FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH
SEM I 2018/2019
TEAM MEMBER MATRIX NO
MOHAMAD HAFIZUDDIN BIN MD SAID CF160035
NOR FAZIERAH BINTI ISMAIL CF160191
LECTURER NAME: DR. TONG YEAN GHING
You are a building construction contractor which recently has been awarded a construction work of 30-storey apartment with the contract amount of RM 100million. The number of workers employed by you to execute the construction works will be more than 100 workers.
Discuss procedures/ measures/ strategies that can be done to ensure the safety and health at the workplace is taken care of with regards to OSHA 1994 / FMA 1967.
1. To hold the foundation, construction usually begins with digging a pit. The depth is depends on how far down the bedrock lies and also how many basement levels the building will carry.
2. Sometimes, bedrock lies close to the surface, it will remove. To construct the building’s foundation and to form a smooth performance the bedrock surface is removed. Footings (holes into which the building’s support columns can be anchored) are drilled in the bedrock and steel or reinforced concrete columns are placed in the footings.
3. Piles (vertical beams) are sunk through the soil until they are embedded in the bedrock if the bedrock lies very deep. By repeatedly dropping a heavy weight on their tops, this technique involves driving steel piles into the place. But there is other technique that involves drilling shafts through the soil and into the bedrock, inserting steel reinforcing rods, and after that filling the shafts with concrete.
4. On top of the support columns, pour the foundation platform of reinforced concrete.
The superstructure and core
Work on several phases of the structure proceeds simultaneously once the construction of a 30 stories is underway. The flooring crews move to higher stories as the columns reach higher and at lowest level, the finishing crews begin their work. This phase ensures the structure remains stable during construction and also makes the most efficient use of time.
1. Each beam is lifted into place by a crane if steel columns and cross-bracing are used in the building. For the beginning, the crane sits on the ground but later it may be positioned on the highest existing level of the steel skeleton itself when the stories become higher.
2. Concrete is used to construct support columns and also often used for constructing a building’s core. “Slip forming” is a technique commonly used. Reinforcing steel that is taller than the wooden forms was prepared, then concrete being pouring into the forms. Workers will extend the reinforcing steel grid above the formwork and add extensions to the vertical rod that the climbing jack grips as the process continues.
3. Floors are constructed on the layers of horizontal bracing in a steel-skeleton building but in other building designs, horizontal steel beams that attached to the building’s core and support columns will support the floors.
The weight of the structure and its contents is borne by the support columns and the building’s core in most tall buildings. The structure merely enclose with the exterior walls, by attaching panels of such materials as glass, metal, and stone to the building’s framework they are constructed. At floor slabs or support columns, a common technique is to bolt them to angle brackets secured.
1.It is ready for interior finishing when a story of the building has been enclosed by exterior walls where includes installation of such elements such as electrical wires, plumbing pipes, interior walls, ceiling panels, lighting fixtures, and sprinkler systems for fire control. Installation of mechanical components likes elevators and systems for air circulation, cooling, and heating also includes.
2. The top of the building is finished by installing a roof when the entire superstructure has been completed. The finishing may be built like a floor, before being covered with an attractive, weather resistant layer of tiles or metal they will waterproofed with a layer of rubber or plastic.
The effective planning system which produces specifications and performance standards for the management arrangements and risk control systems is the foundation of effective performance measurement. The information about measurement process can gather through:
people behavior and direct observation of conditions
as well as gauging their views and opinions, must talking to people to elicit facts and their experiences
examining and understanding written reports, documents and records
When done correctly, the risk assessment process is at the core. It will define the precautions needed to control particular risks which needed to include in the risk control system. To determine whether the workplace precautions, the compliance measurement should provide information like:
A workplace precaution is to control a particular risk forms the basis of measuring performance in controlling that risk. To consider workplace precautions under the following issues it is useful for:
i) Defined roadways or one way system
ii) Need for reversing eliminated/minimized
iii) Roadways in good condition
iv) The speed bumps
Plant and materials:
i) Vehicle selection such as good driver access/visibility
ii) Vehicles maintained in good condition
iii) Seat restraints fitted.
i) Speed limits set for vehicles
ii) Vehicles chocked appropriately
iii) Reversing controlled
iv) An authorized drivers
v) Drivers in safe position during loading
People.:i) Competent drivers
ii) Drivers following the speed limit
iii) Pedestrians using designated walkways
Review Safety Expectations
i) Highlight Contract Safety Requirements
– Site Specific Safety Plan
– Designated Safety Representative Requirement
– Daily Pre-Work Coordination Meetings (JSAs)
-Drug Screening (Pre-Employment & Post-Accident)
ii) Identification of Hazards
Identify Hazards not yet Controlled
Define Responsibility to Control Hazards
i) Review Contractual Safety Requirements
ii) Discuss Site Specific Safety Plan
iii) Conduct Pre-Phase Discussion
iv) Confirm Assignment of Safety Responsibilities
Conduct Pre-Phase Work Plan Reviews
Require Daily Pre-Task Meetings
Job Hazards Analysis – Prerequisite for all activities
Institute monthly contractor supervisor training
Focus on each element
Inspections such as identify unsafe work conditions, observe work practices and reinforce expectations
Enforcement – i) Establish a progressive disciplinary action program
ii) Administer enforcement uniformly
Alternate Accolades – i) Written words: Recognize individuals in project newsletters
or give individuals a letter of appreciation
ii) Positive attention: Give individuals public praise at Safety
Meetings and Toolbox Talks
Establish clear rules and procedures
During the contract bid and award process, place significant emphasis on safety
Produce a worker that have a clear understanding of the work process and responsibilities
Assure controlled or communicated to workers about identified job related hazards had been done
Focus on safety, maintain a visible presence and conduct frequent site visits