2.1.1 Qi Chu, Ilsun You Publication: Hindawi

2.1.1 Paper 1

Paper Title: The Social Relationship based Adaptive Multi-Spray-and-Wait Routing Algorithm for Disruption Tolerant Network.

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Author Detail: Jianfeng Guan, Qi Chu, Ilsun You

Publication: Hindawi (2017)

Description: Different from traditional routing which is based on end to end path from source to destination, DTN use store carry forward mechanism. In this paper proposed a social relationship based spray and wait routing to improve performance by considering buffer management and social parameters. In proposed schema timeout detection mechanism is used to solve blind spot problem and buffer management for reduce the overhead. As per its functionality social parameters is used for predict path. By comparison with traditional algorithms, it shows that proposed algorithm improve message delivery ratio, reduce the overhead and decrease the buffer time.

2.1.2 Paper 2

Paper Title: Bubble Rap: Social based forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks

Author Detail: Pan Hui, Jon Crocroft, Eiko Yoneki

Publication: IEEE (Nov-2011)

Description: In this paper introduced bubble rape: Social based forwarding in delay tolerant network, for designing this hybrid algorithm, centrality and community detection method called K-CLIQUE community detection is used. As per simulation result bubble is designed to work better with a hierarchical community structure. It improves the parameter no of message copies, no of hops, time to live, delivery ratio, delivery cost.
2.1.3 Paper 3

Paper Title: Give2Get: Forwarding in Social Mobile Wireless Network of Selfish Individuals.

Author Detail: Alessandro Mei, Julinda Stefa

Publication: International Conference on Distributed Computing System. (2010)

Description: In this paper present message forwarding schema in social mobile wireless network in assuming that all nodes in the network is selfish. Give to get forwarding consists three phases: Message generation, message relays and testing. Message generation executes when one node have message to send pass to some other node in the network. After message generated source node transfer the message to the nodes its meet. When the receiver node receive message and pass to the proof of sending to the sender.Affter the receiving proof every time node have to show the proof and node fails ,the proof of misbehaving is broadcast. Only when two proofs are collected by node, message can be discarded by node’s memory. Proposed algorithm good in terms of message delay, success rate and cost.

2.1.4 Paper 4

Paper Title: Distributed Community Detection in Delay Tolerant Networks

Author Detail: Pan Hui, Eiko Yoneki, Shu-Yan Chan, Jon Crow croft


Description: In this paper, proposed three distributed community detection algorithm with different level of computational complexity and resources requirements. The impact of the detected communities on the PSN forwarding efficiency band found it to be several times more cost effective than flooding or using randomly generated groups with same size and also discovered that the communities detected by the distributed algorithm can satisfactorily approximate the centralized algorithm which required the whole network topology.

2.1.5 Paper 5

Paper Title: Mobility based routing algorithm in delay tolerant network.

Author Detail: Marcin Kawecki, Radoslaw Olgierd Schoeneich

Publication: Springer (2016)

Description: This paper presents a routing algorithm based on the use of mobility of nodes in delay tolerant network.DTN are characterized by temporary or permanent lack of continuous path between the source and destination node. The communication is done by transferring the message by intermediate nodes based on store carry forward paradigm. Routing protocol is based on the ability to use information about node mobility and their contacts. Author assume that greater mobility of the nodes results in higher number of contacts with other nodes and higher probability in the message delivery to the destination. Proposed algorithm was simulated using one simulator.

2.1.6 Paper 6

Paper Title : Trust aware watchdog mechanism to detect selfish node in manet.

Author Detail: Resmi C, Sindhu S.

Publication: International journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering (2016).

Description: In this paper, propose a new framework which uses a trust based schema and watchdog to detect selfish node. Also alert model is implemented in which node which are not ready to cooperate can send warning message to adjust nodes. Trust relationship must be set up between every pairs of nodes.

2.1.7 Paper 7

Paper Title : Detecting Selfish Nodes using a Collaborative Contact based watchdog.

Author Detail: Husna Taj, Kampe Shilpa

Publication: International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research (2016).

Description: In this paper, detection selfish node using a collaborative contact based watchdog. Data transmission in the network is based on the behavior of node. If node can cooperative in nature than they send the packet but uncooperative nature of nodes degrades the performance of the network. For detecting selfish node COCOWA model is introduced which use markov chain model to evaluate detection time. This technique will reduce the time of detecting selfish node as well as reduce the effect of malicious node.

2.1.8 Paper 8

Paper Title: Skeleton Construction in Mobile Social Network: Algorithms and Applications.

Author Detail: Zongqing Lu, Xiao Sun, Yonggang Wen, Guohong Cao.

Publication: IEEE (2012)

Description: Proposed skeleton in mobile social network. Skeleton is mainly formed for predicting node contacts and managing the node. Skeleton is based on the social property of nodes like best friends, rank etc. Skeleton is tree structure which makes the communication more reliable. As per simulation result skeleton gives more efficient results than existing community based algorithm.

2.1.9 Paper 9

Paper Title: Improved collaborative watchdog system for detection of selfish node in Manet.

Author Detail: Momin Kashif M, Prof.V.S.Kadam.

Publication: International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (2015)

Description: In this proposed improved collaborative watchdog system for detecting selfish node in manet.Selfish node degrades the performance of the network by not taking part in the communication system for consume their resources. So it is very important to detect selfish node in the network and remove it from the system. In this paper proposed a method to detect the selfish node based on trust and reputation of every node. For reputation using Bayesian estimation .Baye’s theorem is as follows:
As per result, this schema is highly robust, efficient and improve performance of the mechanism.

2.1.10 Paper 10

Paper Title : Count on me:reliable broadcast and efficient routing in DTN through ss.

Author Detail: Alessandro Mei,Natascia Piroso,Julinda Stefa
Publication: ELSEVIER,2016
Description: In this paper, present COM, a reliable broadcasting mechanism for networks where nodes cannot use long-range communication to complete missing links. COM is based on the Social Skeleton, which is strongly connected graph based on social property of the network. Computed in an efficient and distributed way.COM exploits the Social Skeleton to guarantee reachability of 100% of nodes with the lowest number of long communications.

2.3 process; service quality has many dimensions and

2.3 Online Banking Service Quality
Online banking service quality is also known as e-service quality and numerous studies have established that service quality (SQ) is a very crucial aspect in customer service. It is also a key factor in business profitability and survival. SQ has become a significant differentiator in many leading organizations. Factors such as improved accessibility, reduced costs, better administration, and time sensitivity are key drivers of banking services (Brown and Molla,
2005). Traditional SQ is defined as customers? attitudes or beliefs concerning the degree of
service excellence given at organizations physical facilities in this case bank branches, (Santos,

For the measurement of SQ, Parasuraman et al, (1988) created the SERVQUAL instrument which is a gap model for the comparison of perception against expectation. This instrument used the following variables; tangible, reliable, assurance, responsiveness and empathy. A lot of the research that has been done since have used this instrument to measure SQ (Kang and James,
2004). This has also faced a lot of criticism based on the fact that it looks at quality from service delivery process; service quality has many dimensions and these dimensions may differ (Brady and Cronin, 2001).

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Online Banking Service (OBS) is defined as an interactive information service, the growth of online based services has really changed the way in which company and customers interact (Yang, 2001). Electronic service is not a relatively one way marketing activity and this hence makes measuring online banking service, and its quality a complex undertaking. Key dimensions were created by Ranganathan and Ganapathy (2002) and these were information content, security and privacy, and design. This was followed by the creation of an instrument to measure online service quality based on these factors; web design, reliability, fulfillment, customer service, security, and privacy (Wolfinbarger and Gilly, 2003). Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Malhotra’s (2002) e-SQ study identified eleven dimensions; site aesthetics, ease of navigation, personalization, assurance, privacy, reliability, access, responsiveness, flexibility, efficiency, and price knowledge. Parasuraman et al. (2005) then developed E-SQUAL instrument consisting of system availability, efficiency, fulfillment, and privacy.

They also developed E-RecSQUAL which was made up of eleven dimensions that centered on contact, responsiveness and compensation. In the study done by Li. Y. (2009), the variable of tangibility was replaced by website interface, and interaction as there was no physical interaction in online banking. The study showed that website design and quality has an impact on customer satisfaction and trust. It is also known that website design is more appealing for online shopping and website quality is more geared toward banking and transactional services and as the online banking service has become commonplace in the banking industry, measuring service quality is a critical aspect for the banks.

2.4 Customer Satisfaction
According to Hom (2000), customer satisfaction refers to a short term positive attitude that can change owing to various circumstances. Bruhn, (2003) defines satisfaction as an assessment based on experience on how far his expectations of the overall functionality of services were fulfilled. It is largely revealed that customer satisfaction is shown as a result of repeat purchasing, tireless effort in obtaining the product in question. Pairot (2008), defined customer satisfaction as the company’s ability to fulfill the business, emotional and psychological needs of its customers. He also acknowledges that customer satisfaction levels vary as they have different attitudes and experiences as perceived from the company.

Bank customer satisfaction is regarded as banks fully meeting the customers’ expectation; it is also said to be a feeling or attitude formed by bank customer after service, which connects the various purchasing behavior (Jamal and Naser, 2002) customer satisfaction is seen to be a state of mind that customers have about a company when their expectations have been met over the lifetime of the product or service, it is then noticeable that satisfaction appears to be between pre- exposure and post-exposure of attitudinal components and serves as a link between the various stages of customer buying behavior (Jamal and Naser, 2002)

In previous studies done, (Juma, 2013), looked into the relationship between expectations, performance and service delivery, It revealed that when a customer judges the performance of a product or service, he compares a set of performance outcomes that are expectations. The product is then is considered to be satisfactory or dissatisfactory in service delivery. In another study, (Oluoch, 2012) examined the factors affecting the adoption of online banking by

customers where she looked at the relationships between the perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived risk toward the use of mobile banking technology and found out that customers were opened to use of mobile banking technology but some were put offed by the perceived risk element which is the concern of their security In using the technology customer satisfaction has received wide attention as an important variable in business strategy in a very dynamic and competitive market (Lovelock and Wirtz, 2007). This study approaches customer satisfaction in a process perspective because in online banking, customers’ evaluation of quality happens during the delivery process.

2.5 Online Banking and Customer Satisfaction
Today’s economy is very competitive and with the customer getting more and more aware, customer satisfaction is considered to be the core of success and online technology can be used to improve service quality for customer satisfaction (Jamal and Naser, 2002). This rapid technological development has led the online channel the best for provision of banking products and services to their customers as this establishes, extends and retains the relationship (Robinson,
2000). It is a strategic advantage for banks to maintain great relationships with their customers for success.

2. 2014). The first study on capital structure

2. LITERATURE REVIEW2.1. Theoretical Literature
Capital structure of a firm basically is the mix of debt and equity which the firms deems appropriate to enhance its operations in the midst of several constrains it face. It is the choice between debt and debt equivalent sources of financing on one hand and the issuing of equity to finance the firm activity on the other. Hence, capital structure decisions have great impact on the firm CITATION Wan l 1033 (Wanjogu, 2014). The first study on capital structure which hashes out that the capital structure is immaterial in a corporate world without taxes, transaction costs or other market imperfectionsCITATION Mod58 l 1033 (Modigliani & Miller, 1958).

2.1.1. Modigliani – Miller theoryModigliani & Miller (1958) was presented that study on an assumption that there is the existence of market perfection in capital market. Therefore, transactions in the market are free of cost and bankruptcy costs, and information available to all in the market. That means companies have the same tax rate as the financial decisions. As a result, the cost of equity for both leveraged and not-leveraged firms is the same. For the non-leveraged firm, premium is included for financial risk CITATION Jah15 l 1033 (Jahanzeb, et al., 2015). According to Modigliani & Miller, (1958), in perfect capital markets, financial leverage is unrelated to firm value. It means that at a high or low level, stability cannot be influenced. This theorem does not impact the company’s value on the debt-equity ratio.

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Capital structure theory begins with the Modigliani ; Miller (1958) paradox of “capital structure irrelevance,” where firm value is not affected by its financing mix. Since then, corporate financial literature has grown enormously, and has identified a distinction between two theoretical approaches.

(1) The trade-off theory, (2) The pecking order theory.

2.1.2. Trade-off theoryAlthough Miller ; Modigliani theory has some limitation of unrealistic assumptions but in extended version of this theory in 1963, they presented the trade-off theorem and stated that optimal capital structure comprises of full debts because of the associated tax benefits on interest expenses CITATION Nag16 l 1033 (Nagesha ; Murthy, 2016). Miller (1977) argued that bankruptcy and agency costs were insufficient to overcome the benefits of the debt-sized tax burden. But considering the personal tax payments, this advantage is completely measured by the disadvantages of private tax rates. But Miller’s model was rejected by CITATION DeA80 l 1033 (DeAngelo & Masulis, 1980). They argued that even if bankruptcy, agencies and related expenses were ignored, the introduction of non-debt shields would be sufficient to maintain an optimum capital structure (Myers, 1984).It is further reported that if it is wrongly treated in the market, it will decide to give it a degree of justification. As a result, the IPO will cause investors to react negatively, and the management does not show a rights issue CITATION Jah15 l 1033 (Jahanzeb, et al., 2015).

According to CITATION Tit88 l 1033 (Titman & Wessels, 1988) tangible assets end up helping companies to collect debts and if the investment proves a failure, the creditor will charge the guarantee provided. It too states that companies saddled with extra heavy debt – too much to pay down with a couple of years’ internally generated cash should issue equity or sell off assets to produce cash to rebalance the capital construction.

2.1.3. Pecking order theoryMyers (1984) explained by the Theory of the pecking order, suggests that investors would prefer to prefer the new investment. Firstly, when fund raising is done internationally, earnings retention is subsequently issued as a loan and end-point. According to Shyam-Sunder ; Myers (1999), the pecking order theory correctly anticipates the results of profits. According to this theory, there are three financing sources for firms: retained earnings, debts and equity. Equity faces severe unfavorable selection problems, debt causes minor selection problem and retained earnings has as such not any unfavorable selection problem CITATION Nag16 l 1033 (Nagesha ; Murthy, 2016).

Myers (1984) argues that bad choices mean that the remaining earnings are better than loans and loans. This theory seeks to deteriorate the cost of the asymmetric information. It is assumed that the company’s management is aware of the company’s future prospects than external personnel. It is a signal for the future of management expectations, which announces the issuance of loans or equity to the outsiders.

2.2. Empirical Literature2.2.1. Independent variablesMarket power
The market structure is defined by market power. Market power means controlling the company’s output or price. Market power is the company’s oligopoly, monopoly or competitive power in active statements CITATION Pan04 l 1033 (Pandey, 2004). The study of Krishnaswamy, Mangla, ; Rathinasamy (1992) find a positive relationship between debt and market structure, measured by the Lerner index. Chevalier (1995) provides evidence for a relationship between the capital structure and the market structure. This results in bankruptcy costs or asymmetric information / pecking orders. Phillips (1995) said that, the price structure and the quantity of data for the market structure have a positive relationship between the capital structure and the trading model, and the output and the limited liability impact are consistent with the model’s impact. Pandey (2002) finds that, Capital structure and market power are linked to the density. That is, in lower and higher ranges of Tobin Q, companies reduce their debt in intermediate range in high debt. This was due to the complex interaction of market conditions, agency costs and bankruptcy costs.

The capital structure of organizations was studied in the context of market power in the market. Market power is controlling a company based on products or products. Under operating conditions, market power is a competitive business, oligopoly or monopoly in a business establishment. Companies are expected to go through a monopoly or oligopoly to compete with companies CITATION Nag16 l 1033 (Nagesha & Murthy, 2016). Moreover, developing economies, prices and data of different stocks cannot be obtained for calculating X. This research also includes calculating the market power that assumes a positive relationship in the market power and capital structure.

Trade off theorem says that most profitable firms are looking to increase debt burden. Moreover, high profitability reduces the risk of a severe financial slump and bankruptcy. Potential investors will be interested since the risk of default is low. Therefore, there is a positive relationship between the profitability of a company and its leveraged entities CITATION Hus16 l 1033 m Xia13(Hussain, et al., 2016; Xiaomeng Xu, 2013).
The principle of the pecking order command that points out that external sources are interested in internal financial sources CITATION AlN l 1033 (Al & Shubiri, 2011).Top-priced companies may generate cash internally. Depending on the pecking order theory, companies will issue lower loans when there are sufficient internal fund funds Rajan & Zingales, (1994) concludes that the relationship between the profit and the loan’s ratio is negative? The emergence of financial disasters due to the cost of debt issuance has a low level of low-income companies.

Agency Theory and Tradeoff Theory, on the other hand, have a positive relationship between profitability and leverage. Debt managers find a solution under agency theory-Shareholders’ solution is a solution. Managers believe that the conflict between their counterparts leads to lower investment opportunities, which are the result of cheaper and less profitable companies. In this situation, debt is managed as a pragmatic tool to manage, manage, manage, or invest in unprofitable funds or invest in non-profitable projects CITATION Har91 l 1033 (Harris & Raviv, 1991).

The firms that experience high growth rates often need more aggressive financing. From a pecking order perspective, once these firms exhaust their internally generated funds, they will resort to debt financing. Therefore, for two firms with the same profitability, we should expect that the firm with a higher growth rate will be more leveraged CITATION For13 l 1033 (Forte, et al., 2013). Highly levered companies are more likely to pass up profitable investment opportunities CITATION Mye77 l 1033 (Myers, 1977).Therefore, firms expecting high future growth should use a greater amount of equity finance. As suggested by Myers, Rajan & Zingales (1994) also use the ratio of the market value of assets to the book value of assets as a proxy for growth opportunities.
The negative relationship between growth and leverage is also expected from the viewpoint of Agency Theory. Loans might not be the preferred source of finance in this case, because they transfer a firm’s wealth to debt holders. This fact constitutes a problem if we are considering high growth firms. Fast growing companies often owe their rapid development to the many investment opportunities that may need to be foregone if debt holders gain control over assets CITATION Mye77 l 1033 (Myers, 1977). It is also a fact that SMEs usually face greater growth and usually have less money of their own than larger and more mature companies. Therefore, leaving all the financing preferences aside, SMEs simply are more in need of external funds CITATION Kuc08 l 1033 (Kuciak ; Bartholdy, 2008). They expect growth to be positively related to leverage.

Tangible assets consist of fixed and current assets, such as buildings, machinery and inventory. It is not difficult to insure the essential assets when comparing the essential assets or physical assets. According to both trade-off and pecking order theorem, tangibility and leverage are positively affecting, companies with a higher attrition rate than the conventional system are also high. The liquidity ratio may have a mixed impact on the decision of the capital structure. On the one hand, companies with high liquidity ratios will support relatively high debt ratios, as they are more likely to fulfill short-term obligations. This indicates a positive relationship between the company’s liquidity and debt ratio. On the other hand, large liquid assets can use these assets for their investment money. Therefore, firm’s liquidity position should exert a negative impact on its leverage ratio CITATION Bas l 1033 (Basu ; Rajeev, 2013).
Moreover, higher intangible assets face lower credit costs and less likelihood of bankruptcy. Firms with which you can most likely get more credit than companies with intangible assets. Therefore, a higher ancestor indicates high credit capacity. The relationship between tangible assets and debt ratio is expected to be positive CITATION Har91 l 1033 (Harris ; Raviv, 1991). Tangibility cause to arise lower cost of debt and less probability of bankruptcy. Thus, tangible assets are mostly meant to be of high credit capacity. The relationship between tangible assets and debt ratio is expected to be positive CITATION Xia13 l 1033 (Xiaomeng Xu, 2013).


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