teachers to cope with men rather than female class-4 (Hussain, 2001). 2.11 Problems as a Result of Overloaded Classes According to Khalid (1998) the out of reach working circumstances in Pakistani schools have added to teacher suffer exhaustion. There are no measures of work in some schools either due to the ignorance of the administration or laps on the14 part of female teachers to find out the procedure of work. In the mass of schools, mostly in far-flung areas, there is being short of female teaching staff. This overburdens other teachers in the schools.
In view of Saleem (2002) this situation has increased more pressures on the teachers who become prone to physical discomforts. In this situation the teachers try to cover the syllabus at the cost of the quality in teaching and learning. Teachers cannot pay individual attention to many students which is a great psychological and social need of students. 2.12 Problems as a Result of Professional Development The success of any educational system depends on good and well-resourced teachers. Teachers cannot be replaced with any other kind of instructional material .Teaching is a profession which needs frequent updating. In this view female teachers should be alert of the new changes happening in the humanity and around the world.
Likewise they need to be continuously abreast with latest theories, research and other addition to the pool of knowledge. It has been observed that female teachers who are not competently sound and upgraded are not able to handle with the diverse changes and variations in the society, country and the humanity at large. On the contrary female teachers who obtain latest knowledge and develop their skills can effectively manage the process of teaching and learning. They teach and learn better (Farooq, 1990). Effective female teachers require being successful learners as well. Nevertheless, the professional development of female teachers has not been given any appropriate concentration in Pakistan. Resultantly, female teachers are establishing feeble in solving students ‘academic and societal harms.
Additional, it is experimental that students graduating from the (government) schools have15 deprived communication skills and find it hard to contract with problems of life. As Students in Pakistanis schools remember the concepts for examination rationale; they are short of investigative, deep and decisive skills like their teachers. This circumstance has exaggerated the generally degree of quality of education in the country (British Council, 1988). 2.13 Problems as a Result of School Culture Relationship and coordination amongst female teachers and with their executive staff is vital for creating an atmosphere of reliance and efficacy. Be short of friendly relations affects the process of effective schooling and learning.
The negative effects of politics in Pakistani schools have extremely exaggerated the cooperative guts amongst teaching community. In some cases principals or head teachers give favors to only those female teachers who admit their dictations without any hesitation and appraisal. Teachers who question them or ask for more support are deliberately overlooked and ignored. This perform has given birth to suspect and de-motivates some of the teachers who hate smooth talk. Normally school principals run schools like a kingdom, least encourage coordination among the staff, and have lack of vision (Government of Pakistan, 2001). In schools there is a culture of backbiting, slurring, tormenting, pleasing and leg-pulling among the teaching community, often leads to skirmishes. The final effects of this fall on the students and quality of education. On the whole, due to this the procedure of quality of education in the schools is deeply affected (Khalid, 1998).
2.14 Problems as a Result of Coordination and Cooperation The system of education in Pakistan lacks a mechanism of coordination. This problem has taken rots due to weak communication between the policy makers,16 staff, parents and the community. The state of poor coordination in the system has promoted misunderstandings between the stakeholders (Farooq, 1993).
Teachers remain at the receiving end in all areas, e.g., in making of curriculum or any other education policy. Teachers participate only in the implementation not in the development part. This ends up in the creation of a culture of blame-game. There is even Lack of coordination between teachers and principals (Zafar, 2003). 2.15 Problems as a Result of Supervision Rasheed, (2004) has found that there is a poor concept of supervision in Pakistani schools.
The process of supervision is filled with bureaucratic underpinnings. In essence the purpose of supervision is to develop and improve the performance of teachers and students. Conversely, in Pakistan the process of supervision is characterized with the notion of inspection. Supervisors create an environment of fear during the process of supervision (Mohanty, 990).
The supervisors behave like kings and treat the teachers like salves and inferiors. This trend has created mistrust as well as affected the spirit of cooperation among the teachers on one hand and teachers and administration on the other. The supervisors instead of providing constructive feedback give orders to the teachers and hence no improvement takes place (Khan, 1998).
2.16 Problems as a Result of Prevailing Curriculum Curriculum development in Pakistan is a centralized activity. Curriculum is developed and schools are supposed to implement it without any manipulation. In this regard teachers’ role is that of implementer. They cannot contribute towards the process of curriculum development and evaluation neither they are provided with refresher courses to be in line with the updated syllabi (Hoodbhoy, 1998).
This17 tradition has left the teachers ignorant of many aspects of the curriculum which ultimately affects not only their own performance but also the process of teaching and learning in schools. In many cases teachers are not aware of the aims or goals of the curriculum for certain levels. This creates gaps between understating of the curriculum and its effective implementation.
However, in developed countries teachers are invited to participate in the process of the curriculum design and development. Their inputs are considered vital for the right direction of the education system (Government of Pakistan, 2001). 2.17 Problems as a Result of Classroom Management The biggest challenge that surfaces for new teachers is classroom management. A 2004 Public Agenda survey found that 85 percent of teachers believed “new teachers are particularly unprepared for dealing with behavior problems in their classrooms”. A separate survey of 500 teachers found that teachers with three years or fewer on the job were more than twice as likely as teachers with more experience (19 percent versus 7 percent) to say that student behavior was a problem in their classrooms (Melnick & Meister, 2008). 2.
18 Problems as a Result of Textbooks Textbooks are a very important aspect of teaching and learning process (Farooq, 1993). Textbook development is highly specialized area in curriculum development. Female teachers in Pakistani girls’ schools face problem of instruction due to non-availability of quality textbooks. There is a culture of multilingualism and medium of instructions in schools. This creates an environment of uncertainty, difficulty, fatigue and lack of understating both on the part of female teachers and students. Moreover, there is lack of training of female teachers on how to smooth18 the progress of or explain concepts from different textbooks (Hussain, 2001). This lack of orientation has created confusion among female teachers which reflects in their poor performances. Due to this female teachers as well as students are least interested in the process of learning.
As teachers are expected to cover the syllabus before examination by all means, they, in order to overthrow the burden from their head and due to lack of understanding, resort to only reading and preaching the books without taking into account the vital aspects of schooling and learning such as development of various skills (communication, analysis, reflection) of students and enhancing their knowledge in an effective way (Khalid, 1998).19 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY An effort was made to study the problems faced by the female teacher in the first six months of their carrier in district Abbottabad. This chapter deals with the methodology adopted for the study. This chapter presents the methods used while conducting the present research study which includes overall design of the study, study period, study population, Sample selection, and development of questionnaires, pilot testing of questionnaires, data collection procedure, and data analysis procedure. To conduct this study district Abbottabad was selected as major area of study. This study was conducted from 15March to 15June.
3.1 Research Design A descriptive study was carried out to assess the newly appointed teachers in district Abbottabad. A cross-sectional Survey method was used in the study. 3.2 Population Population of this study included the newly appointed teachers in district Abbottabad. The Sample of the study consisted of newly appointed teachers who faced some problems related to their field of teaching in district Abbottabad. 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique For this random sampling was used and a sample of 27 new teachers was brought under study.
For Sample selection, ten government schools and ten private’s schools were taken from district Abbottabad.20 3.4 Instrumentation In the present study pretested and standardized questionnaires were used as research tool. It was prepared to collect responses on the problems faced by female teachers in the first six months of their career. The questionnaire was developed by the researcher after a comprehensive review of the related literature and by the guidance of supervisor. The questionnaire comprised of 17 questions related to required study. The language of the questions was very simple, tangible and clear so that there may be no ambiguity in comprehension or interpretation.
Each questions carried five options for answers. Strongly agree, agreed, in difference, disagreed, and strongly disagreed. 3.5 Validity and Reliability of Instrument Before data collection the questionnaire was validated through pilot testing before it was administered on the sample. The researcher conducted a pilot testing to check the validity and reliability of the research tool.
Initially the questionnaire was prepared with utmost care keeping in view the problems which were faced by the female teachers in the first six months of their career. In this regard for the accuracy of items it was checked by supervisor. After the amendments a pilot testing of the instruments was conducted in order to find out limitations, if any, in the research instruments. For this purpose, two schools i.
e. Pine Hills Public High School for Girls, Abbottabad and Government Girls High Secondary School, Abbottabad were selected for pilot testing. The questionnaires were designed based on the pattern of ACT council, were administered and collected from the newly appointed teachers, five new teachers from each school. They were asked to fill in and comment on the questionnaires.
21 3.6 Data Collection Before administering the questionnaires permission was obtained from school head teachers. The questionnaires were administrated in April, 2018.
With the help of school head teachers, researcher surveyed the newly appointed teachers of school and filling the responses after asking the question in loud voice. The questionnaires were personally filled after knowing their responses in order to elicit best possible information from the respondent. 3.7 Data Analysis The analyzed data was interpreted to have meaningful finding. Percentage of new teachers responses for each items in the questionnaires were analyzed in order to determine the items that were given the most importance with respect to the problems faced by newly appointed teachers in school. Conclusion was drawn from these findings and finally on the basis of finding and conclusion, recommendation was made for the implementation of this study.22 CHAPTER 4 DATA ANAYLYSIS AND INTERPRETATION The present study aimed to identify the problems faced by female teachers in the first six months of their career in district Abbottabad and to explore the major causes behind these problems.
This chapter deals with analysis and interpretation of data, collected for study. The data of study was analyzed by percentage and presented in the forms of tables as under. Table 4.
1: Personal problems of female teachers Strongly In Strongly Statements Agree Agree Different Disagree Disagree 1. Have you face travelling problem? 44% 20% 8.3% 8% 4% 2.
Face major problems, where she has no experience to teach. 20% 40%12% 8% 0% 3. Teacher face difficulty, how to establish the relationship with student guardian. 52% 32% 8% 0.8% 0% 4. Teacher face problems, as students take time to understand the nature of new teacher. 56% 25% 4% 12% 0% 5. Major task for teachers, to change their personal behavior or personality according to the need of class.
60% 25% 0% 2% 4% The table (4.1) shows that in most cases the teacher responses were in favor of agreed and strongly agreed in perceiving that mostly new teachers faced travelling problems. Because their first posting area is not suitable for her to travel on daily bases. Those teachers who faced travelling issues, that percentage ratio were 44%23 fall under the strongly agreed responses in district Abbottabad.
However, less numbers of teachers (8.3%) have given neutral response regarding travelling issues. Therefore on the other hand, teachers faced major problem is that where she has no experience to teach; that is the beginning stage of teaching and 40% response fall under agreed ratio of teachers that means teacher faced it at the starting of their career. Mostly new teachers leave their profession because of that reason, when realized that studying and teaching both are different things in education. Less number of new teachers has given neutral responses that percentage ratios were 12% and disagreed responses were 28% and no one respond strongly disagree to this statement problem. Another personal problem of teachers is that how to establish the relationship with student guardian, that mostly faced teachers at the beginning of their teaching career. Obtained results indicates that majority of new teachers (52%) given responses in strongly agreed and agree(25%) whereas 4% of teachers have given neutral reactions but 12% shows disagree responses and on one fall under the strongly disagree responses. Furthermore, an obtained result indicates that major task for teachers (60%), to change their personality according to the need of class.
Hence 60% responses are strongly agreed and 25% are agreed responses and 2% disagree and no one respond strongly agreed. Beside, majority teachers given responses(56%) strongly agreed, in favor of that statement is student take time to understand the nature of new teacher and 25% agreed responses. while no one given neutral responses,4% given strongly disagreed respond.24 Table 4.2: Academic problems faced by female teachers Strongly In Strongly Statements Agree Agree Different Disagree Disagree 1. School Head Teacher’s attitude was not good towards you at the first meeting. 24% 25% 8% 40% 12% 2. Colleague teachers don’t accept new teacher easily.
24% 25% 8% 32% 12% 3. Duties and responsibilities were not properly defined. 36% 32% 8% 20% 4% The table (4.2) indicates that, the respondent views varied greatly when researcher asked about academic problems of newly appointed teachers. Their opinions were different when they were questioned about various statements as given in table.2.In finding that whether head teacher attitude toward good at first meeting? , than new teachers responses were mostly against the statement they were strong agreed around 24% and agreed ratio 25%.
However, teachers have given 8% neutral response. Hence, 40% teachers were not in favor of this statement and respond disagree. Similarly 12% respondents have shown strongly disagreed.
Likely for the statement that is Colleague teacher don’t accept new teacher easily, the respondent teachers opinions different. The new teachers were agreed 25% and strongly agreed 24% but neutral responses 8% while 32% teacher have shown disagree opinion, only 12% show strongly disagreed responses. On the other hand, the newly appointed teacher’s responses were mostly in the favor of this statement of problem. When questioning about the statement i.
e. duties and responsibility were not properly defined in school. Hence the new teachers were strongly agreed response25 36% and agreed responses 32%, neutral response 8% but disagreed responses are 20% as compare strongly disagree only 4%. Table 4.
3: Classroom problems faced by female teachers Strongly In Strongly Statements Agree Agree different Disagree Disagree 1. Classroom facility inadequate. 44% 0.16% 12% 24% 4% 2.
Face problems due to large number of students (more than fifty) in class. 36% 20% 0% 40% 4% 3. Do you face problems in maintaining classroom discipline? 36% 28% 0% 24% 8% 4. AV-Aids are not available. 48% 20% 4% 24% 4% 5. Two or more different Grades students are combined in a single class.
40% 8% 8% 28% 12% 6. Face difficulty, how to deal with the problem of individual student. 60% 16% 4% 24% 0% 7. Teacher face problem, in dealing with dull or extra ordinary bold students. 64% 16% 12% 4% 0% The table (4.
3) shows that in most cases the newly appointed teacher’s responses were in favor of agreed and strongly agreed. Researcher asked about questions such as consist on classroom problems i.e. student dealing problem, AV-Aids facility problem, classroom facility lacking. Firstly, when asked about classroom facility their responses were varied.
Mostly new teachers were 44% strongly agree 0.16% were agreed responses shown. Hence less number of responses consists on (12%) neutral but disagreed responses 24% and only 4% shows strongly disagreed responses. Likely for the statement ,that larger strength (more than fifty ) in class were difficult task to teach for new teacher , because at the beginning of their career teacher expected different e.
g. she expected settled class, manageable strength, easily controllable, obedient student, AV-Aids facility available for teaching etc.26 But on some extent situation is different as compare she expected. So, Teachers responses related strength Problem (36%) strongly agreed, 20% opinion were fall under agree responses. Hence no one has given neutral response, but disagreed response ratio were 40% that show improvement in this case. While strongly disagreed ratio of respondent were 4% only.
Similarly, new teacher’s responses related matter of maintaining discipline 36% fall under strong agreed responses, 28% agreed ratio of teacher. While 8% respond in favor of strongly disagreed as compare disagreed responses were 24%. In finding that, important case is AV-Aids facility problem for new teachers, responses were (48%) strongly agreed as compare strongly disagreed 4%.while agreed responses were consist of 4% as well neutral responses are 4%.Another classroom problem is two or more different grades students are combined in a single class.
Hence, respondent opinion regarding statement was 40% strongly agreed and agreed responses of new teachers were 8%. While 12% strongly disagreed and only 8% have neutral opinions but 28% disagree were shows that improvements occur in this case. On the other hand, in classroom major problem is that; how to deal with problem of individual student.
Collected data reveals responses of newly teachers were 60% strongly agreed, 16% agreed responses and neutral responses only 4%.However, no one respond strongly agree to this statement. Likewise, dealing with dull and extra-ordinary student is the major problem for newly teacher. In this case mostly new teachers (64%) in favor of strongly agree and 16% in favor of agree. While, on the other hand, respondent who showed disagree were 4% and neutral responses 12%.
However, no one respond strongly agree to this statement.27 Table 4.4: Administrative problems faced by female teachers Strongly In Strongly Statements Agree Agree different Disagree Disagree 1. The new teachers is not given any orientation about teaching techniques. 44% 14% 4% 24% 0% 2. Teacher are given subjects for which they are not inducted / posted. 64% 20% 12% 4% 0% The table (4.
4) shows that in most of cases; the newly appointed teachers are not given any orientation about teaching techniques from the side of department or administration. About mostly responses are in favor of (44%) strongly disagree, and agree 14%.However,newly teachers have given 4% neutral response.Hence,24% teachers were not in favor of this statement and respond disagree. while no one respond strongly disagree to this statement. Additionally, in mostly situation new teachers are given those subjects for which they are not inducted or posted. An obtained result indicates that majority of new teachers faced these problems (64%) give responses in favor of strongly agreed and 20% agreed.
However, no one respond strongly agreed to this statement. While 4% teacher opposed this statement and 12% show neutral respond.28 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Summary The study was designed to find out the problems faced by female teachers in the first six of their career in district Abbottabad. The objectives of the study were (a) to identify the problems faced by female teachers in the first six months of their career (b) to provide necessary suggestions to overcome those problems. The Sample of the study consisted of 27 newly appointed teachers who faced some problems related to their field of teaching in district Abbottabad.
For Sample selection, ten government schools and ten private schools were taken from district Abbottabad. As a research instrument, questionnaire was developed for newly appointed teachers. The questionnaires were distributed and collected from the respondent by the researcher personally, and tried to the best in the collection of data from the respondents. 5.2 Findings The main findings of the study are as follows: 1. Majority of new female teachers working in different levels are facing Personal, Professional and Academic problems.
2. As the personal problems were discussed travelling related problems are more prevalent. Majority of the new teachers were faced travelling problems, their first posting area is not suitable for them to travel on daily bases.29 3.
On the other hand, new teacher faced major problem where she has no experience to teach. Majority of the new teacher realized that studying and teaching both are different aspects of education. 4.
In personal problem, majority of the new teachers faced major task in class, to change their personality according to the need of class and so teachers complete destroy their own personality due to that adopted teaching profession. 5. As per classroom problems were discussed, majority of the new teachers agreed that proper classroom facility is not available in school as well AV-Aids facility is not provided. 6. As per departmental reputation was noted that the respondents are less motivated towards this profession because of less facilities and less salary as compared to the other professions in the state.
7. Political influence and frequent transfers from one place to other is also the problem for new female teachers especially at primary level. So this problem cause uncomfortable environment for female teachers to perform their duties and sometimes result in termination.
8. Geographical conditions also create problems for female teachers when they are posted in far-flung areas and they do not have accommodation facilities for female’s staff, so they face transportation and protection problems as well. 9. Due to political intervention in the procedure of appointments, under qualified female teachers are appointed who cannot effectively manage the process of schooling and learning in schools even they are not well qualified for this post. 10.
Pupil–teacher ratio, over burdened syllabus, unnecessary emphasis on clerical works, documentation and evaluation, evaluation of fairly large number of30 students, loss of working days, the tension caused by the existing system of education, lack of enough reference materials, inadequate support from colleagues and head of the institution, inadequate in-service training etc are the major professional problems of majority of teachers. 11. Shortage of resources in schools renders the new female teachers helpless while they need different aids to enhance learning. There are no training facilities available to professionally equip the new female teachers to improve their teaching skills. 12.
The study also concluded that female teachers are overburdened with extra classes due to shortage of female staff in the schools. 13. The study also investigated that master servant environment and political grouping in this level of schooling also the main problem to hinder the teaching and learning environment. This type of situation also affected the quality of education.
5.3 Discussion Present study was designed in order to identify the problems faced by the female teachers in the first six months of their career in district Abbottabad. Through research tool (i.e. questionnaire) the collected data reveals that in most of cases the new teachers responses were in favor of agreed and strongly agreed in perceiving that mostly new teachers face those personal problems which are mentioned in table (4.1). It is evident from table (4.
1) that in district Abbottabad around 44% strongly agreed responses had travelling issues. However, lesser number of new teachers (8.3%) has given neutral responses. Therefore on the other hand, 40% responses fall under agreed ratio of new teacher related to inexperience in teaching.
Gallup (1984) has asserted that real education is possible if parents constantly monitor what occurs31 in school and classrooms and cooperate and assist the teachers. Likewise another personal problem of new teacher is that how to established the relationship with student’s guardian. Obtained results indicate that 52% of new teacher strongly agreed with this statement and only few new teachers had given neutral reactions (12%).
Furthermore, an obtained result indicates that 56% teacher strongly agreed that student take time to understand the nature of new teacher and therefore new teacher personally suffers from it. In this study, the respondent views varied greatly when researcher asked about the academic problems of newly appointed teachers. Their opinions were different when they were questioned about various statements as given in table (4.2). It is examined that majority of new teachers were not in favor of the statement related to the head teacher’s behavior, and colleagues. So, strongly agreed responses only (24% and 25%) were collected as compared to disagree responses (40% and 32%).It was shows that head teachers and colleagues behavior toward new teacher was improved and positive.
This Study also throws light on the classroom issues that is AV-Aids were not available, inadequate Classroom facilities, discipline maintaining problem, two or more different grades students were combined in a single class, dealing in class with dull or extra ordinary students. Muhammad (2002) Primary education in Pakistan is faced with acute problem of lack of learning resources. This trend is more constant in government schools where even schools do not have boards, textbook, library and other related learning resources to help teachers and students in the process of teaching and learning. It is evident from table (4.3), which reveals that percentage ratio of majority new teachers agreed or strongly agreed .i.e.
(44%, 48%, 40%, 36% and 60% or 64%). Hence no one have given neutral responses but32 only few new teachers disagreed and strongly disagreed i.e. (12%, 8% and 4%).In addition to, this study reveals that in most of cases the new teacher had no guideline or any orientation about teaching techniques from the side of department. Most of the responses were in favor of (44%) strongly agreed and agreed responses (14%) while no one respond strongly disagreed. Ornstein (1980) concluded that one of the major aspects of teacher’s problem was inadequate salaries and lack of promotional opportunities.
Although teachers’ salaries are presently increasing as compared to past but they are still less than of those of many other professional groups. Furthermore, obtained result indicates that majority of teachers face administrative problem, that is mostly new teachers are given those subjects for which they were not appointed. To conclude that, Farber (1991) in his book “Crisis in Education” has stated the problems, stresses and issues of teachers. He describes low pay of teachers, urban social disintegration, lack of parental community support, community and social apathy, lack of public support, bureaucratic interferences, violent and miserable nature of schools, pressures over them, lack of administrative support, lack of respect and appreciation, no teaching rewards and incentives, lack of teachers rights, status, goals and work overload etc. 5.
4 Conclusion 1. The purpose of this study was to explore the problems faced by female teachers in the first six months of their career in District Abbottabad located in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa through a critical review of literature. 2. The study fulfilled that overall system of education in Pakistan is affected by versatile issues; however, female teachers occupy a central role in this state of affairs. In this regard it was noted that there is lack of motivation among female33 teachers towards teaching profession due to smaller amount facilities in this career. Female teachers get lesser salary as compared to other professionals in the country. 3.
Moreover, female teachers are frequently transferred from one place to another on the basis of preferential treatment and bias, thereby making them tormented and gloomy. 4. The study also concluded that there are no facilities of accommodation for female teachers posted in far-flung or outstations. Due to political intervention in the procedure of assortment, under qualified female teachers are appointed who cannot effectively manage the process of schooling and learning in schools. 5. The study also concluded that female teachers are overburdened with extra classes due to shortage of female staff in the girls’ schools. Be short of resources in girls schools render the female teachers helpless while they need different aids for schooling and learning. There are no training facilities available to professionally update the female teachers to improve their teaching skills.
6. The on hand study further explored that in girls schools, head teacher in most cases create master servant environment which makes the female teachers feel estranged from the system. Political groupings in female schools have defectively affected the bond between teachers and head teachers. This has also grimly exaggerated the procedure of quality of education in especially in girls’ schools.34 5.5 Recommendations Keeping in mind the findings of this ongoing study it is recommended that the problems of new female teachers in district Abbottabad located in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Pakistan in general should be tackled down through the following ways.
1. The new female teachers regardless of the level of teaching face personnel, social and professional problems, which surely influence their physical as well as mental health issues and suffering from physical and mental stress may not be able to engage in creative activities. Since, woman is very important component of the family as well as for society, it is necessary to ease their problems in a time bound manner. 2. System of self reliance and independence should be improved in the school systems, the resources and trainings for new female teachers must be enhanced to increase performance in schools. 3. Teaching is the profession of full responsibility and accountability to build the new generation.
So, teachers should be academically highly qualified and trained to improve the quality of education. Training and refresher courses of school should be better to boost the recital. 4.
Healthy physical activities should be promoted for female sector to enhance the healthy education environment since a working person must have to strive for the family as well as for the institution, adequate support is essential from the family and social groups.35 5. Education department rules and policies need to be polished and implemented effectively to eradicate political interference which disturbs the school system and female teachers especially. 6. New female teachers should be properly trained to proper planning and time management also, which will help them to find time for breakfast, relaxation, exercises as well as for official works. 7. Pupil–teacher ratio should be maintained to reduce the pressure on teachers and to increase the working efficiency.
Examination system needs to be improved and made effective as per international standards. So that the status of this department is elevated to stimulate the layman to join this department. 8.
To increase the satisfaction and performance of the teaching sector selection of qualified people with teaching experience should be ensured. Hence, it is suggested that at some point in the process of selection or appointments of female teachers merit should be strictly kept in mind. 9. Keeping in views of respondents Curriculum needs to be revisited, evaluated and revised to overcome the pressure on the female teacher community and teachers should be properly trained accordingly. 10. It is suggested that Female Teachers’ involvement in the curriculum development should be boost up. This will increase the excellence of education in schools. For this reason, it is suggested that female teachers should be directly involved in the process of curriculum development. 11. The financial support to primary schools needs to be increased. Resources of teaching and learning need to be increased at the primary level to relax the state of mind.36 12. Medium of instruction in the schools is needed to be improved. Teachers should be trained in the languages especially in English and Urdu. It will help the female staff to bridge the communication gaps for smooth development in education sector. 13. Unnecessary documentation is another important area which also overburden the teaching community, because it takes away the time for preparation and instruction. Qualified persons should be inducted to improve the quality of teaching and learning rather that file works and record keeping alternative of this purpose is computer based documentations should be introduced to save the time and energy . 14. In order to improve the quality in education and to divide the load on teachers especially at primary level, number of teachers per schools should to be increased and to train them effectively on continuous basis. 15. It is observed that the Law of Teaching Service should be established that teachers must be evaluated based on professional teaching standards rather than the personal relations, in order to achieve required quality in education. Positive motivations and rewards should be introduced for the primary level teaching community. On the other hand to enhance the capacity of the system to work effectively tough system of accountability need to be introduced.37 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ashraf, M. (1983). “An Evaluation of Existing Supervision Practices in Pakistan.” p. 120-126). Lahore: Bregman, J. & Muhammad, N. (1998). “Primary and Secondary Education Structural Issues”. (pp.23-31) Islamabad: Jan Publications British Council (The) (1988). “Survey on Teacher Training in Pakistan.” Islamabad: The British Council Educational Contracts Department Overseas development Authority. Christina Cara, (2006). Insights from the Prospects study of elementary schools? 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(2003). “Fiscal Devolution in Education”. Case study Reflecting Initial Responses. Ministry of Education, Islamabad, Pakistan. Pp.34-4141 APPENDIX “I” QUESTIONNAIRE: THE SURVEY FOR THE PURPOSE OF COLLECTING DATA RELATED TO THE PROBLEMS FACED BY FEMALE TEACHERS IN THE FIRST SIX MONTHS OF THEIR CAREER IN DISTRICT ABBOTTABAD INSTRUCTIONS: The questionnaire contains seventeen questions. Please complete the following questions to reflect your opinions as accurately as possible and to answer factual questions to the best of your knowledge. All responses will be compiled together and analyzed as a group. I appreciated your co-operation. Researcher Name Ramla Sehrish Rehman42 Name of Teacher: ……………………………… Gender: . ……………………… Scale of Teacher: ……………………………….. District: ………………………… Date: ……………………….. Questions Strongly Agree In Disagree Strongly Agree different Disagree 1.Have you faced travelling problems? 2.School Head Teacher’s attitude was not good toward you at the first meeting. 3.Colleague teachers don’t accepted new teacher easily. 4.Duties and responsibilities were not properly defined. 5. Classroom facility inadequate. 6. Face problems due to large number of students( more than fifty) in class. 7. Do you Face problems in maintaining classroom discipline? 8. AV Aids are not available. 9. Two or more different grades students are combined in a single class.43 10.Teachers are given subjects for which they are not industed/posted. 11.The new teacher is not given any orientation about teaching techniques. 12.Face major problems,where she has no experience to teach. 13. Face difficulity,how to deal with the problem of individual student. 14. Teacher face difficulty, how to establish the relationship with student guardian. 15. Teacher face problem,as students take time to understand the nature of new teacher. 16. Major task for teachers,to change their personal behavior or personality according to the need of class. 17.Teacher face problem, in dealing with dull or extra ordinary bold students.44 APPENDIX “II” LIST OF SCHOOLS: PRIVATE SCHOOLS: 1. Horizon Reach Montessori School Abbottabad. 2. New Vision Public School, Nawansher Abbottabad. 3. Sunrise Public High School, Nawansher Abbottabad 4. Orash Public High School Abbottabad. 5. Pine Hill Girls High school Abbottabad 6. Al-Imtiaz Acadmey High school Abbottabad 7. Jinnah public High school Abbottabad 8. Furniter Public High school, Nawansher Abbottabad 9. The City Public school Abbottabad. 10. Al Rehman Acadmey, High School Abbottabad GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS: 1. Govt. Girls High Secondary School, Nawansher Abbottabad. 2. Govt.Girls Primary School no.3 Nawansher Abbottabad 3. Govt Girls primary School no. 1 kuthwal. 4. Govt.Girls Primary School no.2 Nawansher Abbottabad 5. Govt.Girls Primary School no.1 Nawansher Abbottabad 6. Govt.Girl .Primary School thandachoa Abbottabad. 7. Govt.Girls Higher Secondary School no.1 Abbottabad45 8. Govt.Girls Primary School Comprehensive Abbottabad. 9. Govt. Girls higher Secondary School Comprehensive Abbottabad. 10. Govt. Girls Primary School Careem Pura Abbottabad.46