“Intelligence is the key to success” (David Nathan). As the quote says, having been educated is what people need to excel and develop in different ways. Learnings can be acquired not only at schools but also in our respective homes and through experiences. In line with the quotation that is mentioned, it is believed that in order for the people to excel or develop, it is essential to know what are the things needed to do or the things they must ensure in order to grow. And so, before one can act out what they intended, individuals need to be knowledgeable.
In this paper, you will be able to see the importance of being well-informed in every decision making. The aim of this paper is to let the readers be educated on the philosophy that could help them in making their decisions and it will serve as their guide to improve their leadership skills especially in military through integrating this viewpoint they will acquire in making strategies needed in times of conflict or war and by handling their troops to lead them not into danger but in safe haven.
The ideas that will be presented and elaborated is as follows: First, the definition of war and peace and its essence. Second, the reasons and logic behind war and peace. The third is the viewpoint of the writer on what should be the undercurrents concerning politics and military in the conduct of war and the creation of strategies. Lastly, the belief of the writer on why and how war should be waged or fought.
B. The teleology of war and its strategic object
War is not the same as peace. In an own understanding of this author, there can be peace without war and vice versa. They come in a different form but they can also go together like, if there is war, then there is also a peace. It is very important to know the differences between war and peace. And to expand it further, the definition of the two based on his own learnings are: war is having an unfriendly atmosphere with the feeling of intimidation or menace. And peace is having a pleasant environment without the sensation of threat or danger. With the definition of war and peace, it can now serve as a guide in choosing the ways and means people are going to use or make to achieve an end which is either war or peace.
By understanding the basic definition of war and peace, the author has come up to a conclusion that war is an act of using any of the ways and means available to have an end which is to achieve peace. The same as Clausewitz on the latter part of his study, the author again believes that war is of limited and not unlimited. It is because the only thing that people want to achieve why there is war is to have peace. The peace which means that persons are living in harmony without the feeling of threat or danger in their own state or country.
C. The causes of war
People are unique with each other for we have different beliefs and understanding on the things that are happening in our world. Just like Clausewitz who believe that war is a result of a political objective or other philosophers who believe that war is the outcome of the necessity of one’s state. For the author’s personal perspective, he believes that war is the consequence of protecting one’s state. It is by security reasons why war is being waged. It is in the reason that there is no man in this world that wants to live in chaos. Every one of us desires to live in harmony and peace but in case that there is an external force that intimidated us not to feel harmless in our own place or country, we do not have any choice but to participate in a conflict which is war.
People are like animals that have the instinct of fighting for themselves if they can sense danger in their environment. This instinct is the reason why war or conflict is present but the action of every person or animal protecting themselves will not occur if there is no harm existing. An example to it is a skunk defending himself from danger. It was shown on a television show specifically National Geographic Channel that every time a skunk could feel the presence of an enemy who likes to kill him, the skunk is raising its tail facing its butt to the prey so that when the prey attacked the skunk, he will release a bad smell fart that will stick to the skin of the prey that makes it stop attacking the skunk. As what I have seen on the show, the skunk did not have the initiative to counter immediately its feeling of intimidation but it waited for the prey to attack him. Just like in persons, we are very conscious of our safety. So as to prevent danger, we prepare ourselves on what to do in case there is also a prey or an attacker that would intend to harm us, but the plan of defending ourselves will not be used to everybody that we are along with because they are doing nothing to feel us intimidated and to protect ourselves.
In the context of military, they are not waiting for the insurgents to attack them because the mere presence of the terrorist in their own state or country can already be determined as a threat which is therefore needed to be eradicated immediately before they can inflict any harm to the people, state, or country within its territory. In short, their existence is the same as the act of attacking the friendly forces which we need to defend them where it still satisfies the definition given that is waging war because of security reasons.
Peace is what all people want. Everybody will do everything just to attain such with the use of any ways and means even if the consequence of their actions will cause what we do not want to happen which is war.
D. The political-military nexus
Having the intelligence or information on the things that is around help us to predict what will and or might happen. With that, we could establish a more decisive plan and strategies that would make the enemy’s attack ineffective. The possibilities that could happen will be prevented and a different course of actions will be made. But plans will be of no use if it will not be cast-off in an application. So by having those course of actions, we can practice or master what we will be doing if such possibilities would occur.
Next to having an information or intelligence against your enemy is to let your subordinates informed. Just like in the experience of every cadet during Leadership Development Course, Field Training Exercise and classroom instructions of Military Science, cadets are making Graphical Estimate of Situation on Counter Insurgency or known as GESCON wherein after making it, the one who made it will present the output to the members of the Army so that they will know what are the things they needed to do during the actual performance of the strategy. Also, the armies being informed can give their ideas to have a better strategy and place the best men suitable for the different areas of their actions.
In our status quo, we cannot deny the fact that even though there are junior officers in our Armed Forces, enlisted personnel are much more experienced than them that makes the enlisted personnel guide the officers. Making decisions and strategies will not come barely on the leaders but the voice and ideas of the members will also have a bearing or sometimes it is their knowledge that will be followed based on the leveling and analyzation of everybody. Democracy is being implemented wherein the decision of the majority is usually followed. Putting people on the field and fight the enemy without them being informed is like fighting with a blindfold. You cannot predict or see what your enemy will be doing that will cause you to be defeated without you doing anything.
E. Morality and War
According to the philosophers who studied war, they said that war must be the last resort if all other plans are unsuccessful. And the author of this paper also believes in it wherein wars are being fought on the last resort and of necessity. Just like what was stated and presented at the beginning, people engage in war because of security reasons wherein it is already the last decision they have in mind to protect not only themselves from danger but also their country or state. Basing this belief on the lesson of Jus ad Bellum, Jus in Bello, and Jus post-Bellum, it has explained there that before going to war, there are elements that are needed to satisfy for us to really stick to the decision of making war as the means to achieve peace. In short, it explains the concept of necessity wherein if war has already been chosen, we will apply the idea of Jus in Bello wherein we will fight based only on the political objective that was set which is just to attain peace. With the existing rules and regulations on International Armed Conflict and Non-international Armed Conflict, the way on how we fight wars will be guided that we need to follow those rules like the law of proportionality for us to still achieve our goal which is to attain peace. It was also presented above that having the intelligence or information plays a vital role in war, so as to obtaining information from the enemy who has been captured, specializations like Psychology and Elicitation is needed to know or dig deeper what the enemy has in mind for him to speak up and tell everything he knows about his friendly forces. With these specializations, torture could be prevented and violation on Human Rights will also be stopped.
In additional on how to obtain information, leaders must bear in mind that military and government are not the only ones involved in a war. They must also think that people living in that country or state or the civilians have also a role to play in war. By having their trust with the military and government, they will serve as the key to the locked door to point out what really happened in the area. With that, Class A information or information that are very reliable will be obtained from them for the leaders to have a greater study of the enemies. But for it to happen, leaders must have the quality of being people-centered that leaders will show to the people that what they are doing is not for their own gain but for their own benefit, so the people need to cooperate to achieve the primary goal which is to have a peaceful environment.
After waging in war and having completed the tasks to be done to achieve peace, responsibilities of the leaders will not stop there for they also need to have an existing plan on what they will be doing after the battle. Leaders need to fix the mess they have made on the duration of the battle. Just like ensuring the people involved in a war to be given a full attention like medical and safeguarding the area for another possible wave of attack from the enemy. The government will also help by helping the damaged state to start again just like rebuilding the infrastructures that were destroyed, giving the people a place to stay in and especially giving them their basic needs that will suffice their living while the reconstruction of the state is on-going.
To sum up, the things that were discussed in this paper, the idea revolved on the idea of having the intelligence to have a better and more decisive strategy. Next to having that intelligence or information is making the friendly forces informed for them to know what is happening in their surroundings. For letting them not informed is like putting them on the battlefield that is blindfolded in which they cannot predict and see the enemies attacking. In defining war, it was defined as the use of any ways and means to have an end which is to achieve peace. A peace which was also defined as having a pleasant environment that people live in harmony without the feeling of intimidation, threat or danger. Peace is also what people desire because the author believes that there are no people who want to live in chaos and people will be people wherein they will be doing anything just to achieve it.
After defining what war is, the discussion flows on the reason why war is being waged and its primary cause is by security reasons. People were compared to an animal because both of them have the instinct built within them that if they feel intimidated of they can sense danger, it is natural for them to defend themselves but have the initiative to attack first before defending is not being done. In the context of the military, defending one’s territory, state or country is different for military personnel do not wait for the insurgents to attack but it is them who attack first because by having their mere presence, they are already a threat to the people and state wherein militaries need to remove them.
Based on the status quo, democracy can be seen on how decisions and strategies are being made because just like in the Armed Forces, leaders who are the junior officers are known to be the decision makers but it is not their choices that are being followed all the time because if plans are being presented to the armies, the majority’s decision based on the assessment and analyzation of the leader will be executed.
According to the philosophers which are also believed by the writer, war is only waged as the last resort. And in conducting a war, leaders must bear in mind the concept of Jus ad Bellum, Jus in Bello, and Jus Post Bello wherein leaders must analyze whether the waging of war is a necessity or not. In a conflict, they must follow the existing laws present like the law of proportionality. After every battle, political leaders and the government must work together to rebuild the destroyed state or country for the people to regrow because people are the best asset that they can have in everything that they are doing.
War is not a way to achieve peace. We can have it without having any conflict by starting it within ourselves. For just like Maha Ghosanada said, “When you make peace with yourself, you make peace with the world.” With that, no one will wage a war and no one will defend themselves from a threat which is the primary cause of war according to the writer of this paper.