A) Social movement holds by examining the social class and value orientations of participants in old and new social movements. And are often compared into four different categories namely; participants, concern, ideology, and organizational structure.
Early social movement could be traced back to the 19th century, likely; the labour, women’s movement, feminist movement, and national movements (Topic 9: p.9). Participants included were disadvantaged, oppressed, working class. It addresses material concerns which are associated with gender equality and opposition to patriarchy, like unemployment, equal pay and prefers central leadership. There is slight in common, and seldom worked in tandem.
The new social movement prefers identity politics like the LGVT movement, and the organizational system stress decentralisation and participatory decision making, and democracy, which draws attention of the media (Topic 9:p.12). Participants are young, better-educated, affluent, and members from the middle class, students, and unemployed. The movement concerns with post-material orientation and quality of life. It embraces libertarian aspirations, develop a radical clique of advanced industrial society, and challenges prevailing social goals and political styles (Topic 9:p.11).
There are many differences between both movements; the first difference is that the old one is only concerned with personal issues like; wages, job security, benefits, and control at work. Whereas, the new one is concerned with environmental issues, human rights, peace, and identity. Both have different sphere of influences like political and cultural (Topic 9: p.12).
is that, for the latter, it clarifies their aims and goals, then they execute their plan with full organization, whereas, the traditional one does not have enough manpower and seldom worked in tandem. In addition, the new social movements are more advanced and people express their expressions freely, whereas in the early social movements, the public voice was still suppressed and subordinated by the leader. People were not granted freedom at all. Both movements have different approaches, for example; some new social movements since 1960s used violence.
B) There are many new social movements globally occuring, for instance; ‘Black Lives Matter’, ‘Feminist Movement’, ‘Black Power Movement’, ‘Gay Rights Movement’, ‘Peace Movement’, and many others. But my content would be mainly fixate on ‘MeToo Movement’, and partially on feminism.
The first article is related to the raising of women’s status in the society, but still lagging behind in some aspects. Although women’s status has risen over the year in many countries, but there are evidence that their status is not well-recognized. There are fewer women in government positions while compared with men, only 11 of 192 heads of government. And those who succeed have wealthy backgrounds. (Nikki 2014: 8). In addition, in private sectors, women are on most boards of directors of large companies but their probability remains low compared to that for men. Besides, there are some large corporations in the world with male-dominated positions. And till today, there are only 23 female chief executive officer in the US, which contributes less than 5%. Adding on, in European Union, women only account for 16.6% of board members of large corporations, and the objective of having more female as board members is far behind (Nikki 2014: 9, 10). This emphasizes that women are largely absent in decision-making procedures, and only 17.2% of ministerial posts are held by women (Nikki 2014: 13).
In addition, those women who succeed in holding top recognized positions are often harassed and face a daily barrage of sexist behaviour (Nikki 2014: 16), as it is uncommon for women to have higher standard than male. Despite of, in terms of education, women does better than male’s, but when it comes to societal status, women are still lagging behind.
The second article is on MeToo movement in India, a Bollywood actress Tanushree Dutta filed a case against Nana Patekar for making changes in dance steps so as to accuse her 10 years before. After Tanushress spoke out, there were several voices speaking out for their justice. Ms Kukreja commented that “it almost felt like the women were waiting”. (Vindu, Ayesha, Kai: 3,4,5). These were the signs of MeToo movement, and it begun spreading to other industries, as well as rural schools in Northern India where more than 30 girls were accused by boys over the weekends. The article further states that its aim was to improve men’s behavior and push employers to hold harassers accountable (Vindu, Ayesha, Kai: 15). There were some cases in which voices against bosses and human resources department had no action. And India’s case is miserable as a rape case would be pending for several years, but the case of Ms. Dutta reflects how strenuous it can be to pursue a sexual harassment claim (Vindu, Ayesha, Kai: 22,23). The interesting thing is that, the accusers often deny the blame on themselves. Maneka Gandhi states that “harassment of any kind will not be tolerated,” and MeToo India should be initiated (Vindu, Ayesha, Kai: 30).
The third article is on MeToo movement in China, women’s are being sexually assaulted by their boss, and co-workers and told to keep her mouth shut to maintain her respect in the society or their lives would be ruined. More than a dozen Chinese women face accusations and harassment every day, and are forbidden to raise their voice. In 2014, Zhu Jun molested a female in his dressing room, and when the women went to report the case, the authorities suggested her to drop the case to avoid harming the image of Mr. Zhu (Javier 2018:7). This indicates that women’s voices are often declined and no action is taken to defend women’s. Besides, Zhang Wen, a well-known Chinese intellectual commented that “you can never shake off the fate of becoming my women”, after raping a women, and said the sex was consensual (Javier 2018: 6).
The MeToo movement in China started in the universities, when the professors harass female students, and students circulate open letters decrying sexual behavior and demanding better protections (Javier 2018: 18). Experts say it will be difficult for the MeToo movement to take on government officials or prominent business executives, given the ruling Communist Party’s tight control of civil society (Javier 2018: 20), and this often debase victims of sexual assault.
The fourth article is on the actions taken due to MeToo movement, many are unveil as a sexual predator despite their position, for instance Harvey Weinstein, an American film producer, and Brett Kavanaugh, associate justice of the Supreme Court of the U.S., has been denied a seat on America’s highest court due to his accusations he committed as a student (The Economists 2018: 1). Years before, women in colleges and workplaces in America had been the victims of sexual assault, and rape. But, today, actions are taken on everyone who accuses others (The Economists 2018: 5).
The last article is related to the progress of MeToo, it’s almost a year, and not much have been done, rape, sexual accusations are still been facing by many individuals. There are cases in which women’s voice is not trusted, and the demeanor of leniency are given to male perpetrator (Alyssa: 2). The article clarifies that the second feminist wave proposed the idea ‘consciousness raising’, which destined to assist women recognize that they weren’t alone, and they didn’t have to accept this sexism as natural and inevitable. And was a step that guided women figure out what they wanted to transform, and to achieve those changes (Alyssa: 5,7).Today, experiences of harassment and assault are been expressed by men and women, and there are some situations in which men could imagine the situation of women’s (Alyssa: 6). Besides, there are many delicate questions arising from the movement, and dilemma on how to determine culpability and naive in cases which won’t be examined by the police and the court (Alyssa: 8).
#MeToo isn’t the end of the campaign to change our sexual culture. But if we work very hard, it might prove to be the end of the beginning.
1. Nikki van der Gang. 29 September 2014. “Women are better off today, but still far from being equal with men, The Guardian.” Retrieved 10th November 2018.
2. Vindu Goel, Ayesha Venkataraman and Kai Schultz. 9 October 2018. “After a Long Wait, India’s #MeToo Movement Suddenly Takes Off, The New York Times.” Retrieved 16th November 2018
3. Javier. C. Hernandez. 26 July 2018. “A#MeToo Reckoning in China’s Workplace Amid Wave of Accusations, The New York Times.” Retrieved 10th November 2018.
4. 27th September 2018. “Metoo, one year on A movement sparked by an alleged rapist could be the most powerful force for equality since women’s suffrage, The Economists.” Retrieved 11th November 2018.
5. Rosenberg, Alyssa. 5 October. “It has been a year of #MeToo. There’s so much work left to do, The Washington Post.” Retrieved 11th November 2018.