Based on your answer to

3. Based on your answer to question 2, how would the marketing actions differ for each product and the classification to which you assigned it?a. Nature Valley Granola bars: Since this thing is probably going to be accessible to purchasers wherever nourishment and nibble items are sold.

Dissemination of this item would incorporate basic supply, accommodation, and mass stock stores and presumably candy machines, since openness is imperative in the buy of any comfort thing.b. Eddie Bauer hiking boots: Shoppers who need this item will look for climbing boots, contrasting the points of interest and weaknesses of a few brands. Since Eddie Bauer will be looked at against different brands, it is vital to bring up the distinctions that make the Eddie Bauer climbing boot a decent incentive for the shopper.

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4. In terms of the behavioral effect on consumers, how would a computer, such as an Apple iMac, be classified? In light of this classification, what actions would you suggest to the manufacturers of these products to increase their sales in the market?

3.4.2 Organisations cannot afford to hold on to

3.4.2 Areas of transformation in an organisationIf organisational transformation occurs in one area in an organisation it is most likely that other areas will follow shortly (Lewis, 2014). Those areas in which organisational transformation in an organisation can take place fall under the following areas or a combination of areas (Lewis, 2014). The first one is in the mission, vision, and strategy (Lewis, 2014). Organisations should continually ask themselves: What is our current business mandate and what should it be? Answers to these questions can lead to a transformation in the organisation’s mission (the purpose of the business), its vision for the future (what the organisation should look like), and its competitive strategy. Soane, Butler and Stanton (2015) argue that organisations need to transform because performance is the indispensable goal of organisations to ensure that they stay in the market and are profitable. Organisations cannot afford to hold on to old visions, missions and strategies, because the environment in which they operate is too dynamic.

Human-behavioural changes can be addressed by training, which can be provided to managers and employees to give new knowledge and skills, or people can be replaced or numbers downsized. If technology changes the employees should be trained to be able to use it (Soane, Butler ; Stanton, 2015). As a result of financial crises, many organisations downsides creating massive unemployment that continues till this day (Soane, Butler ; Stanton, 2015). Another area where transformation in an organisation may occurs is the task-job design (Soane, Butler ; Stanton, 2015). Task-job design refers to the way work is performed in the organisation and how it can be changed with new procedures and methods for better work performance (Soane, Butler ; Stanton, 2015). Organisational structure can be changed in order to be more responsive to the external environment (Lewis, 2014). The structures of organisations in general become less hierarchical in response to various factors, such as to be more responsive to the change in demand.

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These flatter organisational structures also include where and on which levels decisions should be made. Organisations can attempt to change their culture, including management and leadership styles, values and beliefs. Organisational transformation of the kind mentioned above is by far the most difficult area to transform in an organisation. It is worth noting that organisational transformation goes hand in hand with the transformation of organisational culture (Lewis, 2014). Transformation like any strategy has advantages and disadvantages. The success of the transformation will be determined by how competently management and leaders capitalise on the strengths of organisational transformation and how successfully they eliminate the disadvantages of organisational transformation.3.4.

3 Advantages of an organisational transformationBourilly (2016) identifies reasons in support an organisational transformation process. Bourilly (2016) argues that skills can be strengthen, while the increasing of alertness of the organisation become less lean. Bourilly (2016) reveals that there are more benefits to organisational transformation. This section examines the other less known benefits of an organisational transformation process for organisations and stakeholders.

The first advantage according to Bourilly (2016) is that the strategy of the organisation must be amended. It is a well-known fact that articulating the strategy comes before embarking on an organisational transformation (Bourilly, 2016). However, most leaders do not anticipate how to redesign the organisation and this forces the strategy to be made more clear and real. The effort also motivates the organisation to make a principled trade-off in favour of capability development over leanness.

There comes a time in every organisation when leaders should ask themselves what aspects of the current model must be conserved (Bourilly, 2016). The list may include critical processes, corporate values, core capabilities and identification of strategic individuals. The adjustment of the status quo has a unique way of shining a light on the most important team members. The effort also provides an important test to further distinguish tomorrow’s leaders. Who holds the organisational transformation and changes into the future? And who sticks to the past and crawls half-heartedly forward? Succession planning just got easier.

This is a very important advantage, because businesses in the past went down since an effective succession plan is not in place. This can be to the detriment of all stakeholders and the business at large (Bourilly, 2016).Organisational transformation may infuse new energy into the organisation (Bourilly, 2016). Transformation should be beneficial to the overall processes within an organisation. However, it should not be avoided to uphold a stagnant status quo.

Organisations are not meant to be rigid and static, because the environment in which they operate is very dynamic. Organisations work best when they are responsive and evolve naturally with the environment. Even this natural evolution creates the need for sporadic organisational transformation process (Bourilly, 2016). An organisational transformation may reconnect the teams and reaffirm the values of the organisation. Bourilly (2016) states that organisational transformation needs to be done in a way that advances business objectives and strengthens corporate values. Everyone who is a part of the process will be given the opportunity to revisit those carefully chosen words in the organisational doctrine. This will enable all stakeholders to take ownership of the organisational transformational process.

What is the real and meaningful guided decisions taken and actions made by many people on a daily basis? The renewal of corporate values can have an external impact. Organisational transformation normally attracts the attention of the media. In doing so, leaders can even further unite their teams around a common goal and vision, while simultaneously sending a clear message to the market around agility and value creation for the various stakeholders to the benefit of all stakeholders (Bourilly, 2016). The next section addresses the disadvantages of an organisational transformation process.

3.3 OF STOCK SOLUTION: Stock solution were prepared

3.3 METHODOLOGY:Bacterial and fungal cultures were tested for their identification, Bacterial cultures were identified by gram staining and biochemical characteristics where as fungal cultures identified on the basis of their growth characteristics on the Sabauraud dextrose agar(SDA).

3.4 Maintenance of culture:The provided bacterial and fungal cultures were maintained on the standard microbiological media. For fungal culture SDA and for bacterial culture media used.3.

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5 PREPARATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL DISCS:Discs were prepared by using Whitman filterpaper and 6mm discs were obtained by making hole in the filter paper,The discs were autoclaved at 121 0C and 15lb for 15Minutes,3.6 PREPARATION OF STOCK SOLUTION:Stock solution were prepared by dissolving 10mg of synthetic compounds in 1ml of sterile DMSO, 3.7 PREPARATION OF BACTERIAL INOCULUM:Brainheart infusion broth was prepared for bacterial culture according to the manufacturer, s instruction. 5ml media was dispensed in the test tube and sterilized by autoclaving at 1210C. For 15 minutes, Bacterial cultures were inoculated in the labelled test tubes and incubated at 370C for 2hrs before the experimental work started.3,8 PREPARATION OF FUNGAL INOCOLUM:Sabourauds dextrose broth prepared or fungal cultures and dispensed in test tubes and autoclaved at 1210C, fungal cultures was inoculated 2 hr before the experimental work started and inoculated at 370C.

3.9 DETERMINATION OF INVITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY:All test samples were screened on Mular hinton agar (MHA), for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method, (Bauer et al., 966). All synthetic Compounds were properly labelled, 10mg of each synthetic compounds were dissolved in 1ml DMSO.

Filter paper discs (Whatman, no. 3) were impregnated with 20 µL of each of the different dilutions.All test cultures were grown in MHA broth for 24 h at 37ºC,then, bacterial suspension (inoculums) was diluted with sterile physiological solution and matched with 0.5MacFarland barium sulfate standard to a density of approximately 109 CFU/ mL.MHA agar medium plate was uniformly inoculated with a test organism by using a sterile cotton swab rolled in the culture suspension to form lawn on the surface of plate.Antimicrobial impregnated discs were paced on the MHA medium surface. DMSO and Ampicillin (30mg) were used as a negative and positive control.All test were repeated as duplicate and triplicate.

All culture plates were kept in the incubator and set at 370C for 24 hrs. After incubation zone of inhibitions were measured in mm.3.10 DETERMINATION OF INVITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY:Antifungal activity determination method was also determined by the same disc diffusion method.

(Bauer et al., 1966). As described above fungal culture were properly mixed to make homogenized solution. Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) medium plates were uniformly inoculated with test fungus strains by using a sterile cotton swab to form lawn on the surface of plate.

Discs loaded with compounds were placed on the surface of SDA plates. Fungal culture paltes with the antimicrobial impregnated discs were incubated for one week at room temperature. After one week of incubation plates were unrapped and observed the zone of incubation. The zones were measured in the mm. Standard DMSO and antifungal discs Flucoanazole were used as a negative and positive control. 3.11 SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS STUDY OF PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST ANTIBIOTICS:For synergistic effect study we used plant fractions and standard antibiotics disc Ofloxacin and Amicllin. 50mg plant fractions were dissolved in 1ml of DMSO.

MHA was used for culture media. Discs loaded with plant fraction solution and antibiotics were placed on the MHA while wells were made for both antibiotic disc and plant extract solution. In well 20ug stock solution were applied. Plates were incubated at 370C for 24hr, Results were noted by measuring the zone of inhibition in mm.3.12 DETERMINATION OF MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration):The MIC of the test compounds according to their zone of inhibition was determined. The ZOI at least 15 and greater was considered for MIC determination.

MIC was determined by Disc diffusion technique of Bauer et al., (1966). At least two fold dilutions of the test compounds were prepared assuming the first dilutions were 200µg/ml. A two row of test tubes was arranged, one was 100, 50, 25 and the other was for 25, 12.5, and 6.5. 10µg of each dilution was transferred to a sterile disc and safely place on the MHA medium inoculated with different test bacteria.

The result was taken by observing the zone of inhibition.The MIC was considering at least 8mm zone.

3. pan R4 and R1 are compacted and


The Working principle of Electronic Weight Scale Electronic weight scale are equipped with electronic measuring modules. The electronic weighing scales operate based on the following principle: the force exerted by the load situated on the balance pan is transmitted to the load cell (one or more) which in turn emits an electric signal whose intensity is proportional with the force. The electrical signal is picked up by the electronic balance block, processed, amplified and transmitted to a digital display system (digital mass indicator), the result representing the weight of the mass located on the load pan.

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A very common solution is to use strain gauges (strain-sensitive transducers). These commercial weighing devices with low resolution were generally used. The strain gauges are wired as a Wheatstone-bridge to balance for temperature changes .

When the pan is not loaded by any object all four resistors are the same and the input of the amplifier is zero. When an object is placed on the pan R4 and R1 are compacted and their resistance decreasing, R2 and R3 are strained and their resistance is increasing. This because a voltage difference at the input of the amplifier, proportional to the weight of the object. The strain gauges are wired as a Wheatstone-bridge to compensate for temperature changes .1 : Spring body 2 : Weighing pan3 : Mounting plate (housing) 4 : Placing and wiring of the strain gauges (R3 and R4 can also be placed on the under side of the beam)The advantages of electronic/digital weight scale are the plain fact that digital scales are considerably effortless to read. Besides, electronic weight scale will give more precision of reading value.

Here are some disadvantages to electronic/digital scales, most likely the very regular one being incorrect readings. Several people have criticising that when they stand on the scale at one spot and obtain a reading and when they get back after few seconds they get a different reading altogether. Commonly , digital scales are good but it wil be worn after a regular used. This instrument need to calibrate after years to get better accuracy.

.1 goods because every firm tries to initiate


1 Explain how market structure determine the pricing and output decisionsThe characteristics of a market, such as the quantity and comparative force of consumers and sellers and level of collusion among them, rank and forms of competition, extent of product differentiation, and ease of entry into and exit from the market is referred to as the Market Structure. structure plays an vital part to conclude cost and production. Perfect Competition, Monopoly and are some of the different market structures.Perfect CompetitionA market structure that consists of diverse sellers of the same product then the firm’s price determination and the output decision relies upon the claim for their products.

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In a competitive market consumers actually determine the cost and firm take the output decisions as compared to the demand for the manufactured goods because every firm tries to initiate lower prices to their buyers to raise their market share.MonopolyIt is the market structure where it has monopoly and is the only supplier and hence, cost determination and output decision lies by the firm since in a monopolistic market the firm is the price maker and they can charge whatever value they wish for and client is bound to pay that amount since he/she would not have the option to make the purchase elsewhere or at a lower price, The firm will produce with its full capacity because the they will be bound to fulfill the demand as a whole for their products, normally multinational firms operate in such market structures. (an example of monopoly in Pakistan in WAPDA)OligopolyA market structure where there are numerous sellers of the same products and so the vendors have a little control over the pricing since large sellers usually set an ongoing rate for their products i-e they all set the same cost for their products with the consumers having a choice who to buy from.

Vendors selling their products at the same decided price however, have difference in the way they advertise their products and attract customers to purchase them. In oligopolistic market the firms take decision of output in the light of the demand from their customers towards their products.


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