3.3 of the phrase, what the phrase

3.3 Linguistic analysis Tools
3.3.1 Syntactic Features
Syntax is basically the structure of sentences. It is the grammar, structure, or order of the elements in a language statement. It is the is the set of rules that language uses to combine words and morphemes to create sentences. Sentences have to follow certain structural rules in order to make sense.
Sentences are made up of smaller phrases. There are several difference types of phrase that can be used in a sentence, but the two phrases which must be used in a sentence for it to make sense are a noun phrase and a verb phrase. A phrase is a group of words that does not a subject doing a verb. In a phrase, we must have a word which is called the head. This is the core of the phrase, what the phrase can’t exist without. So in a phrase like ‘the man’ or ‘ran far away’, in the first phrase ‘man’ is the head because it is the main part of the phrase, and in the second phrase ‘ran’ is the head because it is essential for the phrase to exist.
A noun phrase is usually the person or thing that is performing the verb in the sentence. The person doing the verb in a sentence is known as the subject. A noun phrase has to be made up of a noun, such as a name or a tangible object. Sometimes, a determiner is needed in a noun phrase. A noun phrase consists of a noun and all its modifiers – i.e. determinants, adjectives, and any clauses or prepositional phrases that modify the noun. A verb phrase consists of a verb and all its modifiers – i.e. adverbs, auxiliary verbs, prepositional phrases, and adverbial clauses.
As for clauses, they are sets of words that include at least a verb and probably a subject noun. In some cases and languages, the subject may be implied. A sentence is actually a clause. But a sentence can have more than one clause: There may be a main clause (or independent clause) and one or more subordinate clauses. This kind of sentence is called a complex sentence. A sentence may be one of four kinds, depending upon the number and type(s) of clauses it contains. An independent clause contains a subject, a verb, and a complete thought. A dependent clause contains a subject and a verb, but no complete thought.
A simple sentence has one independent clause. A compound sentence has two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction. A complex sentence has one dependent clause (headed by a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun) joined to an independent clause. Finally, a compound – complex sentence has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses.
Sentences have functions in language. Most sentences are simple statements about the world or one’s thoughts or feelings. These are called declarative sentences or just declarations. Questions are of three kinds: The first is the yes/no question, There are also choice questions, which require a simple answer selected from the options given in the question and the final kind is the wh- question, which involves the use of interrogative words. Another function of sentence is the command. The usual kind involves the speaker telling someone else to do something. The last function of sentence is the exclamation. This kind of sentence expresses an emotional reaction to the situation.
To describe the syntactic features of a headline, the researcher investigates three categories: the structure, the function and the complexity in the headlines of the top news websites.
As far as the structure of the headlines is concerned, following Mardh’s (1980) model, the corpus is divided into verbal and nominal headlines. Verbal headlines are dominated by a verb phrase or part of it. They may have finite verb phrases (showing tense), non-finite verb phrases (gerunds, infinitives, and participles), headlines with omitted auxiliaries and subject complement headlines. Nominal headlines are headed by a noun. The syntactic variation in nominal headlines is analyzed in terms of modification: unmodification, premodification, postmodification, and pre and postmodification.
According to the second category (i.e. the function), following Mardh’s description (1980), the corpus is divided into four types: statement, question, command and exclamation. As to the third category (i.e., the complexity), the headlines are classified into three groups according to the number of (in) dependent clauses: simple, compound, and complex. A complex headline, for instance, would have an independent clause with at least a dependent clause.
3.3.2. Lexical Features
The adjective refers to things concerning words or the vocabulary of language as distinguished from its grammar and construction.
To describe the lexical features of the headline, the researcher investigates words of different categories as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, articles and conjunctions.
Under the category of nouns, proper and common nouns are explored. As for verbs, tense (past, present, and future), voice (active and passive) and type (stative and dynamic) are examined. Verbs in English can be classified into two categories: stative verbs and dynamic verbs. stative verbs usually refer to a state or condition which is not changing or likely to change. Richards and Schmid (2002, 511) describe stative verbs as the ones which would express emotions, knowledge and beliefs and show relationships. Dynamic verbs (sometimes referred to as “action verbs”) usually describe actions we can take, or things that happen. Dynamic verbs, according to Richards and Schmid (2002, 511), are the ones which would express activity and process.
Articles are used to modify nouns. Technically, an article is an adjective, which is any word that modifies a noun. Usually adjectives modify nouns through description, but articles are used instead to point out or refer to nouns. There are two different types of articles that we use in writing and conversation to point out or refer to a noun or group of nouns: definite and indefinite articles. Definite article, the, is used when the reader is thought to know what is talked about. It refers directly to a specific noun or groups of nouns. Using the definite article means that the writer assumes that the reader knows the identity of the noun’s referent (because it is obvious, because it is common knowledge, or because it was mentioned in the same sentence or an earlier sentence. Indefinite articles are the words a and an. Each of these articles is used to refer to a noun, but the noun being referred to is not a specific person, place, object or idea. It can be any noun from a group of nouns. Use of an indefinite article implies that the writer assumes that the reader does not have to be told the identity of the referent.
Adjectives modify nouns. Adverbs are a very broad collection of words that may describe how, where, or when an action took place. A conjunction joins parts of the sentence and a preposition is a word that links a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to some other part of the sentence.
4. Methodology
To analyze the headlines of top news websites concerning the coverage of the New Suez Canal, such headlines are collected from the internet for a two-day period from 6 to 7 August, 2015. The corpora include a large number of headlines from diverse news websites.
This research uses content analysis to explore the syntactic and the lexical features of the headlines in the corpus from the top news websites. This paper incorporates critical discourse analysis as a method which builds on the social constructionist idea that society is created by language; social actors create a “common sense” reality through language usage and social interactions (Van Gorp, 2007:62). This implies that reality is constantly subject to change through different uses of language. In terms of journalistic texts, this means that newspapers, through their language use and structures, present a limited option of interpretations of the issue at hand to be made by the audience.
Fowler (1991) presents a number of tools that can be used to open up a text and reveal its underlying structures and values – these are tools such as transitivity, transformation, modality, and lexical analysis. Lexical analysis will be utilized in this paper along with a structural analysis.

3. the elderly very severely. The prolonged

3. Psychological Factor: The psychological problems are generally connected with retirement. A sudden change from a respectable powerful official life to a retired life free of daily tension makes the people mentally weak. Frustration, neuroticism, psychosis, schizophrenia, hallucinations, etc psychological problems are developed in the elderly.

4. Neglect by family members: The family of a person matters in old age. If the family is ready to look after them willingly then the old age becomes easy. But if the family members think that the elderly are a beast of burden then it affects the elderly very severely. The prolonged illness will make the family members think of the elderly as a burden especially when the elderly is bedridden.

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5. Generation Gap: The elderly find it difficult to accept the values and standards of new generation. For example, the son, daughter-in –law and grand children like pizzas, burgers and pastas, they listen to pop music instead of classical Indian music, and they wear capris and jeans which is totally condemned by the elderly. The elderly may express their disgust either verbally or being completely silent over the issues. They may even interfere in the activities of their grand children which are often not liked by the grandchild.

6. Financial Factor: Money is the root cause of the problems of the elderly. Retirement brings with it financial burden. Health problems make it more badly as a considerable amount of money is spent on the medicines and treatment. This affects the relationship with the family members.

3. general relations between the psychological domain and

3. Psychophysiology is a field that has been recently gaining interest as more research is being done and technology continues to advance to assist in analyzing responses. It is a field that seeks to relate anatomy and psychology, linking social, behavioral, and psychological phenomena with physiological responses to physical and social environments and events. By being aware of both the physiological responses to an athlete’s training and stress and the subsequent psychological response, those working with the athletes can become more aware of what responses occur in specific situations in order to try and create the best working environment for success. The goal of psychophysiology is to enhance and better quantify psychological theory and concepts using biological data and to see the general relations between the psychological domain and the physiological domain in order to try and find where elements of each can be related on a 1-to-1 basis, though most elements are inter-related between the two.
When looking at an athlete’s training program, there are traditionally three phases of training identified by the training volume, load, tasks, and maintenance involved in each. These phases of training include the preparation, competition, and transition phase, all of which involve aspects of physical, technical, tactical, and psychological training to create the optimum environment for athlete success and performance. The goal of psychological training is to teach coping mechanisms for training and competitive stress and can include techniques such as goal setting, self-talk, thought management, and biofeedback training. In sport and exercise training, examples of psychophysiology research and training include techniques of biofeedback, measuring electrophysiological responses to stress, using electroencephalography (EEG) as an index of cognitive processing, a rating of perceived exertion, and the relationship between physical activity and cognitive function, among others.
Biofeedback training is among the most common methods of psychophysiological methods. Advances in technology have allowed biofeedback analysis and training to move from a laboratory setting into the field for analysis and response. Training with this technique teaches athletes to gain control and self-regulate themselves based on feedback from the mind and body working together, making athletes more aware of the responses their body makes to certain stressors and how to monitor and adjust for them. Most research of biofeedback uses it as a component of psychological skill training, such as one program developed for the Canadian National Short Track Speed Skating team that used this training to produce optimum training plans for each athlete in order to prepare them for their best performance under pressure (Beauchamp et al., 2012), and has been seen to be effective in multiple other sports as well. Incorporating biofeedback training into a traditional training regiment can have psychological benefits on an athlete’s performance and give the athlete objective feedback on their mental achievements alongside the objective feedback they normally receive on physical achievements during practice.

Another psychophysiological analysis method that has been studied and implemented is the use of EEG to look at cognitive processing in response to exercise. A study by Hall, Ekkekakis, and Petruzzello (2007) was based on the realization that there was variability in the effective responses to similar situations when presented to different individuals. They suggest and tested that this variability could be a result of asymmetry of regional brain activity and frontal EEG asymmetry could be a predictive factor of the differing responses to exercise. Though this study contradicted their original idea of what brain activity was occurring during exercise stress, it was able to show the recovery effect on the brain and its link to the physical response after strenuous exercise. By using EEG in the analysis of cognitive processing during sport training, researchers can help athletes learn more about what is occurring in their brain to elicit certain stress responses and allow for better adaption to what would be most beneficial to training.
Though many of the factors of psychophysiology are a little more difficult to test and incorporate into traditional sport and exercise settings without proper tools and technology, some techniques can be used. In working with the general population, particularly those who live somewhat sedentary lifestyles, some techniques of exercise psychophysiology can be employed. The use of a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale is commonly used in unfit clinical populations. By allowing individuals to rate how hard they feel they are working at activities compared to what activity they are performing and how much energy that activity traditionally takes, it becomes possible to link the mental side of exercise with the physical side and set individuals up to increase their exercise ability but still work within their comfort and ability levels. Equating fitness to stress can help particularly in a sedentary office setting as it is seen that decreasing sedentary time and adding in physical activity can be beneficial in reducing stress levels and implementing this method of psychophysiological analysis can allow people to become more aware of these effects. Not only would these methods be beneficial in working with a population of sedentary individuals, particularly those in sedentary occupations, but they are also good reminders to me to become aware of my stress levels and get up and move but still work within my means and comfort levels while exercising to avoid negative stress on my body. Knowing when to push through and when to pull back is an important part of physical activity that requires knowing when physical and mental aspects link and when one overrides another.

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3.1. was associated with Enterobacter species and used

3.1. Screening and identification of bacterial producing lipase

Lipase producing bacteria were screened in enrichment culture medium supplemented with olive oil as a sole source of carbon. Furthermore, methanol (30%, v/v) was also used to acquire the methanol tolerant lipase. The clear area around the colonies on the tributyrin agar plate was evaluated as lipase production. The greatest lipolytic strains were also examined on the olive oil plate complemented with phenol red, as a pH indicator. Results showed this isolate was a strain which displayed the maximum pink area around the colony. The 16S rDNA gene of MG isolate was amplified and sequenced (Genbank Accession No. MF927590.1) and compared by BLAST investigation to other bacteria in the NCBI database. The results proposed a near relationship between MG10 isolate and the other members of the Enterobacter genus with a extreme sequence homology (99%) to Enterobacter cloacae. The phylogenetic tree (Fig. 1) designated that the strain MG10 was associated with Enterobacter species and used for the following study.

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3.2. Purification and immobilization of the lipase
Cell free supernatant of MG10 stain was exposed to ammonium sulfate precipitation (85% saturation) and Q-sepharose chromatography. Lipase MG10 was eluted from the Q-Sepharose column with a 19.5-fold purification and a 38.1 % yield, and it displayed a specific activity of 442.6 U/mg. This yield of MG10 lipase was analogous to the lipase of S. maltophilia (33.9%) (Li et al., 2013) and lower than lipase from P. aeruginosa PseA (51.6%) (Gaur et al., 2008), but greater than lipase of B. licheniformis (8.4 %) (Sharma and Kanwar, 2017). SDS–PAGE analysis of the MG10 lipase shown that it has a single band about 33 kDa, which it is dissimilar with the other Enterobacter cloacae.
Results of protein measurement with Bradford technique displayed that protein loading on these coated magnetite nanomaterials was succeeded. Moreover, the results of determination of protein loading on these nanomaterials shown that, immobilization efficiency was achieved about 73%. mGO-CLEAs lipase was spread in phosphate buffer. After a magnet was positioned sidewise, mGO-CLEAs Lipase showed fast response (60 seconds) to the peripheral magnetic field. It incomes that the magnetic CLEAs-Lip particles were shown suitable magnetic concern even though layers of CLEAs-Lipase were covered on their surfaces, wherein it is significant in term of lipase immobilization.

3.3. Analytical characterization
Lipase MG10 was immobilized on the surface of magnetic functionalized graphene oxide, in which aldehyde groups of glutaraldehyde making linkage between amine of lipase and amino coated magnetite nanomaterials (Xie and Huang, 2018). Fig. 2a and b display SEM images of magnetic functionalized graphene oxide and mCLEAs-Lipase on magnetic graphene oxide, respectively. The SEM analysis of graphene oxide on Fig. 2a shown an irregular circular structure which was similar to the earlier reports (Wang et al. 2015; Dwivedee et al. 2017), given that a bulky specific surface zone of the nanomaterials. Results of SEM image in Fig. 2b shown that lipase immobilization seem to diminish the construction of stacked GO structures. These results designated that the glutaraldehyde linkage successfully have been occurred between the amine surface of magnetic functionalized graphene oxide and amino groups of lipase.
Elemental EDX investigation from particular part of SEM image of magnetic CLEAs-Lipase for elemental plotting obviously specifies the existence of associated atoms of support containing C, N, O, Si, P, S and Fe which displays the effective functionalization of APTES, particularly by noticing Si atom (Heidarizadeh et al., 2017). Furthermore, the remarkable attendance of phosphorous atom can intensely endorse the effective lipase immobilization (Fig. 3).
Presence of functional groups on graphene and lipase immobilization onto these nanoparticles were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. FTIR spectra of graphene oxide (A), magnetic functionalized graphene oxide (B) and magnetic functionalized graphene oxide-CLEA lipase (C) have been shown in Fig. 4. The peak around 532-614 cm?1 could be evaluated to the stretching vibration of Fe–O in Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fig. 5B, C), representing the presence of Fe3O4 in the graphene oxide which focused that the preparation of Fe3O4-graphene oxide nanoparticles was effective (Thangaraj et al., 2016; Xie and Huang, 2018).
Moreover, peaks at 1635 and 1636 cm?1 resemble C=O vibrations of the present carboxyl and carbonyl functional groups on the mGO and presence of amide link between glutaraldehyde with Fe3O4 nanoparticles and CLEAs (Cui et al., 2015; Xie and Huang, 2018). Additionally, a characteristic adsorption band achieved at 3447 cm?1 equivalent to the adsorbed H2O and OH group on the surface of mGO (Paludo N, 2015), which shown excessive absorbance in all of these nanoparticles and the magnetic functionalized graphene oxide-CLEA (Mehrasbi et al., 2017). FTIR spectrum of magnetic functionalized graphene oxide shows the presence of a peak in 2922 cm?1 spreads to aliphatic chain of coated APTES (Heidarizadeh, et al., 2017).
After lipase immobilization on the mGO (Fig. 5c), the 614 cm?1 band owing to the stretching vibration of Fe–O in Fe3O4 nanoparticle was practically vanished, which signifying the covering of Fe3O4 by lipase. Moreover, FTIR spectrum of magnetic functionalized graphene oxide-CLEA lipase also shown two absorption peaks at 2840 and 2922 cm?1 mentioning C-H stretching in -CH3 and -CH2-, which demonstrate the immobilization of enzyme on the support. In addition, the appearance two new FTIR absorption bands at 1404 and 1514 cm?1 owing to the lipase immobilization were discovered, which specified that the enzyme was covalently bounded to the mGO nanocomposites via amide links.

3.4. Characterization of free and mGO-CLEAs lipase
3.4.1. Effect of different temperatures and pHs on the lipase activity
As shown in Fig. 5A, the maximum activity of both forms of enzyme was obtained at pH 8.0 and 9.0, respectively. Moreover, relative lipase activity of mGO-CLEAs-lipase was faintly lower than free enzyme in acidic pH, but marginally greater than in basic pH. Hence, the immobilization process seems to grow the lipase stability in strict basic environments. Lipase activity in diverse temperatures were shown in Fig. 5B. The immobilized lipase showed a broad range of maximum temperature activity about 40-60 °C, compare to free enzyme. These results indicating the development of covalent links between protein and support, which may diminish conformational flexibility and result in preserve lid opening (Perez et al., 2011; Lu et al., 2009).

3.4.2. Thermal stability of free and mGO-CLEAs lipase
Immobilization system is one of the most promising strategies to improve catalytic activity for the applied application. To explore the thermal stability, free and mGO-CLEAs lipases were preserved in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) for 3h at 60 °C. Next, the remaining lipase activities were dignified in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) with pNPP as substrate. The lipase activity of both forms of lipase was highest up to 45 min of incubation at 60 °C. The lasting activity of the free lipase is 50 % while the mGO-CLEAs lipase reserved 85 % of its initial activity after 3h of incubation at 60 °C (Fig. 6a). These results evidently designate that the immobilization of lipases into mGO can avoid their conformation transition at high temperature, and improving their thermal tolerance.
3.4.3. Determination of Km and Vmax
Kinetic factors of free and mGO-lipase were investigated by calculating initial reaction speed with different substrate concentrations. As shown in Fig. 6B and Table 1, Vmax values of mGO-CLEA-lipase was slightly upper than free enzyme about 0.1 µmol/min, which directed the rate of pNPP hydrolysis was not significantly changed after mGO-CLEAs-lipase preparation. The same results were also observed for magnetic CLEAs of the other enzyme. In the case of mGO-CLEAs-lipase, the detected lower Km value state a better lipase affinity for the pNPP substrate, about 2.25 folds. It approves that conformational changes by the reason of enzyme immobilization assistance the protein to appropriately turn its active site concerning the substrate (Aytar and Bakir, 2008; Sangeetha and Abraham, 2008; Talekar et al., 2012).

3.4.4. Reusability of mGO-CLEAs lipase
Reusability of mGO-CLEAs lipase is a dominant factor for its commercial application in biotransformation reaction. The reusability of mGO-CLEAs lipase was measured up to 8 cycles. Enzyme activity of mGO-CLEAs lipase was the highest up to 5 cycles, but it continuously decreased over 5 cycles (Fig. 7a). Protein leaking was also investigated throughout reusability tests of mGO-CLEAs lipase. Results exhibited no lipase activity was detected in reaction mixture up to 4 cycles of lipase reusability test. These results recommend that suitable cross-linking of enzyme and mGO nanomaterials produced stable MGO-CLEAs lipase (Talekar et al., 2012).
Storage tolerant of both free and mGO-CLEAs lipase were also examined by storing them at 4 °C and checking the lipase activity. Results displayed mGO-CLEAs-lipase reserved about 75 % of its original activity after 30 days of incubation, wherein free enzyme missed its preliminary activity at the similar time (Fig. 7b). These results verified that mGO-CLEAs lipase had chief protection on the storage stability of lipase. These results designated that an active mGO-CLEAs lipase prevents protein leaking from mGO-CLEAs nanomaterials (Yong et al., 2008).

3.5. Biodiesel production from non-edible
Nowadays, non-edible oil resources as a favorable source for biodiesel synthesis has been admired for researchers. Ricinus communis is a small and fast-growing tree which is a highly productive and precocious maker of toxic seeds. In addition, it is very adjustable to diverse situations and has been broadly dispersed. The highest biodiesel synthesis (26 %) from R. communis oil was gained at room temperature after 24 h of incubation by Entrobacter Lipase MG10 (10 mg) (Fig. 8). Mehrasbi and co-workers described using of free C. antarctica lipase B (100 mg) constructing 34% of biodiesel from waste cooking oil at 50 °C after 72 h of incubation (Mehrasbi et al., 2017). Some excellent properties of MG10 lipase such as methanol-tolerant, and short time reaction make it capable as a latent enzyme for biodiesel creation from non-edible oils.
Remarkably, mGO-CLEAs lipase formed the highest biodiesel construction (78 %) from R. communis oil after 24 h (Fig. 5). Besides, the immobilized MG10 lipase enriched biodiesel construction from R. communis oil about 3.1 folds at diverse time of incubation, compare to free lipase (Fig. 5). De los Ríos reported 42% of biodiesel fabrication by consuming immobilized lipase of C. antarctica (De los Ríos et al., 2011).
As mentioned formerly, construction of several links between lipase and support, could reserve protein in open conformation and improved the enzyme rigidity with affiliate making of a protected micro-environment. Furthermore, it made a further active lipase cross-linking in mCLEAs lipase which evades enzyme leaking from composite and shield it against methanol solvent and the other by products (Talekar et al., 2012; Aytar and Bakir, 2008; Sangeetha and Abraham, 2008).

4. Conclusion
Lipase MG10 is a high potent lipase (thermostable, inducible, high methanol-tolerant, and short time reaction rate) which was isolated from Gehver hot spring. The CLEA of lipase MG10 was immobilized on the mGO. The lipase immobilization considerably established the thermal tolerant and the lipase reusability. In addition, the obtained nanocomposite displayed a shift to acidic pH, which is outstanding possessions for biodiesel construction. Biodiesel fabrication was also attained by 75% recovery from R. communis oil as non-edible oil feedstock which would have prospective in green and clean construction methods.

3. pan R4 and R1 are compacted and

3. The Working principle of Electronic Weight Scale
Electronic weight scale are equipped with electronic measuring modules. The electronic weighing scales operate based on the following principle: the force exerted by the load situated on the balance pan is transmitted to the load cell (one or more) which in turn emits an electric signal whose intensity is proportional with the force. The electrical signal is picked up by the electronic balance block, processed, amplified and transmitted to a digital display system (digital mass indicator), the result representing the weight of the mass located on the load pan. A very common solution is to use strain gauges (strain-sensitive transducers). These commercial weighing devices with low resolution were generally used. The strain gauges are wired as a Wheatstone-bridge to balance for temperature changes .When the pan is not loaded by any object all four resistors are the same and the input of the amplifier is zero. When an object is placed on the pan R4 and R1 are compacted and their resistance decreasing, R2 and R3 are strained and their resistance is increasing. This because a voltage difference at the input of the amplifier, proportional to the weight of the object. The strain gauges are wired as a Wheatstone-bridge to compensate for temperature changes .

1 : Spring body
2 : Weighing pan
3 : Mounting plate (housing)
4 : Placing and wiring of the strain gauges (R3 and R4 can also be placed on the under side of the beam)

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The advantages of electronic/digital weight scale are the plain fact that digital scales are considerably effortless to read. Besides, electronic weight scale will give more precision of reading value. Here are some disadvantages to electronic/digital scales, most likely the very regular one being incorrect readings. Several people have criticising that when they stand on the scale at one spot and obtain a reading and when they get back after few seconds they get a different reading altogether. Commonly , digital scales are good but it wil be worn after a regular used. This instrument need to calibrate after years to get better accuracy.


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