?THE skill is crucial in the learning

?THE ROLE OF CRITICAL THINKING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHARACTERISTICS OF ACADEMIC WRITINGJOSE A. ONYANGORE 1/05/2018 The term critical thinking was derived from a Greek word ‘critique’ which means the art of judgment. Critical thinking exemplifies the ability to discern based on intellect by use of inductive and deductive reasoning. It has its origin in psychology and philosophy. The meaning of critical thinking has been defined by various scholars offering a variety of explanations based on their approach and perspectives.

Paul (1992, p.9) defines critical thinking as “perfection of thoughts.” Bailin (2002) defines it as essentially good thinking that meets certain set criteria or standards of accuracy and adequacy. According to Ennis, (1981, p.8) “critical thinking is a reflective and reasonable thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do.

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” While Facione (2000, p.61) defines it as, “judging in a reflective way what to do or what to believe.” Regardless of various definitions, it is evident that critical thinking as a skill is crucial in the learning process. Academic writing widely uses critical thinking tool to develop adequacy and draw relevance. An academic writing is a concise, structured piece of writing that meets criteria set by a university or college. It encapsulates critical thinking as a cognitive approach that relies upon criteria to pass certain set parameters and achieve specified goals.

Academic writing has various characteristics such as: formal in nature, objective perspective, critically engaged, responds to wider scholarships claims, references and usually persuasive in in nature. All of which bears a specific purpose. Academic writing is relatively formal in nature. The purpose of formality is to avoid clichés, euphemism, offensive words, slang and offensive words that add no meaning. Formality entails being precise and straightforward in your statements following the officiated rules. Academic writing always follows official procedures excluding irrelevancy. Academic writing is objective. Any piece of task or assignment was given out by an instructor is meant to address a certain area of interest, for instance, a specific topic with an intention to gauge the students understanding on a given area.

This implies academic writing is target oriented and thus avoids generalizations. Its objectivity is evidenced by the existence of parameters and rules to follow. This aims to gauge understanding and comprehension. Academic writing is critically engaged in the sense that it requires a student to use his or her requisite knowledge on the subject to assess and evaluate a given task using available gauges and then come up with a suitable piece of academic writing. Academic writings are tailor-made to suit certain criteria. This involves engaging the writer to write relatable content that is precise and relevant as such is based on the writer’s view or approach to things.

It responds to wider scholarship’s claims. This is based on the fact that it acknowledges other people’s ideas and thoughts through citations. It also attempts to verify claims and controversies and ascertain their worth to credibility. Academic writing facilitates ownership of ideas by the protection of author’s rights from infringement. It avoids plagiarism in writing thus protecting the writer’s right and consent on their own work instilling originality in ideas and pieces of writings. Branthwaite, Trueman ; Hartley (1980) states that originality is a key criterion to successful academic writing. References are crucial in academic writing. Whenever a piece of work is written through the acquisition of ideas from other authors, a list of references is always provided to show the source of the ideas.

This makes a writing more credible and reliable as it can be traced to its source. All facts are supported by evidence making academic writing self-reliable and self-explanatory in nature. Referencing purposes to give consent to idea owners and provide the basis for further research and study. Academic writing is persuasive in nature. All writings whether an essay, a report or dissertation, they are mostly argumentative.

They are always meant to support or object a theory or fact based on available evidence. Thus a writer is always on the move to persuade the instructor that he or she knows a certain topic well and cannot be swayed by or simply tries to show that his or her perspective to a certain fact is the right one which ought to be followed. As such academic writing becomes persuasive and its aim is to attract better scores by convincing the reader you know what she or he wants you to. Critical thinking is regarded as a vital skill that is attained through a tertiary learning process. Tapper (2004) states that employers always sort out for graduates with the ability to transfer their critical thinking ability to the workplace. Andrew (2007, p.11) states, “To be critical is to take on a powerful position.” To attain success in academic writing, one has to reconstruct information, transform available knowledge and tailor it to conform to the set criteria.

Toulmin, Rieke ; Janik (1984 in Andrews 2000, p.5) define critical thinking as, “the central activity of providing reasons in support of a claim.” Critical think presents the voice of reason in every idea presented. Tapper 2004 relates to it the cognitive skill of rational judgment.

While Siegel (1998) defines it as “the educational cognate of rationality.” All the questions pertaining to academic writing require skillful evaluation and appropriate answers. This cannot be achieved without critical thinking skills.Critical thinking pertains to interpreting, analyzing, evaluating and inceptive reasoning to come up with sound judgment in regard to solving a set problem. Academic writings are problem-oriented tasks meant to solve a problem by use of logic and practicality.

Critical thinking enables a student to solve problems provided to them by his or her instructors. Usage of critical skills in academic writing translates into better grades as one develops a reflective thought tolerating ambiguity. Authoritative evidence, objectivity in academic writing are all achieved through thorough research, weighing information and coming up with detailed conclusive yet precise work. Critical thinking being evidence-based contributes remarkably to the provision of facts through references which are listed out in academic writing leaving more vivid answers rather than questions for the reader to ask. Academic writing tasks are always set to evaluate ones analyzing power and ability to induce reason to achieve the desired goal. Cadman (2000) study states that students are aware of what is expected in regard to their approach to academic writing. He emphasizes the importance of argument and critical thinking in academic writing.

In conclusion, critical thinking skill is of paramount significance to successive academic writing as it aids in navigation though set gauges following rules to come up with a satisfactory piece of writing that is acceptable. It aids in consistency, coherency, relevancy, and adequacy and helps a student to be cognizant, aware and tentative to all assessment requirements before embarking on writing down a piece of academic writing on a given task. Thus critical thinking intuitively plays a critical role in the development of the characteristics of academic writing as it is eminent that they are all subjects of critical thinking skill.

Critical thinking comes in handy when writing a persuasive piece of academic writing if at all a student aims to soar high grades. Bibliography Andrews, R ; Mitchell, S. (2001). Essays in Argument. London: Middlesex University Press. Bailin, S.

(2002). Critical thinking and science education. Science ; Education, 11(4),Briggs, C. (1986). Learning How to Ask: a sociolinguistic appraisal of the role of the interview in social science research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Branthwaite, A., Trueman, M. ; Hartley, J.

(1980). ‘Writing essays: the actions and strategies of students’, in Hartley, J. (Ed.) The Psychology of Written Communication. London: Nichols and Cogan PageCadman, K. (2000). ”Voices in the Air’: evaluations of the learning experiences of international postgraduates and their supervisors’.

Teaching in Higher Education, 5/ 4: 475-491Elander, J., Harrington, K., Norton, L., Robinson, H. ; Reddy, P. (2006).

‘Complex skills and academic writing: a review of evidence about the types of learning required to meet core assessment criteria’. Assessment ; Eva=tluation in Higher Education. 31/1: 71–90 Ennis, R. (1989). Critical thinking and subject specificity: Clarification and needed research. Educational Researcher, 18(3), 4–10.Facione, P. (2000).

The disposition toward critical thinking: Its character, measurement, and relation to critical thinking skill. Informal Logic, 20(1), 61–84 Paul, R. (1992). Critical thinking: What, why, and how? New Directions for Community Colleges, 1992(77), 3–24Richard Andrews. (2007). ‘Argumentation, critical thinking and the postgraduate dissertation’. Educational Review, 59/1: 1–18.

Tapper, J. (2004). ‘Student perceptions of how critical thinking is embedded in a degree program’.

Higher Education Research and Development, 23/2: 199-222. Tsui, L. (2002). ‘Fostering critical thinking through effective pedagogy’. The Journal of Higher Education, 73/6: 740-763.

?Cognitive in the section on Anti-plagiarism of the

?Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (Theory)by Carol D.

PrincePresented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for Foundation YearEssay Title: Cognitive Behavioural TherapyProgramme: Foundation Year 2017-2018Word Count: 2178, exclusive of cover, table of contents and referencesSubmitted: Friday 20th April 2018DeclarationI hereby certify that this assignment is entirely my own work, except where I cite differently or acknowledge sources in the text itself or in the list of references. That this assignment is my own unaided work and is free of plagiarism per the departmental policy on plagiarism as set out in the section on Anti-plagiarism of the Student Manual relating to the course.Signed: Date: DATE @ “dddd, d MMMM yyyy” Tuesday, 10 April 2018 TOC o “1-6” Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (Theory) PAGEREF _Toc511817704 h 1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc511817705 h 3History PAGEREF _Toc511817706 h 3Founding Theorist/(s) PAGEREF _Toc511817707 h 4Significant Contributors PAGEREF _Toc511817708 h 4Aaron T. Beck, M.D. PAGEREF _Toc511817709 h 4Albert Ellis, PhD PAGEREF _Toc511817710 h 5The Theory PAGEREF _Toc511817711 h 6Cognitive Behavioural Process PAGEREF _Toc511817712 h 6Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) PAGEREF _Toc511817713 h 6Dialectical Behaviour Therapy PAGEREF _Toc511817714 h 7Linking Cognitive Therapy to Behavioural Therapy PAGEREF _Toc511817715 h 7Techniques PAGEREF _Toc511817716 h 7ABC/ABCDE Technique or Rational Self-Analysis PAGEREF _Toc511817717 h 8Cognitive Restructuring PAGEREF _Toc511817718 h 8Exposure PAGEREF _Toc511817719 h 8Self-disclosure PAGEREF _Toc511817720 h 9Critique of the approach PAGEREF _Toc511817721 h 9My personal view PAGEREF _Toc511817722 h 9Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc511817723 h 10References PAGEREF _Toc511817724 h 11IntroductionThe cognitive-behavioural theory is commonly viewed as an effective short intervention therapy for Psychotherapists and those in the Counselling field. This essay will explore the history and logical thinking leading up to the development of the theory and the theory itself in detail.

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It will include a biography of the founders and identify significant people of influence during its development. Furthermore, it will explore applications and techniques associated with it, in its modern form, (expressed by one expert as the “Third Wave”), (Foreman-Pollard 2011) and provide a brief review of its perceived effectiveness as well as my personal view of the theory based on my research. Known as CBT, it is often described as a combined approach utilising the psychologies of both cognitive as well as behavioural therapeutic models. The underlying root principle that behaviours and feelings are because of thoughts. The approach primarily builds a portfolio of prioritised concerns with a client, highlighting the thoughts and feelings that are behind perceived issues, then develops a plan of goals and changes to assist them not only in their behaviour but in shaping their future thinking.

HistoryCognitive Behavioural Theory seemingly grew out of an exercise to fulfil not only the changing needs in the field of psychology itself but from pressure on professional theorists and practitioners alike. It’s original formation, building on REBT or Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy, (Drydan, Neenan 2004), and CT, Cognitive Therapy, (Beck, Clark 2010) progressed to CBT, to reconcile the ever-evolving development of cognitive and behavioural approaches in the therapeutic community, and create a zeitgeist; an agreed theoretical and inclusive behavioural and cognitive model. Such was the state in the 1960’s and 70’s of a changing industry, in what Dr Keith Dobson, Professor of Clinical Psychology at the University of Calgary, referred to as the “cognitive revolution”. He states, “Taken together, the two research areas of general cognitive psychology and what may be termed “applied cognitive psychology” challenged behavioural theorists to account for accumulating data.

In essence, the challenge amounted to a need for behavioural models to redefine their limits and incorporate cognitive phenomena into the models of behavioural mechanisms.” (Dobson, 2010)Founding Theorist/(s) Significant Contributors Although a maturing theory in its beliefs and practices in the last 70 years, directly related to specific ideas by Dr Albert Ellis and Dr Aaron Beck, there are a number of contributors to the ongoing advancement of the development of therapeutic applications, many of whom directly influence the modern views of CBT and how it can be used with a plethora of conditions with clients, as demonstrated by the sheer volume of literature available using CBT for a particular targeted group of people ranging from schizophrenia to dementia. However, I would be remiss not to acknowledge the historical significance of the “grandfathers of both cognitive and behavioural theories, notably Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, Edward Thorndike, and B. F. Skinner, each contributing great insight and information to the human condition”. (SEP, 2015)For the purposes of this essay, however, we will focus entirely on two of the most recognisable contributors. Albert Ellis, who is considered the founder of behavioural therapy, and his collaboration with the cognitive theorist, Aaron Beck. Aaron T.

Beck, M.D.Dr Aaron Beck’s range of research, first as the Assistant Chief of Neuropsychiatry in Philadelphia, in the Department of Psychiatry, at Penn Behavioural Health, and subsequently at the University of Pennsylvania’s Psychiatry Department lent itself to the crux of his work in psychoanalysis. (Franks, 2015). From his work with people and depression in those roles, he developed the present day cognitive therapy and subsequently opened the Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. (Weishaar, 1993).

The most significant understanding from the numerous trials and research with Dr Beck was his experimentation with depressed people and his discovery of negative thought patterns he coined – ‘automatic thoughts’. (Beck, J., 2011) These thoughts incorporated a three-prong focus; the client, the world and the future. How these thoughts affected a client’s life is usually how they were lead to a diagnosis. These thoughts are integral to a person’s core belief systems and fundamental to a client’s existence. (Beck, 1997)Albert Ellis, PhD.

In the 1950’s, Dr Albert Ellis introduced REBT after spending several years practising psychoanalysis. He started his career as the Chief Psychologist of the New Jersey State Diagnostic Centre, the Chief Psychologist of the New Jersey State Department of Institutions and Agencies and was a psychological consultant to several organizations including the Veterans Administration and the New York City Department of Education. He was the founder and Executive Director of the Albert Ellis Institute. He created the ABC model, which was later modified into A-B-C-D-E and developed Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy. He was seen as a controversial yet brilliant figure and an extensive and prolific writer on the development and efficacy of the subject. (Bernard, 2011)The TheoryCBT is the consolidation of how negative thoughts influence our emotions and behaviours. Once aware, a client learns to deal with these thoughts in a way that doesn’t adversely affect their lives. “CBT is based on a model or theory that it’s not events themselves that upset us, but the meanings we give them” (Martin, 2007).

As previously mentioned, these ‘automatic thoughts’ obstruct new thoughts, ideas and growth, as they are rooted in thinking that stems from belief systems from childhood. Cognitive Behavioural Process CBT views a client’s negative reaction to triggers as learned behaviour because of an experience stemming from the last encounter with that same stimuli. Ostensibly something negative happens and the client’s thoughts around that repeat itself.

CBT attempts to change that negative response by demonstrating that the response to that exact stimuli does not have to be the same, nor does it have to be negative. Using what Pavlov referred to as “operant conditioning” (Whitfield, Davidson 2007) clients are inclined to act or behave more positively if the response to the stimuli over time becomes positive. Therefore, the behaviour can be changed to positive behaviour and over time they are less likely to experience the negativity once associated with that event.Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT)The most recognisable form of behavioural therapy, founded in the 1950s by Albert Ellis, was Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT). REBT focuses on the “client’s current, irrational thoughts and actively targets them for change” (Fraum, 2012). Through REBT a client confronts their beliefs and working with the therapist devises a plan for more realistic and positive thinking.

Dialectical Behaviour TherapyAnother form of behavioural therapy that is more in line with cognitive-behavioural therapy is Dialectical Behaviour Therapy. Philosophically, it brings opposing views together through a client’s relationship with their therapist to find an acceptable path forward. Thoughts are validated and a client is directed to a process of change. Linking Cognitive Therapy to Behavioural TherapyCBT is a collaborative effort between client and therapist.

Although in many ways robust it is viewed as effective in short-term treatment plans. Most of the growth is up to the client to do between sessions, developing new skills and coping mechanisms. CBT doesn’t delve into why a client feels the way they do but is very focused on the present behaviour and the future of change. CBT is highly structured and usually takes place weekly for only a few months or a year. Once issues are identified and prioritised a plan for change is developed and implemented. Throughout the process, homework is assigned to help the client identify triggers for their anxiety or problems and the feelings that surround those events. As the process moves forward the assignments will coincide with whatever step the client is currently working on.TechniquesOstensibly there are dozens of techniques used by therapists.

Each having elements of cognitive, emotive, and behavioural underpinnings and each being adequate for bespoke therapy for each client. The ABC, also known as the ABCDE Technique developed by Dr Ellis, is closely associated with the REBT techniques which include cognitive reconstruction, exposure, reframing, and journal writing and controversially, self-disclosure.ABC/ABCDE Technique or Rational Self-AnalysisThe ABC/ABCDE approach distinguishes why clients act a certain way to Activating Events. This Activating Event is known as A, often referred to as a “trigger” but typically the Antecedent. The client’s emotions and behaviours associated with A, for example, depression is what is called Consequences” or C. Beliefs or B is the system of thoughts and thought process. While the A triggers the C, the B is what causes C.Ellis was prolific in his attempts to perfect the technique and later introduced Disputing or D, New Effect or E, and Further Action, F as continuing elements of the technique.

The premise being a client must identify the A, B, and C, only then can they move forward and challenge their Beliefs by Disputing. This leads them to evaluate what they want in terms of new behaviour or the New Effect, E. Finally, the client improves their behaviour by implementing a Further Action plan.

(Eysenk, 2015)Cognitive RestructuringRational Self-Analysis is part of Cognitive Restructuring. Cognitive Restructuring uses the ABCDE model to help a client recognise, confront, and change their ‘distorted’ thoughts. Distorted thoughts are often pepped with negative words that are finite like always, must, and never, stemming from Ellis’s list of irrational beliefs combined with the cognitive distortions list by Dr Beck.

(Dobson. 2009)ExposureExposure Therapy is most often used with clients with anxiety disorders. Sessions involve the client being exposed to triggers that cause anxiety. It’s a form of desensitisation, often used in conjunction with relaxation techniques. Self-disclosureSelf-disclosure is controversial but entails a therapist telling a client something personal that may be effective in helping the client understand something significant.

As a technique, it is viewed as risky with boundaries or it not achieving its original goal. This approach can swing the focus away from the client, therefore it can affect the relationship, or make it uncomfortable. Critique of the approach Cognitive Behavioural Therapy has no doubt shouldered a plethora of success cases in its history and for some the most effective. My research has included a few interesting cases to support this statement.

(Taylor, 2006) There could arguably be a case made for using it exclusively in some environments and with clients with particular concerns, for example, those with chronic disabilities. However, I am of the belief there are several pitfalls if it is not combined, or at the very least integrated, with other therapies. It focuses specifically on the client and their desire to change.

Thus, it does not appear to consider the elements of family history, historical experiences or traumas that underpin why a client got to their present state. The focus on change means a client must be motivated to want to change, if they are not, the therapy itself could be wasted. It takes commitment and engagement with CBT to be effective. It is also clear that the rigidity of in terms of techniques, and focus on thinking rather than emotional state or a client’s history leave a fundamental part of the client, “untouched” in my opinion. My personal view Initially, I was drawn to exploring this theory due to its popular nature and ostensibly modern approach to counselling. I was of the belief that it would likely be an integral part of a therapeutic toolkit of methodologies I would regularly use, as I went forward in my career. Considering the plethora of outlooks and techniques available for a client, it underpinned my belief that it was a customisable and client-driven approach that could be bespoke and therefore incorporate a targeted approach.

What I now understand, through the process of researching this paper; however, is that CBT leaves little room to go deeper, and in my opinion, more meaningful work about the origins of a person’s issues and or thoughts. I have always been attracted to that aspect of one’s psychological makeup and initially, it was the reason I considered moving my career in the direction of Psychotherapy. However, I firmly believe that other therapeutic models may, in fact, be more cohesive with my own beliefs and likely would serve me better should I find myself working directly with clients in this capacity. This is not to say I don’t have a great deal of respect for the work cognitive-behavioural therapy can achieve.

It would be difficult to predict if it would be something I would employ to any great degree considering the type of work I am most interested in. Conclusion Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is for all intents and purposes the “go to” therapy of a modern age for treating a multitude of client issues and including some illnesses and diseases. The range of application is quite extensive. This essay looked only at the most understood elements yet, there exists a great deal of literature delving into the theory in minute detail, which has spurred an interest for future research. Having grasped the fundamentals, it is still unconvincing that it would work without an integrative approach to some of the more challenging elements of psychotherapy and client issues and one would benefit greatly to see and experience it with practised therapists to understand it with any degree of proficiency. ReferencesIljon-Foreman, Elaine and Pollard, Clair.

(2011) Introducing CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy), a Practical Guide. UK Icon Books Ltd. Dobson, Dr Keith. (2010) Handbook of Cognitive Behavioural Therapies 3rd Edition. The Guildford Press. Dryden, Windy and Neenan, Michael. (2004) Rational Emotive Behavioural Counselling in Action. 3rd Edition.

SAGE Publications Ltd.Knapp, Paulo and Beck, Aaron T. (2008) Cognitive therapy: foundations, conceptual models, applications and research.

SciELO The Scientific Electronic Library Online. P. S55 Section Historical and philosophical background to CBTs. Retrieved 2018-01-26 HYPERLINK “http://www.scielo.

br/pdf/rbp/v30s2/en_a02v30s2.pdf” http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbp/v30s2/en_a02v30s2.pdfBeck, Judith S. (2011) Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. The Guildford Press. Pg.

34Martin, B. (2007). In-Depth: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Psych Central. Retrieved 2018-04-16 HYPERLINK “http://psychcentral.com/lib/2007/in-depth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy/” http://psychcentral.

com/lib/2007/in-depth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy/ Bernard, Michael E. (2011) Rationality and the Pursuit of Happiness: The Legacy of Albert Ellis. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Cautela, Joseph R.; Kearney, Albert J. (1986). The Covert Conditioning Handbook.

New York: Springer.Franks, Rebecca. (2015). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.

 JB Publishing Company Eysenk, Michael W. (2015). AQA Psychology. 6th Edition. Psychology Press.

Dobson, Deborah and Dobson, Keith S. (2009) Evidence-based practice of cognitive-behavioural therapy. The Guildford Press. Fraum, Robert.

(2002-2012) Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Treatment: Psychotherapy Techniques and Psychological Theory. Retrieved 2018-4-10 HYPERLINK “http://www.psychologistcounselorpsychotherapist.com/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-techniques” http://www.psychologistcounselorpsychotherapist.com/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-techniques Whitfield, Graeme and Davidson, Alan.

(2007) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Explained. Radcliffe Publishing.Graham, George. “Behaviourism”, The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy (Spring 2017 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.

), Retrieved 2018-4-10 HYPERLINK “https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/behaviorism/” https://plato.stanford.

edu/archives/spr2017/entries/behaviorism/ Taylor, Renée. (2006) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Chronic Illness and Disability. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.


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