2.6 More virulent strains, such as O157:H7,

2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
2.7 INCUBATION PERIOD
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS
• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICS
Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

2.6 in mammals and the latter in

2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
2.7 INCUBATION PERIOD
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS
• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICS
Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

2.10.1.1.3. of the IGS region is roughly the

2.10.1.1.3. Intergenic spacer region (IGS) :
The IGS is a genomic element varying in size, number and sequence across Leishmania species, and isolates. The Leishmania IGS contains a 60 to 64 bp-long repeat element of 16 to 275 copies, causing length variations of 4 to 12 Kbp (113 ). The size of the IGS region is roughly the same in Sauroleishmania and Leishmania species, demonstrating its conservation at the subgenus level. The IGS is less conserved than the rRNA genes and thus is more suitable to map the evolutionary relationships between closely related Leishmania species. (114, 115).

2.10.1.1.4 Mini-exon or Spliced leader RNA (SL RNA) gene:
It is of kinetoplastid protists is present in 100 to 200 tandemly repeated copies per nuclear genome and has been used for Leishmania phylogenomics (114,115). Each repeat consists of three major parts:
A transcribed 39 bp-long exon (or mini-exon) that is highly conserved between positions 1 to 9 and 21 to 39 (116); A moderately conserved intron, ranging in size from 55 to 101 bp; and a non-transcribed highly variable spacer (51 to 341 bp) used for Leishmania genotyping.
Its variation in size allows preliminary discrimination between major Old and New World Leishmania complexes (117,118,119,120). The 39 bp mini-exon can be used to quantify gene expression because it is present at the 50 ends of mRNAs (121).

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2.10.2. Non-chromosomal DNA :
2.10.2.1. Kinetoplast DNA (mitochondrial DNA) :
All Kinetoplastid ?agellates possess a single mitochondrial genome known as the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), which consists of several thousand circular DNA molecules linked together in a concatenated network (103).
It is a mass of circular DNA that consists of thousands of mini-circles (~1Kb each) and several dozen maxicircles (~23 Kb each) (121).

2.10.2.1.1. kDNA maxicircle :
encode genes homologous to those present in the mitochondrial DNA of other eukaryotes (121).

2.10.2.1.2. kDNA minicircle :
Minicircles makeup approximately 95% of kDNA and encode small RNA molecules termed guide RNAs, which provide information for RNA-editing of the maxi-circle encoded transcripts (122). kDNA is traditionally the most frequently used target for detection and typing of Leishmania because of its multicopy nature and through high sensitivity (123).

2.11. Diagnosis :
The broad clinical spectrum of cutaneous leishmaniasis makes a diagnosis of resent and Previous cases difficult. Differential diagnosis is important because diseases of other causes but with a similar clinical spectrum to leishmaniasis e.g. leprosy, skin cancers, tuberculosis, cutaneous mycoses, are common in leishmaniasis-endemic areas (124), Parasitological diagnosis remains the gold standard in cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis, because of its high specificity.

2.11.1.Direct examination :
Microscopic examination is probably the most common diagnostic approach used, because more sophisticated techniques are expensive and rarely available at primary, secondary, and tertiary health-care levels in endemic areas, using Giemsa, Wright’s, Leishman’s or other stains(13). (125) said that during stain the Leishmania amastigotes appear round to oval parasites, with a round basophilic nucleus and a small rod-like kinetoplast in macrophages or freed from ruptured cells (126). The use of an Electron microscope gives the best result for identification both the size and disposition of nucleus and kinetoplast (127).

2.11.2. Parasitic isolation and identification :
Leishmania spp was isolated from skin lesion by taking aspirate from the lesion, which converted motile promastigotes after seven days by using the culture (128).
There are different culture media which used for culturing the Leishmania spp. Novy-MacNeil-Nicole medium, RPMI 1640, peptone- yeast extract, brain heart infusion and nutrient broth, Evan’s modified Tobie’s medium (EMTM), Grace’s medium and Schneider’s Drosophila medium (129).
The animal inoculation into hamsters may also be valuable, especially for adaptation of the parasite (130).

2.11.3. Histopathology :
Tissues biopsy were processed according to (131), briefly, the tissue from the skin collected and placed in 10% formalin for histopathological studies The histopathology lesion can increase the likelihood of detecting the organism when few parasites are present, the morphological differences at light microscope level which it is a rapid examination.
2.11.4. Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) :
Delayed hypersensitivity is an important feature of cutaneous forms of human leishmaniasis and can be measured by the leishmanin test, also known as the Montenegro reaction. Leishmanin is a killed suspension of whole (0.5-1 x 10/ml) or disrupted (250 µg protein/ml) promastigotes in pyrogen-free phenol saline (132). No cross-reactions occur with Chagas’ disease, but some cross-reactions are found with cases of glandular tuberculosis and lepromatous leprosy. Leishmanin Skin Test is usually used as an indicator of the prevalence of cutaneous and mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis in human and animal populations and successful cure of visceral leishmaniasis (133,134), During active kala-azar disease, there will be no or negligible cell-mediated immune response. However, the leishmanin antigen is not commercially available and no field study has been carried out in India (135).

2.11.5. Serological tests :
Also called immunological test, the elevated antibody titers against promastigote or amastigote antigens, their fractions or recombinant antigens have been extensively exploited for specific serodiagnosis in last two decades in the form of complement fixation test, direct agglutination test (DAT), ELISA, dot-ELISA, immunoblot, strip test, indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), indirect haemagglutination antibody (IHA), latex agglutination, immunodiffusion or immunoblotting may also be available (136). However, diagnosis of leishmaniasis remains problematic and the problem occurred due to cross-reaction not only between different Leishmania spp. but also between different flagellates and unrelated organism particularly Trypanosoma cruzi (74).
2.11.6. Rapid Test For Cutaneous Leishmaniasis CL Detect :
The CL Detect Rapid Test is a qualitative, in vitro immunochromatographic assay for the rapid detection of Leishmania species antigen in ulcerative skin lesions. The test is intended for use with dental broach samples from less than four-month-old ulcerative skin lesions that are obtained from patients with suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The test targets the peroxiredoxin antigen of Leishmania species that may cause CL. The CL DetectTM Rapid Test is intended in the diagnosis of CL and must be interpreted within the context of all relevant clinical and laboratory findings(137).

2.11.7. Molecular tests :
There are many molecular tests to indicate the species, subspecies and/or strain of Leishmania which is identified by specialized techniques including isoenzyme analysis, PCR, DNA hybridization kinetoplast DNA and restriction endonuclease analysis (138).
Polymerase Chain Reaction is particularly sensitive and more specific also can be used to detect Leishmania spp. in blood, skin biopsies, lymph nodes, bone marrow and conjunctival swabs, the target sequences for characterization include either nuclear DNA such as the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene, a repetitive genomic sequence and the miniexon (spliced leader) gene repeat (139), also Real-Time PCR are very important techniques to detect the parasite quantitatively and qualitatively (82).

2.12. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis :
PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-based analysis is a popular technique for genotyping. The technique exploits that SNPs, MNPs and microindels often are associated with the creation or abolishment of a restriction enzyme recognition site (140). The first step in a PCR-RFLP analysis is the amplification of a fragment containing the variation. This is followed by treatment of the amplified fragment with an appropriate restriction enzyme. Since the presence or absence of the restriction enzyme recognition site results in the formation of restriction fragments of different sizes, allele identification can be done by electrophoretic resolvement of the fragments (141).

Table 2.3. Advantages and disadvantages of PCR-RFLP (141).

Advantages Inexpensive
Easy to design
Applicable to the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as microindels
No requirement for expensive instruments
No requirement for extensive training of laboratory staff
Miniaturisable
Disadvantages Requires that a variation generates or abolishes a restriction enzyme recognition site
Some restriction enzymes are expensive
Exact genotyping cannot be achieved in the event that there is more than one nucleotide variation in a restriction enzyme recognition site
Requires relatively large amounts of hand-on-time Long time from start to completion of the analysis Not suitable for high-throughput analysis

2.13. Treatment :
Uncomplicated CL is usually self-limiting. Lesions resolve over months leaving a scar. Different Leishmania species have different self-resolution times, L. aethiopica and L. tropica being characteristically taken much longer than L major.
Treatment choice is determined mainly by disease severity: the size, number, location, and likely chronicity of lesions; the potential of the Leishmania species to disseminate; established mucocutaneous or diffuse disease; and the presence of co-morbidities and immunosuppressant states such as HIV co-infection (142).
The first line of treatment for all of the types of leishmaniasis is the pentavalent antimonials- meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) and sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), it has remained the standard therapy for more than 60 years (143). This agent has multiple toxicities and is increasing unsuccessful due to the expansion of parasite resistance, and there are many defects such as painful administration and a long period of treatment ( 144, 44). The WHO explore that antimonials dosages should not surpass 20 mg/kg/day, and due to its elevated toxicity, the dosage of antimony ingested per day should not be uttermost than 850 mg (145). The other forms of drugs are amphotericin B, miltefosine, paromomycin. The basic pharmacologic therapies below, Table (2.4) (146,147).

Table (2.4): The basic Pharmacologic Therapies and their
Applications (146,147)
Drug Application
Pentavalent antimony (pentostam)
(sodium stibogluconate ) Used in cutaneous leishmaniasis; not marketed in the United States, but obtainable through the CDC under an Investigational New Drug (IND) protocol
Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) Operative versus pentavalent antimony
resistant mucocutaneous disease and VL.
Oral miltefosine (Impavido) Confirmed by the Fluorescein diacetate
(FDA) in March 2014 for VL due to L. donovani; CL due to L. panamensis, L. guyanensis, and L. braziliensis; and mucosal leishmaniasis due to L. braziliensis
Intramuscular pentamidine Operative versus VL but related with
constant diabetes mellitus and disease recurrence.
Orally administered ketoconazole,
itraconazole, fluconazole and dapsone They may be beneficial in hastening
healing in patients with CL that does not develop to mucosal disease and tends toward self-resolve.
Topical paromomycin Shown to be operative versus CL caused by L. mexicana and L. major.
Sitamaquine Subjecting phase three trials
local therapies for some forms of CL include local heat therapy at 40-42°C and cryotherapy.

(148) revealed that the Therapeutic failure in leishmaniasis is a common problem in endemic areas. This may be associated with multiple factors that depend both on the parasite and on the mammalian host. Regarding the mammalian host, therapeutic failure can be attributed to altered drug pharmacokinetics, reinfection or immunologic compromise. In most cases where chemotherapy fails to cure the patient, the natural susceptibility of parasites to drugs happens to be low, or alternatively, the infecting parasite has developed chemo-resistance.
(13) revealed that new topical treatment Gentian violet with Arabic Gum was the best drug for CL gave(93%) with highly significant when compared with other drugs Miltefosine(67%) Pentostam (46%), Arabic Gum alone (33%).

2.14. Disease control (Vector and reservoir control) :
Because the strategies available are expensive and labour intensive, and cutaneous leishmaniasis is a nonfatal disease, prevention and control strategies have mainly focused on the treatment of the human disease, rather than on the elimination of reservoirs or reduction of human-vector contact (44). Hence, most approaches have been limited to pilot research studies and only a few have been brought up to operational scale (149).
Measures involving the participation of the at-risk human population focus on personal protection from cutaneous leishmaniasis, including insecticide-impregnated materials like bed nets curtains clothes, or bed sheets and repellents which may offer an alternative in places with poor health-service infrastructure and per domestic Leishmania transmission. Several studies have shown that pyrethroid-treated bed nets provide 50–65% protection against infection or disease (150). However, similar to house spraying, the long-term feasibility of insecticide-treated materials is debatable, because of logistical constraints (e.g. re-impregnation of materials) and the intervention’s economic cost.
In forested environments (e.g. in most endemic areas of South and Central America) health authorities are usually limited to treating human cutaneous leishmaniasis cases. Although prevention and control strategies (e.g. environmental management, spraying of a sand fly resting sites) have been explored, targeting the sand fly vector effectively in these habitats is difficult (6).
Sand flies are highly susceptible to insecticides. Although they possess the necessary biochemical mechanisms (151), reports of resistance are few. Anecdotal evidence from Peruvian and Iranian malaria eradication campaigns in the 1950s suggested that residual spraying of houses is effective against endophilic and endophagic sand fly vectors, which was subsequently shown in controlled studies (152). The measure taken against malaria in Iraq reduce the intensity of sand fly in recent year (153).

2.1 group of internet based application that build

2.1 Concept of Social Media and Types of Social Media
Social media is a form of electronic communication (for example; web sites of social networking and micro-blogging) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content as videos. While there are different ways to categorize social media, its typology is often based on the main function and purpose of use and accessing social media such as for blogging, micro-blogging, such as twitter, social networking, example facebook, collaborative knowledge production and sharing like Wikipedia, Multimedia sharing, example YouTube and Sharing reviews, (Kyung-sun et al 2014). Social media are interactive platforms where content is created, distributed and shared by individuals on the web. According to Andreas et al (2016) stated that social media is a group of internet based application that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that user-generated content. They also noted that social media websites and applications allow users to create and exchange user-generated content where Speople talk, share information, participate and network through technologies such as blogs and social networking sites. Within the last decade, social media has become one of the most powerful sources for news updates, online collaboration, social networking, viral marketing and entertainment network.
According to Abdulasalam and Azizab (2012) social media is the revolutionary arm of the web that provides new ways of creating content, collaborating, interacting and sharing information online in an open social environment. They share variety of technologies that support the social aspects of the internet as a channel for communication, collaboration and interaction which is characterized as Web 2.0 resources that emphasize active participation, connectivity, collaboration, as well as sharing knowledge and ideas among users.
Social media overcomes geographical boundaries and creates communities who share common interest. The users also seek out informational form traditional media, social media platforms, (Rhoades and Hall 2007). Thomas et al 2016 noted that social media is increasingly being used as a medium of sharing information and creating awareness. Platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Blogs have been used to engage with various audiences, the users generate and shape the content. Social media strengths are complementing traditional media in facilitating the shaping of content.
According to Allah (2016); social media has become key information and networking source for agriculture sector in the recent years. According to (Safko & Brake, 2009) social media is a one stop shop for information whereby the users can read and also contribute to the content. It is convenient to those who need information instantly or do not have easy access to information. Social media is a collection of online technologies that allow users to share information, insights, experiences and opinions with one another. The sharing of information can be in form of text messages, audio, video or multimedia.
Social media has revolutionized communication whereby it has managed to surpass traditional gatekeepers in traditional media that is editors and other decision makers who set the agenda. Social media is an evolutionary stimulus user not organizations or the traditional news media now control the creation and distribution of information (Coombs, 2012).
Italie, (2015) Social media is the most recent form of digital communication and on a global scale, we can love it, we can hate it but it can’t be ignored anymore. Social media is an inseparable part of our lives which we used to connect to the rest of the world today. Accessing news through social media by using mobile devices is also gaining popularity in the world.
Types of Social Media:
According to Amante (2015) stated eight types of social media and networking technologies.
1. Social Networking: These are the most common types of social media, the ones everybody knows about. For example; Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and LinkedIn, allows you to connect with other people on similar interests and background. They consist of a profile, various ways to interact with other users, ability to setup groups. The most popular of it are Facebook and LinkedIn.
2. Professional Networking: This is similar to social networking but with a different focus. Instead of been about connecting with friends, professional networking allows one to connect, meet other professionals, for example LinkedIn: Is the most popular professional network available, it allows one creates a profile focusing on your skill of interest and work experience. Through LinkedIn one can find a job or get introduced to other professionals through common connections. Another one is Founder Dating: Is an entrepreneur’s network which allows you to connect with other entrepreneur or investors to team up on projects.
3. Media Sharing: This service allows you to upload and share various media such as pictures and videos, most services have additional social features such as profiles, commenting, etc. The most popular are YouTube, flickr and sound cloud.
4. Student Networking: Is all about collaborating and interacting with other students, teachers and professors. Student who struggle with his or her work or interest in learning more about the subjects he or she is studying and connect with other students at their grade level. For example; the math forum, and the student room.
5. Web Blogs: This is most and oldest but popular forms of social media. Blogs are often viewed as online journals that order content chronologically, or by date, month, year and category. Users can also maintain “V Logs” or video blogs, featuring shared or homemade videos. This websites include Word Press, Blogger and Tumblr.
6. Academic Networking: This network allows scholars to upload and share research grants. This website includes Academia education and Mendeley.
7. Micro Blogs: These are blogging tools that feature short posts, as opposed to journal-style posts. Users are usually restricted to posting a few lines of text, or uploading individual images and videos. Micro-blogs sites include Twitter, Tumblr. However, social networks such as Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn and My space also have their own micro-blogging features, (Andreas 2016).
8. Podcasts: Are audio and video files which allow users to share videos and media players.
2.2 Concept of Agricultural Knowledge Management
Knowledge management is also a process that helps organizations identify, sort, select, organize, systematize, disseminate, and transfer important agricultural information to professionals that is part of the organization memory and that typically reside within the organization. The information technologies make knowledge management available throughout an organization (Smith and Mckeen, 2003). According to Kinney (1998) knowledge management is the process by which an organization creates captures, acquires and uses knowledge to support and performance. Knowledge management a strategies and practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent and adopt insight experiences individual in an organizational processes. Knowledge management focus is on organizational objectives such as improved performance, competition advantage, and innovation, sharing of lessons learned, integration and improvement of the organization (MANAGE 2018).
Knowledge management is a discipline that promotes an integrated approach to identify, capture, evaluate, retrieve, and share all organizational information assets. These assets may include databases, documents, policies, procedures, and previous un-captured expertise and experience in an organizational work (Michael 2012).
Agricultural Knowledge Management helps in creating knowledge repositories, improve knowledge access, sharing, transfer and enhancing the knowledge environment (Patil, 2011). Management of agricultural knowledge takes place at different levels: individual, within communities, within organizations or institutions and networks of them, (Engel, 1990). Various (ICT) social media tools have been deployed for agriculture knowledge management which includes organizational web portals created for specific commodities, section and enterprise and for e-commerce activities (Suleiman, 2012).
Agricultural extension is a knowledge and information transfer service and knowledge management is important to enhance development partner collaboration, improve the use of knowledge in communication for the increase of agricultural productivity Gebremedhin, et al (2006).
Knowledge Management comprises of a range of strategies and practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent, distribute and enable adaption of insights and experiences. These insights and experiences comprise knowledge, either embedded in organizational processes or practice. Knowledge Management efforts typically focus on organizational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, sharing of lessons learned, integration and continuous improvement of the agricultural organization (Nnadi, et al 2012).
Knowledge management encompasses processes and practices concerned with the creation, acquisition, sharing and use of knowledge, skills and expertise and follow a circular flow and a nonstop process that continuously updates it. Knowledge management deals with the process of capturing, sharing, and use of knowledge and techniques (UNDP, 2012). Agricultural knowledge is created from modern and indigenous sources. The modern knowledge is created through scientific research and therefore it explicit knowledge by universities and research institutes. Agricultural knowledge is created from the different sources of identified captured in various forms before it is stored and disseminated for use. Study tours, and field days are age old tools of knowledge management, (IPMS, 2012).
Knowledge management is a systematic discipline of policies, activities or processes that empower an organization to improve effectively, innovation, and quality of knowledge in organization (Sehai, 2006). According to Islam, (2010) agricultural knowledge management systems consist of organizational sources of knowledge methods of communication and behaviours of that is involved in the agricultural process. Agricultural knowledge management system is expected to capture and share the experience that the knowledge gained through this process can be embedded in the day to day activities of the farmers and their performance. This type of knowledge is what the farmers and the rural communities are interested for, (Hartwich et al, 2007).
2.3 Social Media in Agricultural Knowledge and Information:
According to Metcalfe, (2005) as cited in Nnadi, (2012) noted that knowledge sharing; exchanging and dissemination are elements in a broader theme which is knowledge management. The central purpose of knowledge management is to transform our intellectual assets into the value of information. The basic idea is to strengthen, improve and propel the organization by using the information and knowledge that the organization and its members collectively possess (Milton, 2003). It is true that knowledge in agriculture is where a lot of good practices are being transferred without being well documented in books, papers or extension documents. ICT (social media) is needed to managing agricultural knowledge property.
Scheiber et al (1999) stated that there are information technologies that can be used for knowledge management emphasized their roles in agricultural knowledge management. This technology can be used in different forms or applications and this application includes; Building a national agriculture research information system that will include research outcomes, projects institutions and researchers in every country, and a regional research information system that will work as a portal for all agricultural organizations,
Developing an information system of indigenous agricultural practices that can enable researchers to examine the knowledge and decide on its usefulness for sustainable development,
Storing and retrieving images, videotapes and audiotapes related to different agricultural activities.
Agricultural knowledge is important in creation and sharing of agricultural information to the professionals. It enhances the access and usage of agricultural knowledge, it links agricultural professionals and researcher and increases adoption of good agricultural practices, it enhances effective management and improves the performance agricultural products and produce (Bertolini 2004).
According to Senthil, etal (retervied, 2018) information and communication technology is ruling the world in all works of life, in access to mobile phones and internet facility is also growing rapidly in Nigeria in recent years. The access to internet based on technologies has confined primarily to the urban area. Rural communities have not been able to gain to the same extent to the IT, as a means of agricultural technology transfer to farmers, information technology transfer to farmers; information technology has a limited impact on farmer or agricultural professionals.
WhatsApp as a tool for sharing of agricultural knowledge; whatsapp messenger is a cross platform mobile messaging app and it is a platform to share real-time information which allows users to exchange message, audio, video, photographs. It allows users to create groups, broadcast/send unlimited images, video and audio media messages simultaneously to one person, or to a group. Steps in using whatsapp as a tool for Effective and Efficient sharing of Agricultural Technology to select farmers or Professionals.
1. Scientists and farmers have to be trained in the use of instant messaging application namely whatsapp in creating, sharing, recording and retrieval of agricultural information/technology.
2. Access to be made to necessary hardware and connectivity namely availability of smart mobile devices and internet connectivity to all the stakeholders (farmers/scientists) involved in the project.
3. The knowledge sharing process has to be documented by all the stakeholders.
4. The reusability of sharing knowledge retrieved from this extension model for research and extension may be studied and the constraints faced by the users in using whatsapp may be documented (Kumar and Philip 2016).
In every society, communication is important because it is a means through which humans can interact and makes meaningful relationships. Communication among professionals, groups, friends and associations gives room for people to define their collective interest, identities and common goals (Sokoya et.al 2012).
Professionals across order disciplines therefore establish connections with one another for difference reasons. These reasons include exchange of ideas or information, mentoring and career development. Daudu et,al (2009) reveals some mediums of communication used for connection and networking in agricultural circles in Nigeria. These include folk songs, town crier, farm size, relations and association. Agricultural professionals connect and share information pertaining to their research findings experiences at seminars, workshops and annual conferences.
Boyd and Ellison (2007) stated that agricultural professionals or researchers has caught a glimpse of the tremendous role social media and even mobile phones can play in establishing connections facilitating dissemination of agricultural research findings and exchange of information. Social media has, therefore, become extremely popular because it allows people to connect in the online world to form a group, a forum and a community where ideas and information can be exchanged without any geographical barrier. Social media is useful for everything from keeping in touch with friends up to date, to research collaboration and political activism.
CIARD (2009) Reveal that social media is a shift in how people discover a read and share news, information and content. The use of social media among different professionals is rapidly spreading across the world, these professionals includes Librarians, Lawyers, Doctors, Marketers and even Agricultural Researchers. This is because it has different applications that enable fact connection of networking among them irrespective of their geographic location. Sokoye et al (2012) The role social media played in agricultural research community cannot be overlooked it allows the researchers (professionals) to get feedback from every research work or outcomes at their fingertips, it proffers a fast platform for information dissemination, it broke down physical barriers in reaching out to one another and extending the mileage of exposure from one to one person, one to many persons and many to many persons instant dialogues online, it helps to transfer information to a large audience at the same time. In Nigeria, social media is growing importance among agricultural professionals, peers, and colleague, and order professions and the youth. People source for information directly from their peers in a climate of trust through which suggestion and recommendations are given or made to them in the cause of the research work.

2.0 the company vision, development and strategy.

2.0 Introduction
Beginning with the history of Oldtown white Coffee, it started in the year 1999. Oldtown aim is to deliver high quality of white coffee to the Malaysian household as well as the food service industry. Blend 3 in 1 instant coffee is formulated by Mr. Goh Ching Mun the co-founders and Mr. Tan Say Yap the executive directors. The growth of the Oldtown were helped by the co-founders with the provision of Mr. Lee Siew Heng who is holding the position of Managing director of the company. The role that he was responsible was implementing the company vision, development and strategy. Oldtown currently exports beverages to 17 markets globally (Oldtown AR, 2017).

In this assignment, I had choose China as my host country. I will be doing research on analyzing the global marketing strategies that Oldtown adopted in China.
3.0 Deeplist analysis.
356870102870Demographics
Demographics

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Age: 0-14 years: 17.15% 15-24 years: 12.78%
25-54 years: 48.51%
55-64 years: 10.75%
65 years above : 10.81% (CIA World Factbook, 2018)
Urban population: 59.3 % of total population (Worldometers, 2018).
In china, 32% of Chinese millennials earn average below 700 Rmb per month. (Statista, 2018). Statistics is shown in appendix 1. 301625154305Environmental
Environmental

In China, water pollution is the country worst environmental issue.
339725158115Political
Political

China have banned few websites such as Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Twitter and etc.

.

China has offered tax breaks for foreign companies (South China Morning post, 2017).
30289528575Economy
0Economy

Poverty has largely decreased in China.

In China inflation rate is averaged about 5.26 percent from the year 1986 until 2018 (Trading economics, 2018).
GDP in China was 11199.15 billion US dollars in 2016 (Trading economics, 2018). Second largest economy.
In 2017, disposable income reached 36,396 Yuan in urban and 13,432 Yuan in rural respectively. Up 6.5 percent and 7.3 percent in real terms after deducting price factors (National Bureau of Statistics, 2017). 30797561595Legal
Legal

Tariffs and regulations- value added tax (VAT) which is subject to 13% to 17% dependent on the products category.
32067591440Social
Social

China is one of the biggest coffee consumers in the world.
Population among youngsters are influenced by the western culture.
China history shows that it is a tea drinker country. 434975100965Technology
Technology

In 2017, 36.4% from the age 25-34 purchases their food through online. (Statista, 2017).

China stores are now using pay applications such as Alipay and WeChat Pay. (CNBC, 2017).
3.2 Porter 5 forces.
236220107315 Competitive rivalry (High)
00 Competitive rivalry (High)

Starbucks is of the main competitor of Oldtown white coffee. This is because Starbucks has more than 3000 outlets in China. (CNBC, 2017).

Dio coffee has captured an advantage over Oldtown white coffee as it serves variety of traditional Chinese cuisines.

254000112395Threat of substitutes (Substantial) substantial)
00Threat of substitutes (Substantial) substantial)

China is traditionally a tea consuming country.
There are many fast food restaurants that offers similar product as Oldtown white coffee such as Mcd, KFC and pizza hut which offers coffee with low relatively low price.

Local Chinese café which are offering Chinese cuisines together with coffee is considered to be a major threat.

7429576200Bargaining powers of suppliers (moderate)
00Bargaining powers of suppliers (moderate)

China raw material price has increased sharply.
23622078105Bargaining power of buyers (High)
00Bargaining power of buyers (High)

Bargaining power of buyers has increased over the few years after multinational food company has entered such as Starbucks, costa coffee, McDonald, kfc and etc.
Since local coffee shops in china has increase in competitive, it gives more power to the buyers.
31686593345Threat for new entrants (moderate)
00Threat for new entrants (moderate)

3.3 Hofstede

center104140Power Distance
Power Distance

21272593345Malaysia
Malaysia

206375102870China
China

center-152400Individualism
Individualism

184150112395Malaysia
Malaysia
196850121920China
China

center123190Masculinity
Masculinity

274320172720Malaysia
Malaysia
213995167005China
0China

center104775Uncertainty avoidance
Uncertainty avoidance

231775102870Malaysia
Malaysia
206375102870China
0China

center9525Long term orientation
Long term orientation

250825102870Malaysia
Malaysia
177800140970China
0China

18383250Indulgence
Indulgence

213995117475Malaysia
Malaysia
25527097790China
0China

3.4 Marketing strategies
4p’s, segmentation and consumer behaviour and degree of adaptation.
32194560325Product
0Product

Oldtown have different types of products which will suite all different coffee lovers.

They have 3 in1 coffee as instant coffee grows popularity in China.
47434579375Price
0Price

Oldtown uses market penetration pricing for their products to attract middle income and below.

They also are using product bundle pricing where they combine several products together and offer in a cheaper price.
398145127000Promotion
0Promotion

Oldtown have promotions on their products during the festive season with good deals (Oldtown AR, 2017).
398145117475Place
00Place

Oldtown white coffee has currently only 4 outlets at China which are in Guangzhou, Guagdong and Shenzhen. The four outlets are located at shopping mall, street road and corporate headquarter (Oldtown).
Oldtown is also selling their products almost on 100 online platforms at China.
13970072390Segmentation and consumer behaviour
00Segmentation and consumer behaviour

Targeting new generation of millennials and Gen Z consumers (Oldtown AR, 2017).
8382086360Degree of adaptation
00Degree of adaptation

Product packaging is written in Chinese language.

Focused on e-commerce as consumers in China prefers virtual stores.
.

Oldtown follows different standard technique marketing strategies in Malaysia but in China, it has adapted to the global localization which is using the polycentric orientation influenced by the local culture and also market conditions in gaining Chinese consumers confidence and trust.
Oldtown have been present since 2014 in China’s main platforms and reported to been doing very well on the key supermarket chains and also online retailers, for instance, jd.com and t-mall. (Oldtown AR, 2017.) They are also presently supported well at almost 100 online major platforms in China. A website which uses the native language might increase the consumers’ confidence in purchasing their products. This builds a connection between Oldtown and the consumers in China. Rendering to t-mall, Oldtown online flagship stores in t-mall was ranked as No.3 as in June 2016 based on coffee mix powder sales (DBS group research, 2017).
China is recognized as a tea traditional country. In that, they have come up with a white milk tea which will attract more consumers because tea consumers in China are more then coffee and expect to increase more in coming years (Statista, 2018). Moreover, Oldtown had launched the mocha flavour in China in 2017 in aiming to target the young consumers and individuals that do not drink coffee (minime insights, 2018).
The company targeted young consumers in China and it predicted that the changing lifestyle of young people in the country would increase their demand for coffee.

References
https://www.statista.com/statistics/805236/china-average-monthly-income-by-generation/https://www.export.gov/article?id=China-Import-Tariffs
http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/china-population/
https://www.indexmundi.com/china/demographics_profile.html
https://www.stlouisfed.org/on-the-economy/2018/january/income-living-standards-chinahttps://www.globalfromasia.com/list-blocked-sites-china/http://www.scmp.com/news/china/economy/article/2126115/china-offers-tax-breaks-foreign-firms-bid-boost-investmenthttps://tradingeconomics.com/china/exportshttps://www.cnbc.com/2017/10/18/chinese-q3-gdp-china-reports-third-quarter-gross-domestic-product.htmlhttps://borgenproject.org/water-pollution-in-china/
https://tradingeconomics.com/china/inflation-cpihttps://www.marketingtochina.com/coffee-market-explodes-china/https://www.cnbc.com/2017/10/08/china-is-living-the-future-of-mobile-pay-right-now.htmlhttps://coffeebi.com/2018/02/05/coffee-houses-consumers-china-brief-look/https://www.cnbc.com/2017/12/05/starbucks-is-opening-a-store-in-china-every-15-hours.htmlhttp://jiangsu.chinadaily.com.cn/kunshan/2013-07/12/content_16766328.htmhttps://www.statista.com/statistics/623672/china-coffee-and-tea-consumption-volume/

https://detail.tmall.com/item.htm?spm=a220o.1000855.1998025129.3.53e128c4pjtGeG;abtest=_AB-LR32-PR32;pvid=78e83264-08ff-4613-9ea3-81828c5defab;pos=2;abbucket=_AB-M32_B0;acm=03054.1003.1.2768562;id=533252825118;scm=1007.16862.95220.23864_0

OldTown hinges growth on China, launches RTD coffee


https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/raw-materials-sharp-price-increase-china-suppliers-mathieu-reignahttp://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-01/18/c_136905784.htmhttps://www.statista.com/statistics/259451/annual-per-capita-disposable-income-of-rural-and-urban-households-in-china/https://studymoose.com/plagiarism-checker

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