2. than the more successful ones. It


Previous Studies Related to Analysis of Language Learning This section of this chapter provides the literature review of certain previous studies that been carried out for EFL learners by researchers and linguists. Moreover, this section assembles these studies under two distinct headings. The First heading gives the studies related to EFL learning by Non-Arab speakers while as the second one provides the account of studies of EFL learning by Arab-speakers. In order to account for the previously conducted studies by different researchers and linguists, this section has been provided here. 2.1 Studies Related to EFL Learning by Non- Arab SpeakersZutell and Allen (1988) studied the effect of particular features of L1 pronunciation on the tactics of FL spelling.

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Their subjects were bilingual children who studied Spanish of three short-term programs. They were in their second, third and fourth grades. Their findings showed that those students who were less successful committed more Spanish transferred errors than the more successful ones. It was found that the more successful students in spelling, no matter what their language level was, could make a distinction between English and Spanish, thus the English spelling errors that they committed did not show much influence of Spanish. On the other hand, poor spellers used the strategy of letter-name.

Due to the fact that these poor spellers heard the letters as Spanish names, their English spellings were not at any linguistic consideration close to that of English native speakers. In a study investigating the difficulty in SL learning, Chau (1972) has reported the following: “Interference from the source language is the greatest source of error, accounting for approximately 51% of the total number of errors. The second important source of interference is the systemic complexity of the TL itself, which accounts for 27% of the total number of errors; the subtler the distinctions within the subsystem, the more difficult they are for the learner”. (p.

142)Adetugbo (1984), states that the inability to express the English norms, culture and thoughts as the native speakers does, and imposing one’s way of expressing one’s native language on English is the source of semantic interference. To make this point clearer, he illustrates with words/expression’s ‘sorry’ and ‘well done’. ‘Sorry’ is used in Nigerian English as an expression of sympathy, for example when somebody coughs. While ‘well done’ is used as a greeting to anyone at work. The use of these lexical items in British English would be wrong and inappropriate ‘sorry’ in native English can be used to express a feeling or repentance (I am sorry for what I have done); ‘well done’ according to Adetugbo (1984) is a high praise salutation in native English culture for someone who has excelled at doing something.Anke Nutskpo (1996) also carried out researches on the influence of mother tongue on English Language and found out that a number of elision errors are derived from mother tongue interference. Some of these include consonant clusters.

Most of West African languages have no consonant clusters and this affects pronunciation of English words. Thus, words like ‘look’ for ‘looked’ or ‘pack’ for ‘packed’ appears normal. Also in specific language like the Yoruba or Ijaw language /h/ is also introduced where there is non as in /h_gz/ for egg.Ying (1987) has examined 120 Taiwanese EFL learners’compositions and has sorted out errors on the basis of three criteria: overgeneralization, simplification and language transfer. A total of 1,250 errors were detected in the 120 compositions, among which 78.9% of the errors were a result of language transfer, 13.6% were overgeneralization of the TL and 7.

5% were forms of simplification.Ferroli and Shanahan (1993) investigated the effect of voicedness difference between Spanish and English upon the types of misspelling that FL students make. Their results manifested that students rely on their L1 spelling system in applying such strategies upon those spelling rules of the TL.

Wode (1978) also carried out some research on the influence of L1 on the L2, and he pointed out, that, first-language influenced errors may only occur at certain stages in development. Wode’s example is quite clear, and is reviewed here.In English, the negative participle appears after the auxiliary, as in(1) I cannot goBut before main verbs, with do – support, as in(2) I don’t knowIn German, however, the negative particle appears both auxiliaries and main verbs, as in(3) Ich kann nicht gehenI can not go.and (4) Ich weiss notch,I know not,Wode’s children, German – speakers acquiring English as a second language in the United States, produced some sentences using apparent first language influence, such as(5) John go not to the school.What is interesting, Wode points out, is that they did not produce such sentences early on. Their first attempt to negation were similar to what one sees in first language acquisition, such as(6) No, you(7) No, play base ballThey only produce sentences such as (5) when they begun to acquire the aux + neg.

rule, i.e. when they had begun to produce sentences such as(8) Lunch is no ready,Only did they “fall back” on the more general German rule.

Wode (1978, 1979) “suggests that there is, therefore, a structural prerequisite for first language influence: the performer’s interlinguistics structural description, his idea of the target language rule, must be similar to the structural description of the rule in first language, Wode’s children’s English negation rule was not all at all similar to the German rule in early stages, but it became similar when they progressed to aux – neg stage. Hence, first language influence appeared but not earlier” (qtd by Krashen, 69).Darus and Ching (2009) investigated the most common errors in essays written in English by 70 form one Chinese students in a public school in Perak in Malaysia. For all of these students, Chinese was their first language (L1). Using an error classification scheme and Markin 3.1 software, 70 essays were analyzed and categorized into 18 types of errors. The results of the analysis show that four most common errors were mechanics, tenses, preposition, and subject-verb agreement.

In these written essays, interlingual errors due to L1 interference were clear. Intralingual transfer of Malay and developmental errors were also observed in their writing. This study suggests that teachers need to emphasize on how certain concepts are handled in English, Malay and Chinese in order to make the students aware of the differences in the structure of English, Malay and their L1.Kay Williamson (1969) did some detailed work on the problems the Igbo learners of English encounters with the learning of English sounds. She notes that most Igbo dialects, with regards to the vowels e and ? are allophones of one phoneme.

This is why most Igbo speakers who tend to use e for the English diphthong /ei/ does not clearly distinguish between such words as ‘gate’ and ‘get’. Also the central vowels / ? / ?:/ and / ? / are difficult for Igbo speakers because there are no Igbo vowels that are similar in quality.Bhela(1999) conducted a case study based on an observation of four adult second language learners. His major concern of his paper has been with the observable features of interference of L1 and L2 and what its effects are on the syntactic structure of a written task of second language learners. He concluded that the learners have used some L1 structures to produce appropriate responses in L2, producing semantically acceptable texts. Subsequently, the learners have also used L1 structures interchangeably with L2 structures, producing inappropriate L2 responses, indicating interference of L1 onL2.Azevedo (1980) investigated the lexical errors committed by 14th first-year graduate students of Spanish at the American university. His subjects were native speakers of American English.

His data was the collection of 61 papers written by the subjects. Findings revealed that subjects committed many lexical errors. The subjects’ Spanish speech revealed many gaps in morphology, syntax, semantics and style. These gaps “…were filled by rules of their own MT” (1980, p.

223)Ejenihu Juliet Ngozi, (2001 ), carried out a research on “The Interference of Phonology of Igbo Language in Acquisition of English: Ikeduru local Government Area of Imo State” using the oral speech of students in the acquisition of English Language. She found out that the segmental feature of the student’s mother tongue (Igbo) interfered with their responses to the oral tests. She gave an instance of most them pronouncing the English language vowel numbers five /a:/ and diphthong number thirteen as Igbo vowel /a/. The inability of the students to distinguish the long vowels from the short ones is a major factor responsible for their deviation in pronouncing English long vowels.

According to Ejenihu, all the students deviated in pronouncing the English sound segments that were not available in Igbo phonology also constituted pronunciation problems to the students tested.Aguas (1964) studied errors in English compositions made by Tagalog speakers. He has concluded that the first language interference is the greatest single cause of errors and that CA can be used to predict to a very large extent those errors which arise from negative transfer from first language, though it does not predict errors which arise from a false analogy among linguistic elements in SL.Alonso, A., ; Rosa, M. (1997). Conducted a study to identify Interlingual errors in Spanish students of English as a foreign language. Through this study, it was possible to define and list the most common type of Interlingual errors, which are constituted by the phenomenon of transfer.

The findings revealed that the structures of the mother tongue represent the main factor of interference in the L2. It is important to emphasize that grammar and vocabulary errors are the most common errors identified due to a lack of distinction in Spanish or to the literal translation of L1. Once having the results it is intended to focus on the common type of errors which are seriously affecting the competence of students and how teachers should try thus to eliminate the transfer of structures committed by the students. This can be a challenge, but it is possible to be done by means of making exercises oriented to the practice of the use of linguistic structures and the different part of speech, where these interference phenomena is possible to identify.

Richards (1971) has collected speech samples elicited from two subjects whose source languages are French and Czech. He has found out that of 47 errors made, 25 can be attributed to interference from the mother tongue, 17 to interference from the TL due to overgeneralization and three are performance errors. He has concluded that interference from the source language is the most detectable kind of interference traceable to certain structures, particularly in linguistic areas. In another study using a non-contrastive approach to EA, Richards (1971) has found that interference from the mother tongue is clearly a major source of difficulty in SL learning and contrastive proves valuable in locating areas of interlingual interference? (p.214).

Maros, M., Hua, T. K., ; Salehuddin, K. (2017) conducted a study in Malaysia in order to find out the source of the grammatical errors in English essay writing made by rural Malay secondary school students, where certainly occurred the phenomena of transfer during the learning process.

Through the researcher’s observation is concluded that although not all errors are due to mother tongue interference, a large number of errors identified are related to the inappropriate use of the parts of speech such as: prepositions, determiners, subject verb agreement where is clearly reflected the interference of the Malay grammar. Thus, the problems of acquiring EFL in Malaysia can still be a big deal due to mother tongue interference. Therefore, so as to find a balance some plans should be taken to implement approaches that could best assist and help students in these problematic areas. This investigation study identified a number of errors that seem to be the result of the interference of L1, in other words it showed how the mother tongue is strongly tie to the language learning process. The best thing is to start to implement new techniques and approaches in order to minimize the chances of these errors in the teaching learning process with the use of teaching materials and teaching practices within and outside the classrooms.Duskova (1969) has analyzed that the written English of a group of Czech adult learners of English and has stipulated that the learners’confusion of the systems and subsystems of English is the main cause of errors.

Her analysis of the syntactic errors has revealed that the following are the problematic areas: a. Malformation, which includes such errors as omission of plural endings, lack of subject-verb agreement and omission of the third person singular verb endings ‘s’ b. Modal verbs. c. Tense. d. Article.

e. Word order. She has also found that first language interference causes the major part of students ‘errors.In a study investigating the difficulty in SL learning, Tran (1972) has reported the following: Interference from the source language is the greatest source of error, accounting for approximately 51% of the total number of errors. The second important source of interference is the systemic complexity of the TL itself, which accounts for 27% of the total number of errors; the subtler the distinctions within the subsystem, the more difficult they are for the learner.

(p. 142)In his article, Chan (2004) presented evidence of syntactic transfer from Chinese to English in the light of data obtained from 710 Hong Kong Chinese ESL learners at different proficiency levels. The focus of the study was on five error types: (a) lack of control of copula (b) incorrect placement of adverbs (c) problem in using the « there be » structure to express the existential function (d) failure to use the relative clause and (e) confusion in verb transitivity. The result showed that many Chinese ESL learners in Hong Kong tended to think in Chinese first before they wrote in English.Keiko (2003:59-85) investigated 32 written English tasks by 36 university freshmen Japanese students. Keiko (2003:70) identified three types of article errors: omission; unnecessary insertion; and confusion.

Students were first required to read a short story, and then produce four written tasks (200-250 words each). These consisted of: ? making a summary;? answering a question; ? creating an original sequel; ? and o writing a critique. Keiko’s (2003) study examined two error patterns committed by Japanese studying English as a second language: the genitive markers of/’s indicating possession; and the English article system a/an/the. The former was concerned with the misuse of the English preposition of, which Keiko (2003:59) considered to originate in the students’ L1. The other error type analyzed was the error involving articles.

The findings revealed that the difficulty arose in students? insufficient understanding of articles, a lack of experience in using them and reliance on oversimplified textbooks.Huang (2001) has investigated the nature and distribution of different kinds of grammatical errors made by 46 English majors of a Taiwanese university. A total of 1700 errors were found and categorized into 13 error types. The top six common errors were (1) verb (2) Noun (3) spelling (4) article (5) preposition and (6) word choice. Overgeneralization, ignorance of rule restrictions, simplification, incomplete application of rules and L1 transfer were reported as the major causes of EFL learners’errors.Sarfraz (2011) examined the errors made in a corpus of fifty English essays. The participants were fifty undergraduate Pakistani students.

They were non-native speakers of English. The instrument used was the participants’ essays in English. The researcher followed Rod Ellis’s (1994) procedural analysis of errors : collection of errors, identification of errors, description of errors, explanation of errors, and evaluation of errors in analyzing fifty English essays.

The results showed that the number of interlingual errors committed by the participants was higher than the number of intralingual errors.Merio (1978), in a study about interference errors has reported that as much as 58.7% of the errors made by Swedish speaking students learning Finnish can be attributed to the influence of the primary language on the secondary one. Eun-pyo (2002:1-9) conducted an error analysis study on Korean medical students? writing. The subjects in the study were 35 second year premedical students who took English Writing in the third semester of their two-year English curriculum. The primary purpose of the study was to analyse what errors intermediate to advanced level learners, at a medical college, make in their writing by reviewing their formal and informal letters. Since these learners were considered relatively of advanced level according to their scores of the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC), the results were also compared with other results of basic level learners from a previous study.

The number of errors and length of students? writing were analysed to see if they correlated with their official test scores. The subjects? writing was evaluated and the sentences with errors were recorded to identify the types and frequency of errors. The study revealed that approximately one fourth of errors (26%) resulted from L1 transfer. Other major errors identified were wrong words (16%), prepositions (15%) and articles (14%).Chiang (1993) has examined types of errors of 160 compositions written by senior high school students in Taiwan. The low proficient group wrote mainly in simple sentences. As far as global errors were concerned, the three most commonly made errors were conjunctions, run-on sentences and subject-objects-complements. The investigation of learning strategies showed that language transfer accounted for 70.

58% of all the errors.Ilomaki (2005:1-96) conducted a cross-sectional study with particular reference to Finnish-speaking and English-speaking learners of German. The researcher used learners? written output to analyse learner errors and identify reasons why different errors may have occurred. Ilomaki (2005:12) concludes that learners do not necessarily make the same errors in written and oral production, due to different processing conditions and learners with one native language do not necessarily make the same errors as learners with different native language. The study also reveals that adult learners? errors result from cross-linguistic influence, that is, when one language influences another through borrowing, interference and language transfer. Ilomaki (2005:12) argues that the age factor is not necessarily a decisive factor in second 36 language learning or in cross-linguistic influence.

Ilomaki?s (2005:1-2) study is unique because the aspect of previously acquired languages other than mother tongue tend to be neglected in studies of error analysis in L2 learning acquisition process.Sattayatham and Honsa, (2007) have researched to identify the most frequent errors of first year medical students in Thailand. The results showed that the most frequent errors were at the syntactic and lexical levels which led to overgeneralization, incomplete rule application and building of false concepts. According to the study, mother tongue interference was detected as major cause of errors. However, some linguistic items such as articles, tense and verb forms appeared to be the source of frequent errors. Odumah (1987) also studied the influence of ethno linguistics on English language usage of Nigerians.

He found out that these influences affect all levels of linguistic analysis in the areas of phonology, morphology. According to him, the main pronunciation problems of our people are due to interference from MT. We are so conditioned by the habits of our mother tongue that very often we cannot hear the strong sounds of a new language let alone producing them. This is true of an English man learning Igbo, as of an Igbo man learning English.Randall (2005:1-10) studied the spelling errors for Singaporean primary school children who dictated target words in English. The aim of the investigation was to determine if the errors produced by the Singaporean children could be attributed to the Mother 39 Tongue influences, to influences from Singaporean English or if they showed similar patterns to those produced by native English speakers at the same level. Randall (2005:1-10) found the errors produced in the Primary 2 classes to be influenced by phonology, that is the study of the sound systems in language; Randall found that the errors were due to influence from Singaporean English, but found both classes different from their native speaking counterparts in the way they processed final inflected clusters.Onike Rahman (2009) carried out a research on mother tongue interference on the Yoruba learners of English and he found out that ‘a Yoruba – English bilingual stresses every syllable in the utterances he produces in English, e.

g. cha 1ra 1cher instead of character or ma1ry instead of Mary. At the level of intonation, because all the syllables are stressed, a carryover effect from the dialects of Yoruba language, it becomes difficult to understand what part of an utterance a Yoruba – English bilingual is trying to emphasize. In the areas of syntactic and discourse problems of Yoruba learner of English, he states that “the syntax of English and Yoruba language have recognized problem areas such as the nominal system (such as number, quantifiers, pronoun) gender, embedded structures relative pronouns, complements) and the expression of passives. According to him, “the discourse level is ‘more pronounced at the level of greeting. For instance, the system of greeting in Yoruba differs considerably from that of English. And a Yoruba English bilingual transfers the system of greeting in Yoruba into English.

The system of greetings is also observed via the production of language greetings in place of casual greetings which characterize the English discourse. 2.2 Studies Related to EFL Learning by Arab SpeakersBataineh (2005) focused upon identifying the kinds of errors that Jordanian undergraduate EFL students committed in the use of the indefinite article.

The size of the study population was 209 male and female university students majoring English in Yarmouk University. They were between 18 and 23 years old. Those subjects were asked to write compositions on various topics. The findings of her study suggested that most of the errors that these subjects committed were due to common learning processes as those of overgeneralization and simplification of the English article system. Her study suggested that the interference of the MT in the specific language category that she was studying ‘the use of the indefinite article’ was so limited. However, the only type of errors that could be attributed to L1 interference was the deletion of the indefinite article.Scott & Tucker (1974) have studied errors made by Arabic-speaking students in their speech and writing. The errors were classified into fourteen types: verbs, prepositions, articles, relative clauses, sentential complements, repetition of subject or object, nouns, pronouns, surrogate subjects, word order, quantifiers, adverbs, adjectives, and genitive constructions.

From their findings, verbs, prepositions, and articles were major sources of errors. The errors were explained in terms of performance mistakes, mother-tongue interference, or false intralingual analogy.Al-Khresheh (2010) investigated the interference of L1 (Arabic) syntactic structures on FL (English) syntactic structures amongst Jordanian learners of English. His focus was on the word order errors committed by EFL learners within the structure of simple sentences. The purpose of the study was to trace the effect of the MT upon that of the TL. He used Corder’s (1981) method that was comprised of a multiple-choice test. His 115 Jordanian subjects were tenth grade school students at Al-Mazer District of Education in the south of Jordan. The results of his study showed that the subjects committed (1266) interlingual errors regarding the specific syntactic category that he was investigating, which was the simple sentence structure word order.

He found out after the sub-classification of these errors that they were attributed to the transfer from standard Arabic (SA) were more than those of the transfer from non-standard Arabic (NSA). Moreover, these transfer errors were found to be the result of the variance between the subjects’ MT (Arabic) and English in addition to the transfer from two various varieties of Arabic.Samhoury (1965) has analyzed the grammatical errors in the written English of two hundred Syrian University students in order to provide a partial basis for preparing English teaching materials. He has reported errors in word order, verb formation, tense, sequence of tense, prepositions and articles. His subjects’reliance on the native language was very extensive.

However, the fact that he has not reported and figured his subjects’errors or the frequency of their occurrence gives the researcher reason to believe that Samhoury’s study was more of a CA than EA.Al-Khresheh (2011) studied the performance analysis of a group of 120 Arabic speaking Jordanian students of English at Jordanian schools, located in the south of Jordan. His subjects were asked to write compositions and later analyzed them to find out the extent of interference of Arabic (L1) syntactic structures into English (FL). The main focus of his study was upon the errors made by these students in one particular syntactic category that was the coordinating conjunction ‘and’, that was equal to “wa” in Arabic. His results implied that his subjects made a large number of errors in using coordinating conjunction ‘and’. He suggested that interlingual interference was the main reason behind making such a great number of this type of errors.Willcott (1974) has studied the errors of sixteen native speakers of Arabic taking a course in history at the University of Texas at Austin.

The objective of his study was to find out some of the students’unique problems with the syntax of written English in order to develop efficient teaching materials. Willcott’s study has showed that the most serious problems for this group of learners were those with the concept of definiteness and verb morphology.Abu-Jarad (2008) studied the errors committed by 179 Palestinian university students studying English in Al-Azhar University – Gaza. He presented to the subjects a grammar test that was composed of 59 questions which were focusing upon 13 grammatical categories. The findings of the study showed that there was an increase in the students’ command of the various grammatical categories and fewer errors committed as a result of the advancement of the students’ language levels. It was found that the level 1 students were good in their results because of their efforts to succeed in the high school general certificate exams. The results showed that in a particular grammatical category ‘the use of articles’; there was a general weakness even for level 2, level 3 and level 4 students.

He attributed such a weakness to that of teaching methods. He suggested that English teachers should pay particular attention to the use of articles as a review for their students at the beginning of their courses. It was also suggested that English teachers might attempt to show the difference in articles use in English and Arabic. Thus, it was also suggested that English teachers should conduct a diagnostic test before teaching English articles. The most notable increase in the performance of the specific grammatical categories was the use of the reported speech, present perfect and prepositions. However, the students’ weakness was manifested in the use of articles and irregular comparatives.Kambal (1981) has analyzed syntactic errors in compositions written by first year Sudanese students at Khartoum University.

His subjects experienced most difficulty with verbs, tense, concord, articles and prepositions. He explained these errors in terms of both native language interference and the influence of the systems of the TL itself.Tahaineh (2010) investigated the kind of errors that the Jordanian first, second and third year university students made in the use of English prepositions. They were students majoring in English at Al-Balqa Applied University in Jordan. His 162 subjects were asked to write free compositions. His results showed that the interference of the MT (Arabic) accounted for most of the errors that these EFL students committed (58%=1323). However, intralingual errors, which were attributed to the TL itself were also the second major cause of errors (42%=967).

These students showed the tendency of using the correct preposition in English if it had the same equivalent in Arabic. They selected the improper preposition in English if it did not have the same equivalent in Arabic, for example, *Amman is famous by its ruins. They also deleted or inserted prepositions in English according to their MT rules of inserting or deleting such prepositions. He concluded that Arab students’ incorrect use of English prepositions was so vast even for the more advanced English language learners.Zughoul (2002) investigated syntax of the interlanguage of 25 Arab learners of English from seven Arab countries who were attending an intensive English program at the University of Texas, Austin.

The focus of the study was on the area of the noun phrase concerning the closed system elements that can occur before or after the noun head. He analysed the first 500 vocabulary of each subject’s interlanguage; then he classified them according to a typology of errors that he designed according to a pilot study. His findings showed that noun phrase errors constituted 32.8 % of the total number of errors in the sample, which came second after verb phrase errors. The noun phrase errors according to their frequency were in the use of articles, especially the omission of the indefinite article in obligatory contexts, the use of “the” excessively, omission of the article “the,” and redundant use of the articles “a” and “an”. He concluded that the errors committed by Arab learners varied according to their dialects backgrounds. He also concluded that errors committed by Arab learners were very much similar to those errors committed by English learners of other language backgrounds.Miqdadi (1997) conducted an empirical study on the role of the native language, Arabic, in learning English relative clauses.

A sample of 100 male and female students was drawn from first-year and second-year students in the English department of Yarmouk University. The analysis of the errors made by those students in the formation of the English relative clauses revealed the clear effect of negative transfer from Arabic into English.Al-Hazaymeh (1994) performed an analytical study on the errors made by secondary students learning English verb tenses. The study was based on a random sample survey of 759 students drawn from secondary schools in the city of Irbid, Jordan.

The sample consisted of 587 students from public schools and 172 from private schools. The sample consisted of males and females and science and arts students. The statistical analysis found that the errors made by the students in using the English verb tenses were significantly different for different groups; that is to say, public and private students, male and female students, and science and literature students. The researcher further found that the errors made by the students were mainly due to the interference of their mother tongue, overgeneralization, and the complex structures of the English verb tenses, the parallel structure strategy, and lack of awareness of grammatical rules.Al-Haq (1982) conducted a study regarding the syntactical errors in compositions written by 96 secondary male and female students in urban and rural schools of Irbid. His results manifested that no significant differences between male and female were found regarding noun-phrase and verb-phrase errors, except for prepositions, particles and tense. In addition, it was noticed that there were significant differences between urban and rural students concerning the definite article, prepositions and particles.

Those errors were attributed to L1 interference, overgeneralization, and performance, ignorance of usage rules, restriction, formation and developmental errors.Arabi’s (1999) study investigated the writing performance among preliminary year students in three Sudanese universities. The investigation arrived at different lexical errors in the students ‘writing performance at level of the right lexical word, sentence connection, and structure. The composition scripts for preliminary year students were sampled and analyzed in order to predict and pre–estimate the main trends of errors ‘distribution among the member of the data population.

The problem of the study was the weakness of the students while the methodology was a free composition on one of four topics. The errors of each group e.g. the right uses of lexical words and idioms were analyzed in relationship to whether they were due to intralingual.

The study concentrates on the syntactic aspects. The study identified the major areas of weakness of the performance of writing and referred to the errors observed in the students’ compositions which are attributed to first Arabic language background, the complex nature of writing process and linguistic difficulty as setbacks factors in writing performance.Al-Naimi (1989) investigated the errors made by Arab EFL learners of the category of English Adjectives. His sample was composed of 150 students enrolled in the classes of the Orientation Program of the language Centre in Jordan. They were asked to write essays.

It was found that interference was the main reason behind committing the biggest number of errors in adjective formation, selection and comparison.Nada Salih A. Ridha (2012) the main purpose of this study was to identify and specify the errors in English written works of EFL Iraqi students, in this case essay writing. The findings of the study developed indicate that most of the students’ errors can be due to the L1 transfer. This is supported by the fact that most of the learners rely on or depend on their mother tongue at the time of expressing their ideas. Although the data gathered revealed that the students’ essays included different types of errors, the grammatical errors were the most serious and frequent ones.

It is believed that there is a considerable influence of Arabic language on the students’ writing of English. The study also indicates some remarkable contributions to the language field where teachers need to take a special attention of transfer and interference phenomenon. Seriously, both issues are part of the main obstacles students have to deal in their production (spoken or written).Al-Jarf (2000) conducted a study of nine Saudi seniors at the College of Languages and Translation, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia whose major was translation. She analyzed 159 grammatical agreement errors. Statistics showed that the percentage of disagreeing verbs was more than pronouns, which in turn was more than adjectives. It also revealed that gender errors were higher than number agreement errors.

Interlingual errors were more than intralingual ones. 27% of the errors were due to incorrect gender assignment to the controller or target, 3% were due to inability to determine the number of the controller or target, 24% were due to inability to associate the verb, pronoun or adjective with its correct referent.Kharma and Hajjaj (1985) described the characteristics of conditional usage in writing by learners whose first language was Arabic. The Type 1 conditional (If + present + future) was the next most common form they encountered. They stated that it generally did not pose a problem for Arab learners.

They found out that Arab teachers of English language used Arabic for explaining difficult lexical items and grammatical rules. These teachers had the belief that using their MT is useful and they were pleased for that. They concluded that the L1 should not usually be used in FL classrooms, since the aim of FL teaching was to approximate near-native competence.

However, if there was need for that, a limited and systematized use was recommended.Kharma (1987) carried out research on Arab students’ problems in learning the English relative clause. His study found 14 types of errors, mainly due to negative interference from their native language, Arabic. Kharma further concluded that these were errors of form and did not affect communication.Hashim (1996) revised most of the recurring studies that focused upon syntactic errors made by Arab learners of English. He classified these errors into seven various categories: verbal, sentence structure, relative clause, adverbial clause, conjunction, articles and prepositions. Findings of his study revealed that the interference of the MT (Arabic) was the main reason behind committing such types of errors. He added that when Arab learners tried to formulate an English sentence, they used strategies parallel to those of MT learners as simplification and overgeneralization.

For example, *The son of the teacher is named Ali, and *He play football with us.Hamdan (1984) investigated the lexical errors committed by 60 Jordanian second year English majors in the use of Basic English vocabulary. Findings revealed that 63.85% of the subjects’ responses were incorrect; whereas 36.15% were correct. The committed lexical errors were classified as lexical substitution, paraphrase, and the use of negative forms, coinage and translation. Analysis showed that 48.

2% of the total number of lexical errors was attributed to L1 interference, whereas 14.6% were intralingual ones.Karadawi (1994).

He used the cross –sectional design questionnaire, and teachers’ opinionnaires in analyzing the Sudanese Higher Secondary School third year students’ composition. The study claimed that both inadequate and ineffective exposure to composition writing in the Higher Secondary School (HSC) is the reason for the inability of the final year students of the Higher Secondary School to write error-free types of texts. The impact of the mother interference was also claimed. The study proved that the students today do not do any sort of private readings that help them acquire the skill of composing a readable text. It could be observed that although Karadawi’s study succeeded in investigating the syntactic errors in terms of subject tense errors and lexical errors, however, he did not specifically shed enough light on lexical errors.

Karadawi’s study argued that the EFL lexico- semantic handling becomes a problem to the learners to the extent that they get bound to no choice except a transfer from the first language Arabic.Gharab’s (1996) study which investigated the performance errors made by the first year Iraqi university students in written English. Gharab analyzed the errors using a free composition writing test as an elicitation technique for data collection. Interviews were also made to students, teachers and supervisors. The study found out that Iraqi university first year student make spelling, syntactic, and lexical errors in their writing due to the transfer from the mother tongue. With regards to the Gharab’s study, it investigated a wide range of orthographical, syntactic and lexical errors which resulted in the failure to concentrate on lexical errors. In terms of Gharab (1996) it could be argued that errors made by the university students are not sufficiently addressed and tackled by the teachers. This might ring the bell and notify the syllabus designer all over Arab region to care more and tackle these errors in general and in particular teachers’ inefficiency.

Gharab’s findings proved the impact of the mother language, lack of interaction and cultural factors on the students’ weakness.Mahmoud (2002) investigated the interlingual transfer of idioms by Arab learners of English. His data was collected from essays that were written by 230 Arab second year university students in the Sultan Qaboos University majoring English.

Students from various branches of study wrote those essays as weekly tasks in partial fulfillment of the requirements of their reading and writing courses. 124 idioms (excluding phrasal verbs and binomials) were found in 3220 pieces written by his subjects. Out of the 124 idioms detected, 25 (that is 20%) were grammatically and lexically correct. More than 2/3 of the used idioms (18 idioms) were found to have similar Arabic counterparts. They were very similar to those of the Arabic idioms at the context, formality and semantic levels. It was found that the other remaining idioms (7 idioms) did not have any Arabic counterparts.

Many explanations were presented by the researcher as the proficiency level in EFL, the teachers’ attempts to avoid using such idioms in order to make the learning process as easy as possible, and the common non-use of these teachers because they were not native speakers of English. In general, students’ encounter to idioms was very rare because the articles that these students used to read were mainly academic or scientific, which usually did not include idioms. It was found that the main interaction between these students and the idioms was in the general discourse of the articles found in the first and second semesters of their first year, which included English for general purposes curricula.Abisamra (2003) found out that 35.9% of the errors were of transfer/Interlingual errors, while 64.1% were developmental and Intralingual. She found that the highest percentage of transfer errors was in semantics and lexis, and as for the highest percentage of developmental errors, it was mainly spelling. Other studies by George (1972), Richards (1971) and Brudhiprabha (1972) also found that only one-third of the foreign language learners’ errors could be attributed to native language transfer.

The study of Al–Bone’s (2004) investigated the types and frequency of errors at the Faculty of Arts. The study has employed the descriptive and inductive approach. Two tests were used to collect the data, oral test and written tests. The results of the study confirmed that the students improved relatively in both written and oral production. Also the results indicated that Arabic interference was most visible in the students’ tests.

However, the study did not shed enough light on other causes of the university students’ lexical errors as the improper choice of lexical items in both oral and written communication may, more often than not, lead to a breakdown in communication. Al–Bone’s referred to the interference of the mother tongue as the most obvious source of the error committed by the students as claimed by the current study.Na’ama (2011) investigated the English consonant clusters, which he believed to be the most difficult aspects in pronunciation that Yemeni University students faced. The sample of his study was 45 students randomly chosen from the three levels of The English Department., Faculty of Education and Hodiedah University. These students belonged to various language levels after conducting a language placement test: good, moderate and low.

He found out that they committed many errors in the use of the English clusters. These subjects repeatedly committed errors in this difficult form of pronunciation work. Thus, when given various vocabularies to pronounce which fell under this category as “spread”, “splendid”, “play” and so on. They applied the technique of ‘Epenthesis’ in English clusters.By definition: ”epenthesis is the insertion of a vowel or consonant segment within an existing string or cluster reduction” (Celce-Murcia, Briton and Goodwin, 1996, p.83). They pronounced these words as follows: /spIred/, /spIlendId/, /pIleI/ and so on. Findings revealed that these subjects committed many errors in English consonant clusters pronunciation.

These errors were explained based on L1 interference into L2 because of the various phonological differences between Arabic and English regarding consonant-clusters. The second potential reason was that Yemeni university students did not use any listening aids. The third probable factor was the English language teachers themselves who were not masters of English pronunciation because they were not native speakers of English.Al-Jarf (2007) investigated the English spelling errors for 36 freshmen students majoring in translation at the College of Languages and Translation, King Saud University. They were all first year students in their second semester. The spelling errors were categorized into sources of whole word errors, and sources of faulty graphemes. She tried to figure out the causes of English spelling errors for these subjects.

She concluded that: Communication breakdown was considered as the main factor that determined the vocabulary spelling and comprehension capacity by ESL students at the College of Languages and Translation.Students’ inability to hear or spell words was determined by their language levels. The second most important factor was the almost ignorance of these students of the rules that governed English spelling rules. It was found that teaching spelling was not one of the parts of the ESL instruction or the evaluation system in that university. The third common source of spelling errors was the interference of the Arabic spelling system into English because of “the orthographic complexity difference between English and Arabic (p.

8).Flege (1980) studied the productions of English /p t k/ by native speakers of Saudi Arabic. He found that the Saudis’ productions exhibited many phonological aspects of native Arab speech. However, he also found that over time Saudis gradually acquired the ability to approximate English characteristics of stop production so that their productions were not typical of either native Arab speech or of native English speech. He determined that the Interference from L1 into FL Saudis’ productions were the output of what he called an interlanguage phonological system, a system that exhibits phonological characteristics that were intermediate to L1 and FL phonological norms.

2.2. a comparative country analysis on human trafficking.

2.2. Theoretical FrameworkAccording to Kurtines and Silverman (1999) theory is comprised of an explanatory statement which used to help explain and understand relations among variables, how they operate and the processes involved. As they further argue the importance of theory lies in its ability to assist the researcher to identify and organize the connections among various phenomena that may seem unrelated (cited in Kawulich 2009: 37). In this section of the thesis will be described the theories that provide the theoretical framework for analyzing the human trafficking from the wider perspective connected to the global migration.

Existing Theoretical Concepts in Human TraffickingThere is a huge lack of theoretical concepts in human trafficking researches in general. As many commentators on the field argue, there are virtually no attempts made to analyze and understand the issue of human trafficking for labor exploitation within the exiting international migration theories. It has been said by different commentators on the field that the existing theoretical frameworks describing the concepts of human trafficking are not well developed; and most of them are criticized for referring only to the aims of those anti human trafficking policies or to the causes of human trafficking. And as Morehouse (2009: 75) argues these descriptions are too narrow and would be an insufficient theoretical framework on which to base a comparative country analysis on human trafficking.

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2.2.1 The Rational Choice Theory of MigrationThough migration is not a prerequisite for human trafficking to occur, human trafficking involves the movement of people across national and international boundaries. In this case human trafficking can be seen as one segment of the broader human migration. There are a variety of theoretical approaches that has been developed to explain the factors that cause people to migrate. Theories in this category thrive to answer the question why migrations begin. Among others neoclassical economics or the rational choice theory is probably the earliest and the most known migration theory.

According to Douglas and his colleagues there are two models of neoclassical economics, the macro economics and micro economics models (Douglas, 1993). For it focus on the individuals? decision and choice to migrate, the latter model is used in this research.The rational choice theory or the micro model of neoclassical economics can be used to explain human trafficking from both the economic and social perspectives. This theory explains human behavior and the choice people made.

In general, according to Douglas et al (1993), the basic argument behind this theory is that people as a rational being want to maximize economic and social gain and minimize risk. The rational choice theory framework can help to explain human trafficking from both perspectives of the trafficking victims and the traffickers.According to this theory, people decide to migrate because a cost-benefit calculation leads them to expect a positive net return, usually monetary, from movement. Migration is conceptualized as a form of investment in human capital. People choose to move to a place where they can be most productive, given their skills; but before they can capture the higher wages associated with greater labor productivity they must undertake certain investments, which include the material costs of traveling, the effort involved in learning a new environment and culture, the difficulty experienced in adapting to a new labor market, and the psychological costs of cutting old ties and establishing new ones (Douglas et al 1993: 435). Victims of trafficking originally make the decision to trust the traffickers in hopes that they will accumulate money and have a better way of life in another country.

In this case, according to the rational choice theory, trafficking victims were originally rational for they have decided to move with the traffickers to another country where they expect a better way of life. Because traffickers are professionally acquainted with deceiving talents, they are extremely persuasive and can easily persuade individuals to migrate. As far as the golden offers promised by traffickers concerned, the risk of trusting a trafficker seems small compared to the huge rewards in the future. Similar to the decision of the trafficking victims, the decision made by the traffickers is also rational. To win the trust of individual victims and to generate a huge amount of money from the trafficking of them, the traffickers deceive and persuade individuals with false promises.In this theory rational decision making, free will, and cost benefit analysis are the three major variables that used to build an integrated framework to explain human trafficking.

The way in which human traffickers select their victims is based on the cost-benefit analysis of the trafficking and vulnerability of potential victims (Lutya and Lanier 2012: 557). Human trafficking is a crime against humanity, and it is a direct affront to human dignity. Rational choice theories postulate that criminals like human traffickers are rational beings who make decisions to commit crime (trafficking persons) based on the costs and benefits involved in the process of crime perpetration (Lutya and Lanier 2012: 557).Potential migrants estimate the costs and benefits of moving to alternative locations and migrate to where the expected discounted net returns are greatest over some time horizon. Based on this theory it can be concluded that, if the quantity of the expected net returns to migration is positive for some potential destination, the individual migrates; if it is negative the individual stays; and if it is zero, the individual is indifferent between moving and staying. In theory, a potential migrant goes to where the expected net returns to migration are greatest than staying at home (Douglas et al 1993).2.3.

Prevalence of Child TraffickingChild migration as one mode of human movement is not uncommon phenomena throughout the world. Children as the integral part of human beings subjected to displace from their local environment to other areas for one or more reasons. An investigation under taken in Nepal by Singh cited in Gautam (2005) stated as the movement of human beings are observable from place to place since the beginning of human life, possessing a long lasting event due to interrelated dynamic factors that belong to social, economic, psychological, political ,institutional and/or more due to pushing or pulling incidents.Likewise child migration, child trafficking is a global phenomenon that afflicts national advancement, and draws the attention of international communities in order to remediate its persistence.

It is the conviction of several scholars that involves smuggling human beings especially women and children from place to place without the consent of the person.According to UN Convention (2000) stated under Article 3, child trafficking seems to encompassthe whole processes that may endanger children and their life whether the negotiations, the forces utilized, the mechanisms of transportation and other activities and attempts to pursue the objective. The problem, child trafficking, describes a pattern of human rights violation affecting at least one million children today – probably many more. It is more concerned withthe business of taking children away from their homes and families, transporting them elsewhere, often across frontiers and even to other continents, to be put to use by others, usually to make money (Dottridge, 2004;Plan Togo, 2005).According to a survey conducted for this research in co-operation with UNICEF country offices and in consultation with many local stakeholders, trafficking is a recognized problem in at least 49 per cent of African countries. The number of countries reporting trafficking in children is two times the number of the countries reporting trafficking in women. In all the countries reporting trafficking in women, child trafficking is also reported. The survey shows that child trafficking is usually perceived as more severe than trafficking in women.

In West and Central Africa trafficking is recognized as a problem in more than 70 percent of countries. In more than one in three countries in the region the problem is perceived as severe or very severe. In East and Southern Africa trafficking is identified as a problem in some 33 percent of countries.2.4.

Understanding child traffickingAn understanding of human trafficking requires an analysis of the operation of, and interaction between, a range of factors that combine to make individuals vulnerable to trafficking. In order to understand human trafficking in its broad social, economic and political contexts, it is argued that it is important first to identify and know the interaction between such structural factors or variables of trafficking as economic deprivations, social inequality and demand for inexpensive labor force and adjacent factors of trafficking like loose national and international legal regimes, poor law enforcement, corruption, weak education campaigns etc. putting it in another way, identifying and knowing the interaction between the push and pull factors will help us significantly in understanding the nature of human trafficking (Newman and Cameron 2007: 11).Trafficking vulnerable children and young people is a violation of their rights to protection from exploitation, to play, to an education and to health, and to family life (ILO-IPEC, 2002). Under international laws, trafficking is a crime involving the movement of children and their exploitation.

The movement may be voluntary or coerced; it may be across borders or within a country; and the exploitation can take several forms like sexual, labor, physical, etc.(ILO-IPEC, 2001).2.5. Factors Influencing Child TraffickingThe causes of trafficking in persons are various and often differ from one country to the other and even at intra-country level. Trafficking is a clandestine and complex phenomenon which is often driven by such social, economic, cultural and other related political and legal factors. In search of better conditions there is always a desire to migrate among impoverished individuals.This desire is often exploited by traffickers to recruit and gain control on the potential victims.There are some local conditions that make individuals want to migrate in search of better living, such as poverty, oppression, lack of social and economic opportunities, lack of human right and other similar conditions (UNODC 2008: 454).

2.3.1 doctor, and the adoption of this is


1 Informed ConsentM.J Myers identifies that informed consent is used by a medical practitioner to treat a patient under risky circumstances. Moreover, he specifies that the doctor must disclose the actual and real risk of the operation, or any other treatment or otherwise the consent given without knowing real risk is not fair at all. This kind of a scenario seems not to be the real product of the informed consent. According to him, the disclosure of real facts is a custom of the society. The majority of the society accept that the doctor should be imposed liability for violating that custom.

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Disclosing the real facts of the risk is related to the standard of care of the doctor, and the adoption of this is linked to the self-determination right of the patient. In the Martin v. Lowney case it was held that the doctor has got a duty to disclose every fact and risks of the medical proceedings and the patient should have a chance to get an intelligence decision whether to proceed on or not. If the doctor is unable reveal, all the facts the doctor can be held liable for breach of that duty. According to the Aceto v.

Dougherty case if the physician hides the real situation and the risk of the treatment to the patient and the doctor is liable for any injury whether he acts negligent or not. Alan H Crede introduces “Average qualified Surgeon” should have the ability to assume the risk and reveal the real risk of the treatment and the patient can take the decision on the basis of his recommendation. Nijahwan points out that informed consent has been inherited from history and legislated in some statutes. He states that in Nuremberg Code 1947, Declaration of Helsinki 1964, The Belmont Report 1979, CIOMS Guidelines 1982, The Guidelines for GCP originated in International Conference on Harmonisation 1996 the concept of informed consent had been established. Moreover, Nijahwan identifies that, the informed consent faces some challenges and issues like language barriers, religious influence, false expectations, patients’ perceptions and some other considerable issues.

In the decision of Darviris v. Petros it was discussed that, if the doctor does not estimate the actual financial cost of the treatment or therapy it is also reached amount to a medical malpractice. In the Chatterton v. Gerson decision it was identified that the consent given by a patient may not be the real consent as the detailed procedures are not been revealed and the broad terms are not understood by the patient.Dr. Perera says even though the comprehensive consent form is the best option to take the real consent illiteracy, the doctor patient relationship and attitudes which are paternalistically measured, and the faith towards the doctor is not given the real consent in Sri Lankan context. Conversely, in the Castell v.

De Greef case the informed consent has been held as a standard and valid defence against the medical malpractice occurred in South Africa. Dr. Perera emphasizes that the assumption of risk by the patient or the “volenti non fit injuria” also goes hand in hand with informed consent and in those circumstances the doctor can be excluded himself from the liability. The Nigerian case Okonkwo v. Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal the doctor was not liable for breach of the duty of disclosure the risk where an aneamic patient who had been a Jehovah’s witness refused for a blood transfusion was considered to be voluntarily assumed the risk. She furthermore takes the attention of the reader that the courts have followed the reasonable doctor’s test and a new approach called “prudent patient’s test” which stands on what a reasonable patient need to know in his position. 2.

4 Litigation Against Medical practitioners in Sri Lanka Dr. Fernando reports that until 2002 there had been only about 10 cases about medical negligence claims in Sri Lanka. Priyani Soyza case is the landmark in that history. Dr. Perera is in the view that, the Traditional Sri Lankan does not try to file an action against a doctor as it depends on many more factors as cost, respect, unawareness etc. Dr. Ruwanpura categorizes the patients who have been undergone a medical negligence into three.

They are Compensative mode , Punitive and Deterrent Mode and Corrective Deterrent Mode . According to Dr. Ruwanpura Sri Lankan patients have four options after facing a medical negligence.

• Complain to the Health Authorities.• Lodge a complaint in a police station.• Forward an affidavit to the SLMC or Human Rights Commission.• File a Civil Action in a District Court. According to him, the present litigation system is basically build upon the tort liability system, similarly as in the USA. He furthermore states that earlier patients had tried to file criminal cases under Criminal Procedure Code and Police Act and failed resulting another civil case. The undue arrest of doctors on medical malpractice is known to have ruled to limit by the Indian Supreme Court. 2.

5 Compensation Mechanisms 2.5.1 Judicial Compensation The judicial compensation is awarded under the tort based liability and it seems to have a lot of inconsistencies.

It is basically upon the balance of probabilities. The IMO Committee in the USA has concluded its report with the intention of “replacing tort liability with a system of patient-centered and safety focused non-judicial compensation” as per the recognized inconsistencies. Considering the UK context, the tort based liability system is known to enrich the legal practitioners and impoverish the medical practitioners while the victims are getting a very little portion of the compensation. This is due to the high attorney fees and the duration of the case. Dr. Ruwanpura suggests the Consumer Protection Legislation and the “No-fault Liability System” to avoid the inconsistencies in tort based litigation. 2.

5.2 Consumer Protection Legislation Singh assures that the Consumer Protection Legislation is used to compensate in medical negligence in India and in the Middle East. According to him it is very difficult to implement in India as the government medical service is fully served freely. At the same time, it does not cover the unavoidable medical mishaps.Anita and Madhuri has conducted their study to link the medical negligence and the consumer protection under Consumer Protection Act 1986. According to their view, the definition given for the consumer and the service is wider enough to cover the patient as a consumer and the medical service given as a service given under the act.

Nevertheless, this concept is unable to be used where the medical service given free of charge. This view was uprooted in the judgement of Indian Medical Association v. VP Shantha and Others case. 2.5.3 No-fault Liability System Bismark identifies that in the tort based liability both patients and doctors are victims. This system has been successfully implemented in Canada and New Zealand whom considered to be the top ranked nations in humanitarian development for nearly 25 years.

This system is very efficient taking only 6-9 months to complete the process of compensation. This takes only 10 percent of a cost while the tort based liability takes 50-60 percent amount for cost of action. In New Zealand the Accident Compensation Cooperation (ACC) handles the system. Moreover, Bismark summarizes how the system works. The system is funded by taxation and the employer levy.

The patient must inform the negligence or the mishap to the ACC and the doctor in written form. The doctor must write a detailed submission to the ACC about the incident and ACC takes the necessary steps to compensate the patient adequately and introduce the necessary systematic and procedural developments to the healthcare system. No judicial intervention is made. Dr. Ruwanpura is in the opinion that the system would help to console the patient while developing the healthcare system.

He furthermore, reveals the Agrahara Medical Insurance could be restructured to reach that level.

2.7 (2011) stresses the distinction between the

2.7 Issues of auditors independenceRichard (2014) splits the term independence into two main types of independence: the visible independence and the actual independence. The visible independence means the auditor must be independent in the eyes of others and the actual independence is explained as the auditor considers himself or herself as independent. The problems that arise from conceptual categorization is, even though the auditor considers himself or herself independent, i.e.

the auditor is in fact independent, an auditor still has to prove to the public that he or she is independent to become visibly independent. Richard (2014) Regarding the relation auditors have with their clients Vanasco (2011) stresses the distinction between the relation to the audited company and the relation to the audited company’s stakeholders. The relation the auditor has with stakeholders is to be regarded as virtually non-existent. In contrast, an auditor with a commitment of an audit engagement already has created a relationship with the company in question.

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The reason the auditor’s relationship with stakeholders can be seen as non-existent is because they rarely or never have contact with stakeholders such as suppliers, customers, creditors, etc. Vanasco (2011) A study by Richards (2011) investigated both the management and owners’ attitude to the company’s auditor. By interviewing both party’s comparisons are made between their views. Interestingly, neither the owners nor the management perceived a problem in a very close relation with the auditor and that this would affect the auditor’s independence was not even mentioned in the first place. Company management believes a close relation with the auditor is important and the auditor should make time for the company and satisfy their needs. The owners emphasize a good relation with the auditor is important and an auditor who works mechanically is not desirable.

Instead, they stress the importance of a good and open relation going forward and good communication is seen as a key to an effective cooperation. The auditor’s relation to the company should be divided into a professional and a private role. If both parties are professional their relation should also be professional. Richard (2011) points out that professional cooperation between the parties does not stop a private relation from arising. Since the parties have close cooperation, which often lasts for several years, there is a risk that a relation of a more private character will arise. When the auditor has largely been responsible for building trust, a private relationship is however seen as a threat to independence. Richard (2011)


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