!FUTURE OF ENGLISH?? Will English remain as a global language? Argumentative TextAuthor: Masooma Meer Supervisor: Sven Nilson Examiner: Joel Gustafsson Date: 5.08.2014 Subject: English for Academic Studies Course code: 1EN125
!Keywords Global. Lingua-franca. native. technology. Thanks I really am thankful to my great teachers Sven and Jeol for their efforts and hard work-ing.?
!Table of content 1.Introduction 1.1 History of language 1.2 Why is English a Global language? 2. Methods 3. Discussion 3.1 Future of English (Argumentative Discussion ) 4. conclusion !4
1.Introduction Language is a fundamental tool for human being to communicate with each oth-er. Different languages are spoken in the world.. English is a current Global lan-guage. This essay aims to explore different dimensions of English in past and present perspective. The text will analyse different arguments wether the English remain as a global language or, it will be replaced by other language. The question arise What is a global language? Why do we need a global lan-guage? What makes a global language? A language which has been given a spe-cific place within countries and communities around the world where a large number of people use it, as a mother tongue and it has taken by other countries as an official and foreign language. We need a global language, to communicate to each other to understand each other for countries with different language back-grounds to have a lingua franca that every body recognises. According to Crystal (2003) a language becomes a global language because of the power of people who speak it. It has nothing to do with structure of language, its grammar and vocabulary it is much more to do who those speakers are. It means that influence of a language is directly proportional to the influence of people who speak it. Crystals (2003) argues that Latin became an international language through out the Roman Empire, because they had military power. As Roman military power declined, Latin lost its global position. Further he says without a strong power- base (economically, politically and military power), no language can make progress as an international medium of communication. 1.1 History of English Language English language was originated from England and once spread around the world by mean of colonolization. Graddol (1997) mentions the language came into be-ing in the 15th century with movement and resettlements of people around the world however its history as a language began in 17th century most notably in the foundation of American colonies while in 19th century the British Empire with its distinctive mix of trade and cultural politics , strengthen the position of English, creating, a `language on which the sun never sets` further more he says: “the story of English in the 20th century has been closely linked to the rise of the US as a super power that has the spread of English alongside its economic. technological and cultural influence .In the sane period, the international importance of other European countries specially French, has declined.”(Graddol,1997,p.5) 1.2 Why is English a global language ? English became a global language because of the power. Power means different things, it can be political (military power), technological power, economic power and cultural power. Each of these influence the growth of English in different times. Crystal (2003) states English became global for variety of reasons, First of all the power of British Empire, later the power of American Imperialism, later in 16th and17th century the power of science and technology the industrial revolu-!1
tion. English is the language of science. Over two third of the people who made the industrial revolution work, all the inventors of the locomotive , roads and textile machinery were English speakers as a native language it was a major force for the distribution of English around the intellectual channels of the world. Crystal (2003) estimates that eighty to eighty-five percent of all the scientific lit-erature’s in the world is written in English while in the 19th century the power of money, Money talks and the two most productive nations of the world Britain and America both using English, so the language of international Banking be-came the pound and the dollar. In the 20th century the power of culture in the broadest sense Radio, Television, advertising, transport around the world, inter-net, films all of them either began in English speaking country or facilitated by English speaking country. These are the powers that influenced English. 2.Methods This essay is an argumentative text it summarises Quantitative research under-take three studies to provide basis for arguments. 3. Discussion English is currently spoken by more people in the south east Asia than in USA and UK combined. Crystal(2003) estimates that around 400 million people speaking English as a native language about 430 million people use it as a second language however 750 million people speaking English as a foreign language. All the figures add together : somewhere between 1500 and 2000 million people therefore for every native speaker, there are five foreign speakers. Four hundreds year ago people were doubtful about English having value as Crystal(2009) says that the head teacher of Marchant Taylars school Richad Mul-caster, in 1582, he said “English is no use beyond our shores or within our shores it has not that much use”. They encountered Latin, Dutch, French, Spanish know one would think about English. There were four million people speaking English in the region of Queen Elizabeth1 and now approximately two billion people are speaking English which is the one third population of the World. According to British council in the world one third of the worlds book are pub-lished in English. Two third of scientist read English eight percent of all electron-ic communications are in English mainly three quarters of the world´s mail is written in English. In addition according to British council report; “A growing number of non english countries using English, as a medium of instruction, instead of their mother tongue, new research finds that students in non-English speaking countries are increasingly learning subjects, as maths and science in English instead of their mother tongue” (British Council, 30 april 2014) The research shows the growing trend of learning English among any non-native speak-ing countries where English replaces their mother tongue for medium of instruction in schools. !2
3.1 Future of English (Argumentative Discussion) In the world History other languages are also qualified as a global language such as Latin,Greek,French, Spanish and Arabic but non of them ever reached the dominance, English is currently enjoying. 1)According to Crystal(2003) English will stay as a global language as long as those nation retain that kind of power mainly America, if for some reason, American power diminishes and some other nation like, Chinese they get the power certainly would take its place, He mentions Spanish the most fastest growing language in the world at a moment because of south America and central America. In north America Spanish is becoming widely use. 2)Some study speculate that Mandarine seems to be a higher possibility to the place that English occupies nowadays because of economy matters, and due to the fact that it currently represents a higher Asian economy in terms of wide in-ternational market then the one English represents it is going to over take Ameri-ca in the future and Mandarine would be the key to future career. Josue Roque (n.d) 3)The Outher of the book, “The days of English as the world´s lingua-franca may be numbered.” Ostlar (2010) makes an interesting prediction in his book, he ar-gues that English is spreading all over the world as a lingua-franca not as a mother tongue its future is in hand of second and foreign language speakers so who will guarantee in future that they will always remain intend to learn English. Further he argues English has been rejected in different colonies due to modern nationalism like Srilanka and Tanzania where they gave away to Sinhala and Sawahili speaking nationalist. Ostlar(2010) expresses his idea about the important role of modern technology in future which will bring great influence on future of languages. He claims that the translation technology will emerge with great power would remove English from its position of power, as the world`s leading lingua-franca. He believes technol-ogy will fill the need. 4) Graddol (1997) acknowledges the current status of English as a global lingua-franca. He argues that its hard to believe that any other language will appear within the next 50 years to replace English because it arisen from a particular his-tory which no other language can. He strongly believes that no single language would be able to challenge the monopolistic position of english in 21 century. Al-though he assumes that in future due to rapid increase in economic activity, telecommunication and air travel between Asian countries three languages may develop. One is that English will remain the international communication lan-guage in Asia. Second Mandarine possibly be the lingua-franca within chain. Third regional languages may develop if interregional trade increased between neighbouring countries in Asia. !3
Conclusion This study provide an overview that the history of English is real success story indeed the story of a language that went from four million to two billion speakers in less then four hundred years. The history of language explicitly shows this fact the popularity of a language has nothing to do with its inherit character but rather depends on the power of people who speak it. As the world watches china with rapid growth in economy may be it would be the powerful candidate for the fu-ture global status with eight hundred eighty five native speakers . Mandarine is already the most spoken language of the world. Anyhow know one knows the future of English even futurologist are just unclear about what would happen eventually. In the near Future there is no sign of domination in the prestige of English no one can challenge the current status of English, the desire to learn English and figures are going up and up every year. Of course it would be the matter of concern that what kind of English will it be in future while studies shows that the American English will ultimately dominant all other varieties of English in spelling , grammar, pronunciation. However due to rapid increase in second language and Foreign language speakers many non-native speakers use English as a second language in local variations. English in future would be mix-ture of all of that Indian English, Australian English, American English etc. !4
REFRENCES Crystal, D.(1997.2003) English as a Global language.Cambridge: Cambridge Universi-ty press. Graddol, D.(1997) The Future of English? London: British Council Crystal, D. (2009) The Future of language by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon. Ostler, N.(2010) The last lingua-franca:English until the return of Babel. New york:Walker;Co;2010. htpp//www,britcoun.org !5