Biotechnology is refered as a potential source ofcrop productivity improvement in the agriculture field. The other topics itcover in soil sciences is stabilization of soil, enhancement of N- fixation,bioremediation, biocontrol, and many other new microbial products for the soilimprovement.Soil science and biotechnology are interactive in away that interdisciplinary studies are inevitable. Recent studies ofbiotechnology give us knowledge about microbes function and their nature andmake us understand that microbes can be used in beneficial ways in soil.
BiotechnologicalProducts:EngenieredRhizobia:Genetically modified rhizobia are of great interest forcreating strains for effective Nitrogen fixers with leguminous crops. Differentcompanies has conducted successful field experiments.Mycorrhizalfungi :Mycorrhizal fungi that are present in nature promoteP-uptake by crops. Mycorrhizal fungi have potential to use as an inoculant. Thelimitations are difficulty to produce large amounts of the organism which areenough to use as an inoculant on a field scale.GeneticallyEngineered Microbes (GEMS) :Genetical modification in the composition ofbacterial cell has now become a routinely practice in laboratory procedure Manipulationin the genetic makeup to produce desired changes in function or growth isgenerally easier for bacteria than for crop plants.
Therefore. the products ofGEMS may have a large impact sooner than genetically engineered plant products.Yet, the most immediate applicationsare likely to be in medicine. For example. valuabledrugs can be produced by GEMScarrying mammalian genes.Researchers are trying to create microbialinsecticides, fungicides andnematicides. In one approach the gene for a pesttoxins is taken from natural source and transfer to common bacterial growthinhibitors of the root.
The advantages include that the microbe works as chemical synthesis.