A. educated on the philosophy that could

A. Introduction
“Intelligence is the key to success” (David Nathan). As the quote says, having been educated is what people need to excel and develop in different ways. Learnings can be acquired not only at schools but also in our respective homes and through experiences. In line with the quotation that is mentioned, it is believed that in order for the people to excel or develop, it is essential to know what are the things needed to do or the things they must ensure in order to grow. And so, before one can act out what they intended, individuals need to be knowledgeable.
In this paper, you will be able to see the importance of being well-informed in every decision making. The aim of this paper is to let the readers be educated on the philosophy that could help them in making their decisions and it will serve as their guide to improve their leadership skills especially in military through integrating this viewpoint they will acquire in making strategies needed in times of conflict or war and by handling their troops to lead them not into danger but in safe haven.
The ideas that will be presented and elaborated is as follows: First, the definition of war and peace and its essence. Second, the reasons and logic behind war and peace. The third is the viewpoint of the writer on what should be the undercurrents concerning politics and military in the conduct of war and the creation of strategies. Lastly, the belief of the writer on why and how war should be waged or fought.
B. The teleology of war and its strategic object
War is not the same as peace. In an own understanding of this author, there can be peace without war and vice versa. They come in a different form but they can also go together like, if there is war, then there is also a peace. It is very important to know the differences between war and peace. And to expand it further, the definition of the two based on his own learnings are: war is having an unfriendly atmosphere with the feeling of intimidation or menace. And peace is having a pleasant environment without the sensation of threat or danger. With the definition of war and peace, it can now serve as a guide in choosing the ways and means people are going to use or make to achieve an end which is either war or peace.
By understanding the basic definition of war and peace, the author has come up to a conclusion that war is an act of using any of the ways and means available to have an end which is to achieve peace. The same as Clausewitz on the latter part of his study, the author again believes that war is of limited and not unlimited. It is because the only thing that people want to achieve why there is war is to have peace. The peace which means that persons are living in harmony without the feeling of threat or danger in their own state or country.
C. The causes of war
People are unique with each other for we have different beliefs and understanding on the things that are happening in our world. Just like Clausewitz who believe that war is a result of a political objective or other philosophers who believe that war is the outcome of the necessity of one’s state. For the author’s personal perspective, he believes that war is the consequence of protecting one’s state. It is by security reasons why war is being waged. It is in the reason that there is no man in this world that wants to live in chaos. Every one of us desires to live in harmony and peace but in case that there is an external force that intimidated us not to feel harmless in our own place or country, we do not have any choice but to participate in a conflict which is war.
People are like animals that have the instinct of fighting for themselves if they can sense danger in their environment. This instinct is the reason why war or conflict is present but the action of every person or animal protecting themselves will not occur if there is no harm existing. An example to it is a skunk defending himself from danger. It was shown on a television show specifically National Geographic Channel that every time a skunk could feel the presence of an enemy who likes to kill him, the skunk is raising its tail facing its butt to the prey so that when the prey attacked the skunk, he will release a bad smell fart that will stick to the skin of the prey that makes it stop attacking the skunk. As what I have seen on the show, the skunk did not have the initiative to counter immediately its feeling of intimidation but it waited for the prey to attack him. Just like in persons, we are very conscious of our safety. So as to prevent danger, we prepare ourselves on what to do in case there is also a prey or an attacker that would intend to harm us, but the plan of defending ourselves will not be used to everybody that we are along with because they are doing nothing to feel us intimidated and to protect ourselves.
In the context of military, they are not waiting for the insurgents to attack them because the mere presence of the terrorist in their own state or country can already be determined as a threat which is therefore needed to be eradicated immediately before they can inflict any harm to the people, state, or country within its territory. In short, their existence is the same as the act of attacking the friendly forces which we need to defend them where it still satisfies the definition given that is waging war because of security reasons.
Peace is what all people want. Everybody will do everything just to attain such with the use of any ways and means even if the consequence of their actions will cause what we do not want to happen which is war.
D. The political-military nexus
Having the intelligence or information on the things that is around help us to predict what will and or might happen. With that, we could establish a more decisive plan and strategies that would make the enemy’s attack ineffective. The possibilities that could happen will be prevented and a different course of actions will be made. But plans will be of no use if it will not be cast-off in an application. So by having those course of actions, we can practice or master what we will be doing if such possibilities would occur.
Next to having an information or intelligence against your enemy is to let your subordinates informed. Just like in the experience of every cadet during Leadership Development Course, Field Training Exercise and classroom instructions of Military Science, cadets are making Graphical Estimate of Situation on Counter Insurgency or known as GESCON wherein after making it, the one who made it will present the output to the members of the Army so that they will know what are the things they needed to do during the actual performance of the strategy. Also, the armies being informed can give their ideas to have a better strategy and place the best men suitable for the different areas of their actions.
In our status quo, we cannot deny the fact that even though there are junior officers in our Armed Forces, enlisted personnel are much more experienced than them that makes the enlisted personnel guide the officers. Making decisions and strategies will not come barely on the leaders but the voice and ideas of the members will also have a bearing or sometimes it is their knowledge that will be followed based on the leveling and analyzation of everybody. Democracy is being implemented wherein the decision of the majority is usually followed. Putting people on the field and fight the enemy without them being informed is like fighting with a blindfold. You cannot predict or see what your enemy will be doing that will cause you to be defeated without you doing anything.
E. Morality and War
According to the philosophers who studied war, they said that war must be the last resort if all other plans are unsuccessful. And the author of this paper also believes in it wherein wars are being fought on the last resort and of necessity. Just like what was stated and presented at the beginning, people engage in war because of security reasons wherein it is already the last decision they have in mind to protect not only themselves from danger but also their country or state. Basing this belief on the lesson of Jus ad Bellum, Jus in Bello, and Jus post-Bellum, it has explained there that before going to war, there are elements that are needed to satisfy for us to really stick to the decision of making war as the means to achieve peace. In short, it explains the concept of necessity wherein if war has already been chosen, we will apply the idea of Jus in Bello wherein we will fight based only on the political objective that was set which is just to attain peace. With the existing rules and regulations on International Armed Conflict and Non-international Armed Conflict, the way on how we fight wars will be guided that we need to follow those rules like the law of proportionality for us to still achieve our goal which is to attain peace. It was also presented above that having the intelligence or information plays a vital role in war, so as to obtaining information from the enemy who has been captured, specializations like Psychology and Elicitation is needed to know or dig deeper what the enemy has in mind for him to speak up and tell everything he knows about his friendly forces. With these specializations, torture could be prevented and violation on Human Rights will also be stopped.
In additional on how to obtain information, leaders must bear in mind that military and government are not the only ones involved in a war. They must also think that people living in that country or state or the civilians have also a role to play in war. By having their trust with the military and government, they will serve as the key to the locked door to point out what really happened in the area. With that, Class A information or information that are very reliable will be obtained from them for the leaders to have a greater study of the enemies. But for it to happen, leaders must have the quality of being people-centered that leaders will show to the people that what they are doing is not for their own gain but for their own benefit, so the people need to cooperate to achieve the primary goal which is to have a peaceful environment.
After waging in war and having completed the tasks to be done to achieve peace, responsibilities of the leaders will not stop there for they also need to have an existing plan on what they will be doing after the battle. Leaders need to fix the mess they have made on the duration of the battle. Just like ensuring the people involved in a war to be given a full attention like medical and safeguarding the area for another possible wave of attack from the enemy. The government will also help by helping the damaged state to start again just like rebuilding the infrastructures that were destroyed, giving the people a place to stay in and especially giving them their basic needs that will suffice their living while the reconstruction of the state is on-going.
F. Conclusion
To sum up, the things that were discussed in this paper, the idea revolved on the idea of having the intelligence to have a better and more decisive strategy. Next to having that intelligence or information is making the friendly forces informed for them to know what is happening in their surroundings. For letting them not informed is like putting them on the battlefield that is blindfolded in which they cannot predict and see the enemies attacking. In defining war, it was defined as the use of any ways and means to have an end which is to achieve peace. A peace which was also defined as having a pleasant environment that people live in harmony without the feeling of intimidation, threat or danger. Peace is also what people desire because the author believes that there are no people who want to live in chaos and people will be people wherein they will be doing anything just to achieve it.
After defining what war is, the discussion flows on the reason why war is being waged and its primary cause is by security reasons. People were compared to an animal because both of them have the instinct built within them that if they feel intimidated of they can sense danger, it is natural for them to defend themselves but have the initiative to attack first before defending is not being done. In the context of the military, defending one’s territory, state or country is different for military personnel do not wait for the insurgents to attack but it is them who attack first because by having their mere presence, they are already a threat to the people and state wherein militaries need to remove them.
Based on the status quo, democracy can be seen on how decisions and strategies are being made because just like in the Armed Forces, leaders who are the junior officers are known to be the decision makers but it is not their choices that are being followed all the time because if plans are being presented to the armies, the majority’s decision based on the assessment and analyzation of the leader will be executed.
According to the philosophers which are also believed by the writer, war is only waged as the last resort. And in conducting a war, leaders must bear in mind the concept of Jus ad Bellum, Jus in Bello, and Jus Post Bello wherein leaders must analyze whether the waging of war is a necessity or not. In a conflict, they must follow the existing laws present like the law of proportionality. After every battle, political leaders and the government must work together to rebuild the destroyed state or country for the people to regrow because people are the best asset that they can have in everything that they are doing.
War is not a way to achieve peace. We can have it without having any conflict by starting it within ourselves. For just like Maha Ghosanada said, “When you make peace with yourself, you make peace with the world.” With that, no one will wage a war and no one will defend themselves from a threat which is the primary cause of war according to the writer of this paper.

A. penelitian, pengabdian masyarakat. Sebagaimana tertuang dalam

A. Latar Belakang Masalah
Perguruan Tinggi adalah lembaga akademis yang berperan strategis dalam mencari dan mengembangkan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (iptek). Kegiatan mencari dan mengembangkan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, Tridharma perguruan tinggi (pendidikan, penelitian, dan pengabdian kepada masyarakat) dalam hal ini bukan hanya ditujukan untuk mengembangkan kemampuan dan keilmuan para akademisi di perguruan tinggi saja akan tetapi lebih luas lagi sebagai upaya meningkatkan daya saing serta berkontribusi terhadap pembangunan bangsa. Perguruan tinggi dan penelitian merupakan dua hal yang saling berkaitan satu dengan yang lainnya. Perguruan tinggi merupakan tempat atau sarana yang memfasilitasi para akademisi untuk melakukan kegiatan penelitian, pengabdian masyarakat.
Sebagaimana tertuang dalam Undang-undang Nomor 12 Tahun 2012 menyebutkan bahwa Perguruan Tinggi wajib untuk melaksanakan Tridarma Perguruan Tinggi, yaitu menyelenggarakan pendidikan, penelitian, dan pengabdian kepada masyarakat. Disebutkan pula, bahwa terdapat tujuh standar perguruan tinggi dalam mengelola kegiatan penelitiannya, yaitu: standar arah, standar proses, standar hasil, standar kompetensi, standar pendanaan, standar sarana dan prasarana, dan standar outcome. Kegiatan penelitian di perguruan tinggi memiliki peranan yang ‘vital’ khususnya dalam upaya mencari dan mengembangkan konsep, model, prototype, ilmu pengetahuan teknologi dan seni guna memecahkan persoalan bangsa.
Ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (iptek) memiliki peranan strategis, peranan tersebut sebagai upaya dalam memenuhi amanat dari UUD 1945 Pasal 31 ayat (5), tentang Pengembangan Ilmu Pengetahuan dan Teknologi, menyatakan bahwa: “Pemerintah memajukan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi dengan menjunjung tinggi nilai-nilai agama dan persatuan bangsa untuk kemajuan peradaban serta kesejahteraan umat manusia”.
Selanjutnya dalam UUD Pasal 28 C ayat (1) disebutkan bahwa: “Setiap orang berhak mengembangkan diri melalui pemenuhan kebutuhan dasarnya, berhak mendapatkan pendidikan, dan memperoleh manfaat dari Iptek, seni, dan budaya demi meningkatkan kualitas hidupnya dan demi kesejahteraan umat manusia”.
Antara ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi berjalan seiring dan saling terkait satu dengan yang lainnya. Salah satu upaya menghadapi pesatnya perkembangan teknologi saat ini, diperlukan adanya kemutakhiran ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, salah satunya dilakukan melalui berbagai kegiatan penelitian maupun inovasi. Melalui penelitian dan inovasi, ilmu pengetahuan teknologi akan dapat berkembang seiring dengan kebutuhan pada masanya. Dengan maju dan berkembangnya iptek di sebuah negara secara signifikan akan berkontribusi positif terhadap kemajuan negara tersebut. Sehingga dapat dikatakan, bahwa maju tidaknya penelitian merupakan salah satu indikator kemajuan suatu bangsa.
Seiring terus berkembangnya teknologi sebagai konskuensi logis dari globalisasi serta terbukanya era Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN (MEA), karenanya ukuran sebuah perekonomian suatu bangsa tidak lagi berbasiskan sumber daya alam (resource based economy), melainkan berbasis pada sumber daya pengetahuan (knowedge based economy). Implikasinya adalah, kekuatan bangsa diukur dari kekuatan iptek sebagai faktor primer ekonomi yang menggantikan kekuatan modal. Sejalan dengan implikasi tersebut, pemerintah khususnya perguruan tinggi dituntut agar dapat memajukan inovasi dan temuan-temuan anak bangsa yang salah satunya diperoleh dari fondasi riset yang kokoh. Perguruan tinggi dalam hal ini memiliki fungsi dan peranan strategis untuk dapat berkontribusi pada pembangunan yang berkelanjutan (sustainable development) dan pengembangan masyarakat secara keseluruhan. Disamping peranan utamanya dalam mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa dan memajukan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (iptek) dengan memperhatikan dan menerapkan nilai-nilai humaniora serta pembudayaan dan pemberdayaan bangsa Indonesia yang berkelanjutan. Sehingga melalui perguruan tinggi diharapkan mampu menghasilkan sumber daya manusia yang berpengetahuan, berpendidikan, dan skillfull (berwawasan, cerdas dan terampil).
Sementara ilmu pengetahuan & teknologi (iptek) dan inovasi dipahami sebagai keahlian sumber daya manusia, penelitian dan pengembangan. institusi dan juga universitas selama pelaksanaan penelitian, pengembangan dan penerapan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (iptek) didukung oleh faktor yang berkelanjutan (lembaga, sumber daya manusia, dan jaringan). Ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (Iptek), dan perguruan tinggi merupakan faktor penting dalam pembangunan suatu bangsa. Ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (Iptek) memberikan kemampuan bagi suatu bangsa untuk mengembangkan daya saing dan produktivitas masyarakatnya dalam mencapai standar dan kualitas kehidupan yang lebih baik. Selain menyediakan pengetahuan guna menggerakkan perekonomian, iptek juga memberikan solusi terhadap permasalahan nasional dan internasional. Sehingga, dapat dikatakan bahwa Iptek merupakan langkah strategis guna mencapai pertumbuhan ekonomi suatu bangsa.
Pembangunan Ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (iptek) dikatakan telah memberikan kontribusi nyata terhadap pembangunan nasional serta meningkatkan kemajuan dan kesejahteraan masyarakat atau dapat menjadi solusi bagi permasalahan nyata yang dihadapi oleh masyarakat, apabila mampu menghasilkan produk teknologi dan inovasi serta sumber daya manusia yang terampil, skillfull (berwawasan, cerdas dan terampil).
Pembangunan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (iptek) adalah kegiatan yang diperankan oleh pemerintah melalui Kementerian Riset Teknologi dan Pendidikan Tinggi (Kemenristekdikti). Hakikatnya, kegiatan pembangunan ini ditujukan bagi peningkatan kesejahteraan masyarakat serta membangun peradaban dan penguatan bangsa. Melalui kehadiran perguruan tinggi, diharapkan akan terjadi transformasi norma dan nilai-nilai serta budaya yang mengarah kepada sikap dan perilaku yang kondusif dalam segala aktivitas pembangunan.
Rencana Strategis Kementrian Riset, Teknologi, dan Pendidikan Tinggi, Permenristekdikti No.13 Tahun 2015, RPJMN 3 (2015-2019) adalah memantapkan pembangunan secara menyeluruh dengan menekankan pada pembangunan keunggulan kompetitif perekonomian yang berbasis sumber daya alam yang tersedia, sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas, serta kemampuan iptek.
There are 5 (five) Strategic Objectives, as an elaboration of the strategic goals mentioned earlier, that need to be accomplished within the 2015-2019 period. Those are: 1. Improvement of higher education learning process and student quality, 2. Improvement on Science & Technology Institutions and higher education quality, 3. Improvement on relevancy, quality, and quantitiy of human resource for higher education and science and technology, 4. Improvement on relevancy dan productivity of research and development; and 5. Strengthen innovation capability.

A. starting a budget no-frills airline. In


Tan Sri Dr. Tony Fernandes who is know as Fernandes was born in Kuala Lumpur on 30 April 1964. He is the founder of Tune Air Sdn. Bhd., who introduced the first budget no-frills airline, AirAsia, to Malaysians with the tagline “Now everyone can fly”. Fernandes managed to turn AirAsia, a failing government-linked commercial airline, into a highly successful budget airline public-listed company. He has since founded the Tune Group of companies. He is also the majority shareholder of Queens Park Rangers Football Club.
At a young age, he would follow his mother who sold Tupperware at Tupperware parties. He was educated at The Alice Smith School in Kuala Lumpur. When he was at age 12, he studied at Epsom College boarding school in England from 1976 to 1983. He matriculated to the London School of Economics and graduated with a degree in accounting.
He worked very briefly with Virgin Atlantic as an auditor, then he became the financial controller for Richard Branson’s Virgin Communications in London from 1987 to 1989 before he joined Warner Music International London as Senior Financial Analyst. Fernandes was admitted as Associate Member of the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) in 1991 and became Fellow Member in 1996. He is currently a member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW).
Fernandes was formerly a Warner Music executive in Malaysia, and Vice President, ASEAN at Warner Music South East Asia from December 1999 to July 2001. When Time Warner Inc announced its merger with America Online Inc., Fernandes left to pursue his dream of starting a budget no-frills airline. In September 2001, Fernandes purchased AirAsia and became its chief executive.
In year 2003, he lobbying our former Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad to propose the idea of open sky agreement with the neighbouring country such as Thailand, Indonesia and Singapore to take advantage. He then successful gain landing right to AirAsia and other discounted carriers. In year 2007, Fernandes involve his business in other industry by establish no-frills concept hotel chain, Tune Hotel. He also expand his venture by involve in reality tv series in 2013 which is “The Apprentice Asia” in year 2013. In year 2004, AirAsia joint venture with Shin Corporation. Tony Fernandes achieve no. 52, in Fast Company Top 100 Most Creative People in Business.

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Interpersonal roles is the manager’s responsibility for managing relationships with the organizational members and other constituents. The three interpersonal roles played by the manager are figurehead, leader and liaison.
Figurehead is managers need to perform some works that are especially events in nature such as appear at community function. Fernandes launched his memoirs, Flying High, a look back at his journey from music man to airline man in 29 October 2017. The book was unveiled at a star-studded affair at Marini’s On 57 in Kuala Lumpur, in the shadow of the Petronas Twin Towers.
Leader is managers must work together with their employees to achieve their goals. Fernandes do a ‘walk around’ management style. He works on the ground or in the cabin crew every month for a few days.
Liaison is managers define the activities for individuals and group works within the organization and develop favourable relationships with the outside constituents. Fernandes says that his employees always come first before his customers. He believes when he treat his employees happily, his employees will take care of his customers.

Informational roles is the manager’s responsibility for gathering and disseminating information to the stake holders of the organization. Informational roles include monitor, disseminator and spokesperson.
Monitor is manager will identify the internal and external environments of the organization to get useful information and from the information they can detect opportunities or threats for their organization. Before Fernandes made decision to introduced new route, he will monitor the market if already be serve well or not such as Bhubaneswar-Chennai route.
Disseminator is managers will distribute the information they get to make sure their employees have information to do their work efficiently and effectively. Fernandes told his employees that Chennai to New Delhi route have been serve very well, so they introduced another route which is Bhubaneswar-Chennai route.
Spokesperson is managers must always communicate with individuals that are outside of their organization. Fernandes got the title of FORBES ASIA’s 2010 Businessman of the Year and Forbes named him as a “single, charismatic pioneer” because of how he speak. When he speak, even the layman can understand.

Decisional roles is the manager’s responsibility for processing information and reaching conclusions. Decisional roles include entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator.
Entrepreneur is managers initiates project that capitalize on opportunities that have been detected such as developing new services. Fernandes made strategic vision to make AirAsia as the largest low cost airline.
Disturbance handler is managers can handle the problems that are arise. When the tragic loss of AirAsia QZ8051, Fernandes quickly fly to the same destination to meet with the families of the passengers and staff and continues gives support for them.
Resource allocator is manager can make decision which project will receive organizational resources.
Negotiator is managers can negotiate the employees, suppliers, customers, or other work group because when the manager negotiate the employees, managers can ensure that they doing the right work to achieve the goals. The tragic loss of AirAsia QZ8051 might made many passengers be nervous about flying with AirAsia but Fernandes does not explain what has happened because his priority is his customers. This action helps the customers to maintain and increase the trust for using service by AirAsia.


The ability to process a tremendous amount of information about the internal or external environment of the organization and determine implications of that information.
For example, Tony Fernandes develop foresight which he can succeed to beat his competitor by providing first budget no frills airline. He avoid the problems by taking an action before something bad happen. He always plans for AirAsia future of opportunity that they can take or threats that they have to face.

The ability to work effectively with one’s own and work group as well as others within the organization.
For example, Tony Fernandes build a good relationship with his staff which can create loyalty towards the company. This can make the organization achieve the goals easily. Fernandes make his workspace in open place where nobody does not have their own room including himself. He make that plan of workspace because he want his employees to contact him or walk up to him any time easily.

The ability to utilize the knowledge of tools, techniques and procedures that are specific to a particular field.
For example, Tony Fernandes did not know about the airline industry at first but he develop his talents, interests, abilities and dreams to enter the airline industry. He was willing to take the risks and finally he made the AirAsia into a profitable airline in just two years.


Planning is including the managers must set for their organization goals and how to achieved it.
For example Fernandes wants to make AirAsia as the biggest low cost airline in Asia even AirAsia was in a huge amount of debts at that time.

Organizing is involves the managers to organize the tasks that should be done and how the tasks will be managed and coordinated.
For instance, Fernandes divide the employees by specialization of works such as pilots and engineers.

Leading is managers must be capable to lead their employees do their group works so that they can achieve their goals.
Fernandes says employees always come number one and customers come number two because when the employees have a happy workforce, they will look after his customers

Controlling is the managers must monitor the performance of the organization and the progress in implanting strategic and operational plans.
Fernandes adopts a ‘walk around’ management style. He said that he learned a lot by work on the ground in the cabin crew every month for a few days.

A). knwoledge neede to influence the younger

A). Community service/volunteerism to my understanding means a way of give your time and enegry to assist with an organization without expecting anything payment or gift in return.
Volunteering gives you an opportunity to change people’s lives, including your own and the satisfaction of playing a role in someone else’s life or organization, helping people who may not be able to help themselves and also helping an organization to achieve its goal(s). Through volunteering person give to their community or other community which helps to develop skills such as social skills, and gaining valuable work experience all at the same time, it also contributes to personal development especially in areas such as self-fulfillment, self-confidence, and self-esteem. A person can also gain work ecperience from volunteering.

B). Jamaica is currently on a mission to achive four goals in vision 2030. They are: Goal 1: Jamaicans are empowered to chieve their fullest potential. Goal 2: The Jamaican society is secure,. cohesive and just. Goal 3: Jamaica’s economy purpose. Goal 4: Whatever the mind can conceive you shall achieve it.
Goal 1 and 4 are closely linked to community service project. Goal 1 is referring to the determination of the helpfulmentors the country can aim to achieve it’s goal to its full potential. The mentors will apply skills and knwoledge neede to influence the younger generations to have a frame of mind and capabilities to achieve their potential which is geared to achieved the country’s goal. I also selected Goal 4 because with help of our citizens to demonstrate and showcase good hygienic behaviour, it will influence people living in the community ans surroudning are to keep their environment clean and free from garbage. Volunteers can be able to promote good hygiene across the country through different ways and means such as putting up flyers in the organizations, schools and community, seminars/event in order to educate people in and around the area. With the help of volunteers this gola can be achieved and the country can be clean beautifual and air born disease free
C). I can help to contribute to Jamaica’s Vision 2030 by assisting with educational seminars to educate individuals on the imporatance of proper hygiene and how it will affect the environment they are in. I can start by practicing it in my home and community and putting flyers in and around my office to educate members of my workplace on its imprtance.

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A) profile people in the store buying a

A) This article demonstrates how the consumer’s buying behaviour is affected by the situational influences. Belk (1974) highlights different facets of situation such as physical factors for example the type of music within a store, ambience, store location, aroma and the ambience, social factors such as whether there’s a long queue in the store, or are there any high profile people in the store buying a product, reason why buyers purchase a product, task influences for example is there a need or a requirement to buy a particular product. An example can be seen where a consumer wants to buy a wedding ring then in this case the consumer is more likely to spend time in stores looking for a ring because it is a high investment product as it requires time and patience. If it’s a necessity the consumer will just go to any store and will buy the product but if its convenience the consumer is more likely to not buy a product in a rush. The last aspect of situational influence is the consumer’s moods. In order to summarise it can be said the situational influences are temporary conditions that affect the consumer’s buying or purchasing behaviour. Therefore from a marketer’s perspective all such factors are necessary to make sure that consumers buy their products.


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