2.2.2. its potential to offer products that

2.2.2. Nestle Operations PerformanceBroad stakeholder target shapes the backdrop every day to operations decision-making, and top management’s objectives provide a strategic framework, however strolling operations at an operational day-to-day level requires a greater tightly described set of targets. These are the five fundamentals ‘performance objectives’ known as the Quality, Speed, Dependability, Flexibility, Cost and they apply every day all varieties of operation.(i) Quality productsNestle especially focus on the quality conformance because it has many external and internal benefits. External benefits include enhancement of the product in the market and fewer customers complaints while internal benefits include prevention of error slowing down throughput speed, prevention from errors instigating internal untrustworthiness and low dependability and prevention from errors that lead to waste of time and efforts as well as save costs.

The ultimate justification for a company is its potential to offer products that are appealing because of their quality, convenience, variety and price on products that can stand their ground even in the face of fierce opposition.(ii) Flexibility and simplicity From a strictly organizational factor of view, flexible, easy structures work best and excessively big units must be prevented every time feasible. In each respect, Nestle has a natural advantage.

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Although it is a big company, it is spread out over many countries and each of Nestle s factories has its own management and obligation and ease.Nestle gives nutritious food that contributes to rural development through more than 500 locally adapted products supplied at low-priced costs. This technique improves vitamins for purchasers and further creates the cost for different stakeholders with the aid of supplying local employment possibilities. Through creating shared value Nestle is capable of setting up a competitive advantage through unmatched product and brand portfolio, unmatched R capability, unmatched geographic presence and the worldwide traditional present in the Nestle workplace.

Each of these attributes each ensures shareholders favour Nestle products to other leading competitors. Nestle aims to ensure the company’s “actions today do not compromise the needs of tomorrow” (Nestle Management Report 2008, p. 14).

This is achieved by running parallel to the goals of sustainable development.

2.6 the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12

2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLILike all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes.

Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles.

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(Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris).

The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella.

In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.2.7 INCUBATION PERIODThe time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS• History of antibiotics – 119th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch• History of antibiotics – 2 Plant extracts– Quinine (against malaria)– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)Toxic metals– Mercury (against syphilis)– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)• Dyes– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936) • History of antibiotics – 3Paul Ehrlich• started science of chemotherapy• Systematic chemical modifications (“Magic Bullet”) no.

606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)• Selective toxicity. • Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index• History of antibiotics – 4Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)• observed by others – never exploited• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945• First used in a patient: 1942• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives• History of antibiotics – 5Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).

-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones. -Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICSBased on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al.

, 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities. (Martinez, 2008).

Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008).

that was

2.2 polyaddition. Pada awal Perang Dunia II,

2.2 Sejarah Penemuan PoliuretanPoliuretan bisa ditemukan pada berbagai jenis benda yang ada di sekitar kita. Contohnya pada cairan pelapis dan cat, serta elastomer keras seperti yang terdapat pada roda roller blade, penyekat dengan bahan keras, busa lentur lembut, atau serat elastis. Itu adalah hasil Prof.

Dr. Otto Bayer (1920-1982) atau dikenal “bapak” industry poliuretan, beliau pun merupakan seorang penemu dari suatu proses yang disebut diisocyanate polyaddition.Pada awal Perang Dunia II, poliuretan digunakan untuk pertama kalinya yaitu sebagi pengganti karet. Dengan berbagai inovasi sehingga pada saat ini penggunaannya telah semakin luas. Selama perang, pelapis poliuretan difungsikan sebagai pengisi kertas di industry pakaian tahan udara, pengkilat pesawat, dan pelapis anti kimia dan atau karat.Hingga akhir Perang Dunia II, poliuretan diproduksi dan digunakan dalam industry dan dapat dipesan untuk formulasi kegiatan tertentu. Pada tahun 1950-an poliuretan ditemukan pada bahan pelapis dan perekat, elastomer, dan busa yang keras.

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Tidak sampai akhir tahun 1950-an, busa lentur yang terdapat pada bantal telah tersedia di pasaran. Dengan pengembangan lebih lanjut, yaitu pengembangan polieter poliol yang berbiaya rendah maka busa lentur tersebut semakin banyak aplikasinya contohnya pada saat ini yaitu di bidang otomotif. Dengan beragam inovasi, tak heran jika poliuretan dapat ditemukan pada berbagai benda di sekitar kita seperti meja, kursi, tempat tidur, pakaian, sepatu, mobil, penyekat dinding, perabotan, atap, dan tembok rumah.2.3 Bahan Kimia dalam PoliuretanKimia poliuretan didasarkan pada reaksi isosianat dengan senyawa aktif yang terdapat hidrogen.

Isosianat memiliki satu atau lebih dari kelompok isosianat yang sangat reaktif (-N = C = O). Kelompok ini akan mudah bereaksi dengan atom hidrogen yang melekat pada atom elektronegatif karbon. Dari banyak senyawa dengan ciri-ciri tersebut, bahan-bahan utama untuk reaksi pembentukan poliuretan tercantum dalam tabel berikut. Reaksinya yaituReaksi normal pada dasarnya melibatkan selain dari ikatan karbon-nitrogen ganda. Pusat nukleofilik senyawa yang mengandung hidrogen aktif akan menyerang karbon elektrofilik. Kemudian atom hidrogen aktif menambahkan atom nitrogen.

Elektron mengikat molekul isosianat untuk meningkatkan reaktivitas dari kelompok NCO terhadap kelompok nukleofilik. Elektron kelompok mengurangi reaktivitas. Dengan demikian, sebagian besar reaksi, isosianat aromatik lebih reaktif daripada isosianat yang alifatik. Efek dari halangan sterik di kedua isosianat atau di senyawa hidrogen aktif akan berpengaruh pada reaksi tersebut.2.4 Cara Pembuatan PoliuretanBusa poliuretan biasanya dibuat dengan cara menambahkan sedikit volatile yang dikenal sebagai bahan pengembang (blowing agent) gunanya untuk mereaksikan campuran dari Acetone, methylene chloride dan sedikit dari beberapa chlorofluorocarbon (CFCl3) yang sering digunakan untuk bahan pengembang (blowing agent) pada pembuatan poliuretan. Terdapat dua sistem yang dapat digunakan yaitu:1.

Sistem one-step (one-shot process) : semua bahan baku untuk menghasilkan polimer dicampur bersama-sama.2. Sistem two-step (prepolymer process) : komponen poliol direaksikan dengan polyisocyanate untuk kemudian membentuk suatu prepolimer dengan gugus akhir isocyanate, proses ini disebut prepolimer, dan masih terdapat isocyanate yang berlebih. Campuran prepolimer kemudian di reaksikan dengan diol atau disebut diamine sebagai bahan pemanjang rantai (chain extender).Sistem two-step menghasilkan struktur yang lebih beraturan dibandingkan dengan sistem one-step, hal tersebut dikarenakan pada sistem two-step terbentuklah suatu oligomer yang mana gugus polyol ditutup dengan diisocyanate.

Oligomer yang terbentuk tersebut kemudian di reaksikan dengan suatu chain extender. Sistem one-step biasanya digunakan dalam pembentukan polyurethane foam, berbeda dengan sistem two-step yang lebih biasa digunakan pada produksi elastomer.Formula Dasar Untuk Membuat Busa Poliuretan2.5 Fungsi dan Manfaat PoliuretanBusa poliuretan ada banyak bentuknya seperti busa yang keras, busa yang lentur, pelapis atau coating, perekat, penyekat, dan juga elastomer. Busa keras biasanya digunakan untuk bahan penyekat gedung, pemanas air, serta pendingin. Busa jenis ini juga dapat digunakan untuk flotation dan pengaturan jumlah energy.

Busa yang lentur difungsikan sebagai bahan pelembut pada kain pelapis kasur, mobil, maupun furniture dan pelembut karpet serta dapat juga digunakan sebagai pengepak barang. Perekat dan penyekat poliuretan dapat diaplikasikan dalam kandang ayam, konstruksi transportasi, kapal, dan berbagai fungsi lain yang memerlukan kekuatan, ketahanan pada kelembaban, dan sifat tahan lama dari material poliuretan tersebut.Untuk produk poliuretan rigid yang berbentuk padat dengan densitas 400 – 2000 kg/m3 yang biasa digunakan untuk casing tv, bemper mobil, isolator panas dan peredam suara, housing computer, travelling bag (Duraposita, 1998).

BAB IIIPENUTUPKesimpulan Poliuretan adalah salah satu material terbarukan yang sedang menjadi sorotan oleh para peneliti. Poliuretan yaitu material yang terbentuk dari campuran dari dua bahan kimia dengan komponen A yaitu poliol yang biasanya dari minyak bumi dan komponen B yaitu isosianat. Sejarah poliuretan sendiri dimulai dari awal Perang Dunia II yang ditemukan oleh Prof. Dr. Otto Bayer (1920-1982) kemudian diteliti lebih lanjut dan inovasi-inovasi baru menjadi seperti sekarang ini. Bahan kimia dalam poliuretan yaitu diantaranya poliol dan isosianat. Cara pembuatannya yaitu ada system one step dan system two step.

Fungsi dan manfaatnya sendiri sangat banyak. Hampir semua benda di sekitar kita terdapat poliuretan. Material terbarukan ini hendaknya dikembangkan agar Indonesia tidak selalu bergantung dengan import. Dapat dilihat bahwa Indonesia sendiri mempunyai potensi yang cukup untuk memproduksi poliuretan sendiri. Permintaan dari dalam negeri pun cukup banyak sehingga akan menjadi perusahaan yang mampu bersaing baik nasional maupun global.

2.7. According to UNICEF Innocenti research center,2000,

2.7. Key actors involved in child traffickingAccording to UNICEF Innocenti research center,2000, trafficking process or network involves three key actors: victims, users and traffickers.VictimsThe recruitment of the victim often occurs in one of two ways: (a) traffickers contact the potential victim or his or her family – in many cases traffickers know the victim or the victim’s family and are likely to take advantage of a condition of general vulnerability, e.g. illiteracy, poverty, lack of information; (b) a potential victim or his or her family contact traffickers – the potential victim is usually in a precarious position, seeking “help” to escape a situation of oppression, desperation or persecution, and to reach a desired destination.This can lead to a possible link between smuggling and trafficking. UNICEF,2000TraffickersTraffickers occupy a central place between supply and demand.

On the one hand, they try to increase the supply of trafficked persons through recruitment, often using false information, fraudulent identification and abuse of power. On the other hand, they try to boost the demand by providing easy access to a steady supply of trafficked persons. Traffickers may be organized in criminal groups or be linked together in a chain of middlemen. In a minority of cases, international criminal gangs snatch or recruit the children themselves. For example, a group of Tanzanian girls in Sweden described to medical personnel how an African woman came to their parents’ house and offered the girls “education opportunities” abroad. The girls were taken to Sweden by the woman, kept in her house and shown sex videos and then forced to work on the streets as prostitutes.

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It is possible for victims to enhance the traffickers’ network. Trafficked youth are sometimes sent back to their villages to recruit new children for work in the mines. In other instances there are reported cases of women engaged in prostitution returning to their villages to recruit young girls with promises of easy money.In the case of trafficked children it is crucial to explore influences within the family, in particular the role that parents may play. There are numerous reports of parents inducing or forcing children into trafficking because this is perceived as the only strategy for survival.

It is not uncommon to find some degree of family involvement in the transaction, such as parents accepting money from traffickers, distant relatives paying intermediaries to find work abroad, or parents handing over their children based on the promise of education, professional training or paid work. UsersThe distinction between users and traffickers is crucial in order to understand the various patterns and to design effective interventions. Users are an important dimension of the trafficking process. As well as acting individually, they may be networked through access to activities of an illegal nature (such as prostitution or sexual abuse of children), to reduce costs by using cheap labour (such as illegal immigrants), to have access to easily manageable workers(such as working children), or to fulfil scarce or unavailable supply (such as adoption).In many cases they are not aware of or interested in the process of trafficking or the routes and procedures used.

Very often they do not perceive themselves as part of the trafficking network, although they are, in fact, an engine in the machinery of exploitation.


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