2.3. change in the learner either by altering

There are two major types of guidance and counselling. These are individual and group counselling.
a) Individual counselling
It is referred to as one to one counselling because it deals with one person at a time.
The goal of this is to help the learner to understand himself, clarify and direct his thought, in order to make a worthwhile decision. Through this,learners problems are
alleviated. Frumboltz and Thoreson (1967) as cited in Ojo (2005) remarked that it
is mainly to bring about change in the learner either by altering maladaptive
behaviour, learning the decision making process or preventing problems.

b) Group counselling
In this counselling several learners are given counselling simultaneously on the same or similar problems. Basically group counselling involves a group of people working under a leadership of a counselor.Organised groups make use of people’s natural tendency to gather,work,play and share'(Gladding 1992:297).
During group counselling, a free atmosphere is allowed and freedom of speech is
encouraged. The people are free to express themselves individually as counselling progresses so that problems to be resolved would be open for all to consider and benefit from. Groups can play an important in influencing behavior formation in a variety of dimensions such as growing, learning behavior patterns, coping styles, values, careers development and social adjustment (Gibson & Mitchell 1986).

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