2.0 other underground structures , as crossing

2.0 SPECIAL PRODUCT (Bebo arch and concrete railway sleepers)
Special product is a produce that products where not all industries are able to produce these products. This is because most industries lack equipment or hardware to produce such products. Among the intended products are bebo arch and concrete railway sleepers. One of place capable of producing bebo arch in Malaysia is Hume Concrete Sdn Bhd located in Beranang Selangor. They also make concrete railway sleepers for railway in Malaysia. Now, they are getting orders for the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) projects.
Hume Concrete has equipment capable of producing bebo arch in small quantities which is 2 bebo arch per day. Regularly, orders are within 100 pieces per batch and mostly two or three pieces of bebo arch (3%) is rejected because it does not fulfill the requirement by the client. Bebo arch is system is a standardized patented precast concrete arch system for the design and construction of earth overfilled bridges, tunnels, culverts, other underground structures , as crossing structures over waterways, as overpass or underpass for roadways and railways and as protective structures for example shelters for aircraft and bunkers for munitions . The bebo bridge concrete arch system is a combination of cast in place concrete footings, precast arch elements, headwalls, and wing walls. The system uses the fundamentals of soil structure interaction to achieve superior strength and stability . Standard span ranges from 3600mm to 25600mm and longer span is upon request by the client.

FIGURE 2.1: Product (Bebo arch)
Bebo arch system have its own advantages in economy, speed and quality. In economy, the arch sections are slender in design which results in material savings for both concrete and reinforcing steel compared to traditional applications such as box culverts or beam frame type structures. Reduces maintenance costs and lowers life cycle costs as there are no bridge deck or joints at the deck or roadway interface . Bebo arch need moderate requirements for back and overfill material result in a cost effective construction procedure . It is also aesthetically pleasing & environmentally friendly . Besides, fully pre-engineered arch design to various design codes result in quick turnaround times for the complete structural design. Rapid installation results in reduced overall project costs, delays and detours. Apart from that, the bebo proven quality, structural integrity & durability. Bebo structures have no exposed bridge deck, no transition joints or approach slabs and no moving bearings the look of the true arch shape is always well received by officials, private property developers and the public. Overfilled reinforced concrete arch bridges are extremely durable and require virtually no maintenance (low life-cycle costs). Manufacturing is fast and efficient allowing us to offer a high quality yet cost effective bridge option.

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FIGURE 2.2: Moulding for Bebo arch

Moreover, concrete railway sleepers becomes one of the famous product in Malaysia. This is because Malaysia government want to increase the quantity of railway in deep and remote areas. Sleepers are transverse beams laying on ballast and support. Wooden sleepers were utilized as a part of the past in light of the fact that timber was promptly accessible in the neighborhood. Nevertheless, restressed or reinforced concrete sleepers, and to a restricted degree steel sleepers, have been received in current railway tracks over the previous decades on account of their strength and long administration life. Solid sleepers are depicted as either twin-square or mono-piece. Inside all these sorts, concrete sleepers are all the more generally utilized in light of the fact that they are not influenced all that much by either atmosphere or climate. Furthermore, it provides anchorage for the fastening system and limit longitudinal, parallel and vertical movement by implanting itself onto the substructures. There are two types of concrete sleepers which are mono block concrete sleeper and twin block concrete sleeper . Railway sleeper that has been used at Hume Concrete is mono block concrete sleeper as in Figure 2.3 below.

Figure 2.3: Mono block concrete sleeper
In addition, Concrete railway sleeper is apply at mainline, turnout, cross over tracks as level crossing sleepers and ballast top bridge decks. It is also give advantages to us. Concrete railway sleeper is more durable having greater life up to 50years. It is economical as compare to wood and steel. Concrete railway sleeper is easy to manufacture, not susceptible to vermin attack, not susceptible to fire and it is good for track circuited areas.

In contrast, prestressed concrete railway sleeper or railroad ties is one of the design of concrete railway sleeper. It is principally designed in order to carry wheel loads from the rails to the ground. Their design takes into account static and dynamic loading conditions. It is evident that prestressed concrete has played a significant role as to maintain the high endurance of the sleepers under low to moderate repeated impact loads. In spite of the most common use of the prestressed concrete sleepers in railway tracks, there have always been considerable demands from rail and track engineers to improve serviceability and functionality of concrete sleepers. For example, signaling, fiber optic, equipment cables are often damaged either by acute ballast corners or by tamping machine operation. There has been a significant need to redesign concrete sleeper to cater cables internally so that they would not experience detrimental or harsh environments. Accordingly, this study is the world first to experimentally investigate the effects of holes and web openings on structural behaviors of concrete sleepers under rail loading condition. The modified compression field theory for ultimate strength behaviors of concrete sleepers will be highlighted in this study. The outcome of this study will enable the new design and calculation methods for prestressed concrete sleepers with holes and web opening that practically benefits civil, track and structural engineers in railway industry .

1) Bebo Arch Solution. Special Product Bebo Arch System. Retrieved May 1, 2018 from http://www.beboarch.com/bebo-arch-system.

2) Contech Engineered Solutions. Bebo BridesConcrete Arch System. Retrieved May 1, 2018 from http://www.conteches.com/products/bridges-and-structures/precast/bebo-bridge.

3) Hume Concrete Sdn. Bhd. Hume Bebo Arch Product. Retrieved May 1, 2018 from http://www.humeconcrete.com.my/index.php/features/bulk/bebo-arch-system.
4) Kahawatta Gamage, E., Kaewunruen, S. & Remennikov. Design of holes and web openings in railway prestressed concrete sleepers. Retrieved 4 May 3, 2018 from http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6291&context=eispapers.

5) ScienceDiret. Prestresed concrete railway sleeper. Retrieved 3 May, 2018. From https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705816327679.

2.1 and Japan peg their services on

2.1 Conventional banking systems
Conventional banking does not follow a stipulated pattern while conducting its business. In countries with an Anglo-Saxon background such as England, the commercial banking pattern dominates while Germany, France, and Japan peg their services on the universal banking rule. Commercial banking bases its patterns on pure financial intermediation models. This is where the banks normally borrow from those who have saved with them and then lend the borrowed funds to entrepreneurs or enterprises. The difference in the rates between the borrowing and the lending of these funds creates their profit margin. Thee banks are also seen to provide services such as letters of credit and guarantees amongst the avenues for making more money (El Qorchi, 2005). A portion of what they get in terms of their profits will also feature the low-cost funds that they get to obtain from the demand deposits within their line of banking. The commercial banks, in reality, are prohibited from trading and the shareholding capacity gets restricted to small portions of the institution’s net worth.
The reserve system allows them to produce derivative deposits where they get to multiply and increase even the low-cost funds and resources they have. Nonetheless, this process of lending may present the bank with a problem. The borrowers have more information about their operations when comparing them to the lenders. While the banks act as lenders, they are disadvantaged in this area because of the information asymmetry given that the borrowers may choose to hold back the information from the banks (Diamond and Rajan, 2001). The borrower, therefore, may use the loan for different purposes other than those specified while requesting for it. This exposes the bank to risks. The borrower may also misrepresent the cash flows with the intent of defrauding the bank or even declare bankruptcy to avoid repaying the loan. One can say that the ability of getting the loan repaid will depend solely on the utilization of the funds for the stated purposes. They must monitor the use of the funds within the agreed platform with the borrower. Thus, before being accorded any loan, the borrower’s credit rating is essential (Demirgüç-Kunt, Laeven and Levine, 2004).

2.3.1:Salary pursue professional qualification. 2.3.3 : Prestige

Salary is one of the vital motivating factor influence accounting students’ to become a professional accountant(Ghani, Said, Nasir, ; Jusoff, 2009; Mustapha et al., 2012). In contract, in a survey conducted on first year commerce students’ in Australia has found that (students’ perceptions towards becoming a qualified accountant) the variable ‘potential to earn a high salary’ did not prove to be a significant influence on intention to become an accountant.
2.3.2 Job Stability
Multifold studies has found that job stability as an important attributes as a career choice for accounting students. A study by (Mustapha et al., 2012) found that job stability and security is positively significant for public university students’ in Malaysia for choosing to be professionally qualified accountant. In another findings by (Porter & Woolley, 2014) found out that career stability as a motivation for accounting students’ which influence career path. The study was conducted in a single university with a total of 278 questionnaires being collected and analyzed. This finding is also similar to (Dalilah, Adha, Sidik, Hayati, ; Mazilena, 2017; Myburgh, 2005; Phan Hoai, Nguyen Thi Kin, ; Cao Thi Thanh, 2016) in which students’ perceive job stability as a important factor in career choice to become an accountant.Therefore the hypothesis is as follows:
H2: There is no significant relationship between job stability and intention to pursue professional qualification.
2.3.3 : Prestige and Social status
Prior studies has investigated the perception towards prestige and status of accounting students’ career choice to be a professional accountant. In Cyprus, there is a significant relationship between prestige and social status and accounting students’ intention to pursue accounting as their career choice (Dalci & Ozyapici, 2018). This finding is consistent with (Ghani & Said, 2009; Ghani et al., 2009; Owusu et al., 2018; Porter & Woolley, 2014; Umar, 2014) In contrast, a survey being conducted among 800 accounting students’ from 17 universities in Jakarta has found that students’ view social status as irrelevant (Harnovinsah, 2017). Students’ do not perceive that social status as a mean to be successful in public accounting field. Despite mixed results, the hypothesis is as follows:
H3: There is no significant relationship between prestige and social status for undergraduate accounting students’ to pursue professional accountant.
2.3.4: Opportunity for career advancement
Mustapha (2012) has found that one of the factors which influence Malaysian accounting students’ perception to pursue professional examination is the opportunity for advancement. Similarly, this is supported in another study by (Phan Hoai et al., 2016) which involved 430 students who are studying at economic field (accounting, business administration, finance and banking,) in a Ton Duc Thang university in Vietnam has found that extrinsic factor influence students’ choice of accounting and has ranked job advancement opportunity as the second most important factor. A local study by Said et al. (2004) finds that job advancement is ranked as the highest factor that influence the choice of career in accounting among Malaysian student. Thus, the hypothesis of the findings:
2.3.5: Referent group (family)
Evidence has found that referent group such as parents, friends, teachers and career advisors as a factor to influence students to pursue accounting course(Myburgh, 2005; Porter & Woolley, 2014; Shah, Nair, & Bennett, 2013; Umar, 2014). A total of 266 questionnaires were distributed to business related students studying in Eastern Mediterranean University in North Cyprus. The findings found out that there is a strong parental and peer influence for students to pursue accounting career (Dalci & Ozyapici, 2018)
In contradicting findings by (Wally, 2013) has found out that influences from parents, peers and secondary school teachers as unimportant. Despite the mixed results found, the hypothesis of this study is as follows:
H5: There is no significant relationship between referent group and undergraduate accounting students’ career choice as a professional accountants
2.3.6: Financial assistance
Besides the intrinsic and extrinsic drives, another factor which influence students’ intention to pursue professional accountancy is the cost associated to the program. Myburgh (2005) has found that cost of qualifying as a professional accountant is a factor perceived negatively by respondent. In another study, a survey was conducted with third year accounting students’ in a public university in Malaysia has found out that only 1.56% has given importance to the cost of the study(Suhaila, 2017). Thus, the hypothesis is as follows:
H6: There is no significant relationship between financial assistance and undergraduate accounting students’ intention to pursue professional qualification.
2.3.7: Grit personality
Grit is defined as perseverance and passion for long-term goals(Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007). In a study by (Bacanli, 2006) conducted a survey which involved 399 Turkish freshman university students from Gazi University has found that personality characteristics influence career indecisiveness.

2.7. According to UNICEF Innocenti research center,2000,

2.7. Key actors involved in child trafficking
According to UNICEF Innocenti research center,2000, trafficking process or network involves three key actors: victims, users and traffickers.
The recruitment of the victim often occurs in one of two ways: (a) traffickers contact the potential victim or his or her family – in many cases traffickers know the victim or the victim’s family and are likely to take advantage of a condition of general vulnerability, e.g. illiteracy, poverty, lack of information; (b) a potential victim or his or her family contact traffickers – the potential victim is usually in a precarious position, seeking “help” to escape a situation of oppression, desperation or persecution, and to reach a desired destination.This can lead to a possible link between smuggling and trafficking. UNICEF,2000
Traffickers occupy a central place between supply and demand. On the one hand, they try to increase the supply of trafficked persons through recruitment, often using false information, fraudulent identification and abuse of power. On the other hand, they try to boost the demand by providing easy access to a steady supply of trafficked persons. Traffickers may be organized in criminal groups or be linked together in a chain of middlemen. In a minority of cases, international criminal gangs snatch or recruit the children themselves. For example, a group of Tanzanian girls in Sweden described to medical personnel how an African woman came to their parents’ house and offered the girls “education opportunities” abroad. The girls were taken to Sweden by the woman, kept in her house and shown sex videos and then forced to work on the streets as prostitutes.
It is possible for victims to enhance the traffickers’ network. Trafficked youth are sometimes sent back to their villages to recruit new children for work in the mines. In other instances there are reported cases of women engaged in prostitution returning to their villages to recruit young girls with promises of easy money.
In the case of trafficked children it is crucial to explore influences within the family, in particular the role that parents may play. There are numerous reports of parents inducing or forcing children into trafficking because this is perceived as the only strategy for survival. It is not uncommon to find some degree of family involvement in the transaction, such as parents accepting money from traffickers, distant relatives paying intermediaries to find work abroad, or parents handing over their children based on the promise of education, professional training or paid work.
The distinction between users and traffickers is crucial in order to understand the various patterns and to design effective interventions. Users are an important dimension of the trafficking process. As well as acting individually, they may be networked through access to activities of an illegal nature (such as prostitution or sexual abuse of children), to reduce costs by using cheap labour (such as illegal immigrants), to have access to easily manageable workers(such as working children), or to fulfil scarce or unavailable supply (such as adoption).
In many cases they are not aware of or interested in the process of trafficking or the routes and procedures used. Very often they do not perceive themselves as part of the trafficking network, although they are, in fact, an engine in the machinery of exploitation.


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