) Historical Background
IIA) History of trains:-
In early life, people used animals as a way to travel between cities. Therefore, in the last two hundred years, the train was discovered when Engineer George Stephenson (1781-1848) who was specialized in both civil and mechanical engineering built the Stockton Darlington railway line. In addition, he was named at that time as “The Father of Railways”. The first type of train was the Steam Train which rolled over the railways of industrial England. After that, people who had never travel before they could now make trips by trains. The role of trains was not only transporting people but also transporting luggage and goods where time and effort were saved. This invention made a breakthrough in the field of transportation at that time. It’s worth mentioning that the shape and the design of trains vary according to the time period, it’s begun with a simple and primitive design and it was based on nature in its operation. From that time the train industry began to develop from its simple (steam engine) to the modern high-performance trains (bullet trains).
IIB) History of bullet trains:-
From Osaka, Japan engineer Hideo Shima (1901-1998) was the man behind the invention of Japan’s gleaming symbol the bullet trains which is known in Japan as “Shinkansen”. These railways were built in 1964. At first, the existence of these railways was only in Osaka and the reason for its creation was to increase Japan’s economy. After that, the railways expanded and become linked to a large number of Japan’s areas. These railways are operated by Japan’s government. The bullet trains can reach very high speeds up to 300km/h, It’s also can carry on average about 391,000 passengers per day which kept many cars off the highway and reduced the crowd.

III) Design:
IIIA) Exterior Design:
The exterior design of the bullet train is as follows:
1) Tracks:
According to Wikipedia site, bullet trains uses approximately 1,435mm (4ft 8.5 in) of standard gauge combined with 1,067 mm (3ft 6in) narrow gauge of older lines. To eliminate the gaps at turnouts and crossings welded rails and swingnose crossing points are employed. The cost-effective Slab Track engaged on concrete bed sections (i.e. viaducts and tunnels) combined with Ballasted is used, which reduces construction costs by 30%.

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2) The Train:
The long nose feature prevents the tunnel boom which is a concern for residents living close to tunnel portals. Fully covered with a soft enough bogie to reduce the sound of aerodynamics. It uses one pantograph system which helps to reduce more noise. With the Full Active Suspension (FSA) and the Body Tilting System at 320kmph vibrations and lateral movements are diminished. Deepening the connection between the wheels and rails, even at high speeds, the braking system cut down the stop distance marginally. The train has ten carts each cart is colored in a way that represents each class.
IIIB) Interior Design:
The Interior Design of Bullet Trains is as following
Creating a comfortable atmosphere features genuine leather seats, wool carpeting, dark wood and metallic elements used in the train. The wireless network is available on the train yet you need to buy a one day pass to use it. However, at 2020, all Shinkansen trains will deliver free Wi-Fi to everyone. The train has 736 seats, toilets which are separated by genders. As Japan guide says the toilets are western style, spacious for wheel-chair sets, and a wide corner of wash sinks and large mirrors.
IIIC) Facilities:
Small food carts with a selection of snacks, drinks and boxed meals pass along the aisle periodically. In some other Shinkansen trains vending machines with the pay phone are available. Although smoking is forbidden in bullet train s The 736 seats is divided according to reservations or no reservations ; as following
1) Gran Class:
18 seats of luxury, lavish decoration and latest technology, attendants guiding you to the seats, and calling attendant buttons so that they’ll come to you, and an endless option of food.
2) Green Class:
55 spacious, soft seats delivering enough comfort to relax and enjoy the ride, extra wide windows made to watch the beautiful nature. Only made for Businessmen
3) Ordinary Class
With five seats in a row, ordinary seats can take more people to transport. Although they are not spacious, the tickets are economic and the bonus of getting to work on time makes it ideal.

IV) Operation:
The operation of the bullet train is as follows:
Bullet train works by the maglev system which stands for magnetic levitation. Magnetic coils are placed along the track creating a guideway for the train. By applying the principle of electromagnetism on those coils the train will be levitated between (1 to 10 cm) above the track. The guideway walls will be supplied by an AC current to create a magnetic field that will move the train. This current will cause a change in the coils polarity to accelerate the train forward. As we mentioned before, the maglev system levitates the train making the friction equals to zero which gives us a better efficiency to reach 500 Km/h.

V) Advantages:
The bullet trains are transportation vehicles like any other vehicles, it has the advantages and disadvantages. First, it had an effective effect in eliminating traffic jams in Japan by reducing the number of cars in the streets. Also, it helped to reduce the amount of pollution in the air that released from car exhausts. In addition, it made the life more flexible and easy by transporting a large number of people to several areas in a short time and this is due to the tremendous speed of the train. Punctuality is the most common characteristic in the bullet trains; a study shows that the average delay for Shinkansen per train is 24 seconds. Since the train was built till now, no deaths or injuries have been recorded due to accidents and that means that the level of safety in bullet trains is relatively high. Finally, the presence of this train has helped to provide employment opportunities for both skilled and unskilled labors.

VI) Disadvantages:
Despite the great advantages offered by the bullet trains, there are some disadvantages. Since these trains run over a high speed, sharp corners are not recommended so the railways are built in wide spaces and this negatively affects nature and the environment. The cost of building and maintaining these railways is very high compared to any other modes of transport. Noise pollution may be a disadvantage due to the tunnel boom where the bullet trains pass through. Bullet trains tickets are little bit costly compared with any other trains.

VII) Usages:

VIII) Future Aspects:

IX) Transportation (Trains in Kuwait):
Estimated to cost 7 billion dollars, the government of Kuwait is going to build a 171Km long inner city transport running all over the city. This project is a part of the 25 billion railways that runs through all of the GCC countries. Undertaken by the Spanish training company Ingeneria & Consultoria de Transporte (INECO) and the Ministry of Communication the rail road will be built underground. The project will have four lines each which will be treated as a separate project. According to railway technology site, the 1st line with 23.1km and 19 stations is going to link Kuwait’s southern metropolitan area with the center of the city and the main university. The residential areas are going to be connected to the main business district by the 2nd line of 21km long and 27 stations. Line 3 is going to be 24km long and will have 15 stations. Serving the residential areas and the Shuwaikh Industrial Zone the 4th line is going to connect City Centre with Kuwait’s International Airport with 22.7km and 15 stations


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