?The correlations between sex differences and language learning has been a hot topic for the past and current research studies. According to many past research studies, almost all studies have shown its tendency to fall on females, who are more successful language learners than the males. Although the conclusion drawn from those researchers were not completely accurate, they have pointed out several factors to prove that female learners outperform the males in language learning. Motivation, learning strategies, cognitive abilities, and biological facts between female and male language learners will be discussed below to explain why females tend to be more successful language learners than the male counterparts.?The first factor females perform better than males in language learning is in the matter of motivation. Motivation is a relevant factor that contributes to achievement in language learning.
Two kinds of motivation which are instrumental and integrative motivation are examined in this aspect. Females tend to be more motivated in learning the target language because of their interest in speakers and culture, this is called integrative motivation. For instance, they favor chatting or conversing with native speakers which help them to improve their pronunciation, speaking, and listening skills. Their desire to communicate leads to favourable result in language learning. On the contrary, males’ motivation is considered as instrumental motivation.
They learn target language because they need that subject to fill in the timetable or to complete academic requirement and move forward to the next level. Because of lack of interest and curiosity for the language they learn, their performance is overshadowed by females.?Concerning language strategies, they are also reason why females are better language learners than males. Based on the language journal Porta Linguarum, it is claimed that female foreign language learners use more different study methods than the male learners. Females tend to engage more skills in listening, speaking, reading, writing and element of languages such as vocabulary and grammar because of their passion in language learning. Furthermore, many researchers have stated female students are likely to use many strategies that are effective and more related to success in language acquisition.
As stated by Gu and Jonhson (1996), those effective learning strategies are contextual guessing, dictionary checking, note-taking, encoding, and using new words in real situations. In contrast, males hold strong beliefs about vocabulary language which words should be memorised and visual encoded rather than those strategies females put into practice. As a result, females generally perform better than males in language learning.?Cognitive abilities are another factor that interwind sex differences and learning achievement. It refers to the abilities an individual processes information through thinking, perceiving, organizing, recalling, and problem solving. Additionally, it interconnected to learning strategies. According to Oxford (1994), he indicates that female learning styles are commonly global, field-dependent, reflective, and auditory; whereas, male learning styles are usually analytical, field-independent, impulsive, and visual.
In terms of processing new information, field-dependent learners are prone to be successful in language acquisition because global and reflective of cognitive styles fit better compared to field-independent learners. Moreover, Dale (1976), the researcher on sex differences in language development, proclaims that during preschool and early school years, there is no difference between all boys and girls on their performance at all. However, girls starting the age of ten till college years develop superior verbal intelligence. Under the circumstance, females are proved to be superior to males in language learning. ?The last reason why females are more likely to be successful language learners than the males due to the fact that their brain process language differently. According to an experiment of Burman D.
, Bitan, and Booth R., (2008), they have drawn a conclusion that males and females use different brain areas for performing cognitive functions. Brain areas are divided into left hemisphere and right hemisphere. Each hemisphere serves different functions. In particular, the left hemisphere specializes in phonology, morphology, syntax, and sentence processing.
On the other hand, the right hemisphere specializes in nonverbal, visualization, and intonation. In this case, it is found out that females use both hemispheres. Moreover, females’ brains show greater in creativity and processing language. Males’ brains, in contrast, rely on visualisation through written words or illustration and hearing through listening in order to process language.?In conclusion, females are viewed as superior and more successful than males when it comes to language learning. The successful outcome of females performing in language learning is enhanced by their integrative motivation, effective learning strategies, high cognitive abilities, superior verbal intelligence, and the use of both hemispheres of the brain area.
Taking things into consideration, the impacts of sex differences in language learning should not be neglected. Specifically, male language learners should be encouraged to get motivated and introduced many learning strategies in language learning.