ABSTRACT: The advanced improvement in wireless sensor networks can be used in supervisingvarious parameters in agriculture. Due to uneven natural distribution of rainwater it is very difficult for farmers to monitor and control the distributionof water to agriculture field in the whole farm or as per the requirement ofthe crop.
There is no ideal irrigation method for all weather conditions, soilstructure and variety of crops cultures. Farmers suffer large financial lossesbecause of wrong prediction of weather and incorrect irrigation methods. Inthis context, with the evolution of miniaturized sensor devices coupled withwireless technologies, it is possible remotely monitor parameters such asmoisture, temperature and humidity. In this paper it is proposed to design,develop and implement a wireless sensor network connected to a central nodeusing ZigBee, which in turn is connected to a Central Monitoring Station (CMS)through General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) or Global System for Mobile (GSM)technologies. The system also obtains Global Positioning System (GPS)parameters related to the field and sends them to a central monitoring station.This system is expected to help farmers in evaluating soil conditions and actaccordingly. KEYWORDS:Precision,agriculture,Wirelesssensor networks, ZigBee.
I.INTRODUCTION In of soil can correctly guide agriculturalproduction and improve crop yield. It also can provide scientific basis forhigh-precision monitoring and calculating for farmland drought and flood area. Manyproblems exists due to traditional wired communication.
It has expansive applicationprospects in the water of soil environmental monitoring field . The age of theInternet of things comes; wireless sensor networks become the core ofnetworking. In order to achieve greater things on the technical requirements ofthe Internet of things, we adopt the technology of wireless sensor networkbased on Zigbee, GPRS and Web Services technology designing a set of cheapcost, low power requirements, flexible automaticnetworking temperature humidity monitoring system of soil. The system is made ofwireless sensor network nodes and network management platform. Zigbee node is respectively transmits the field of soilenvironmental monitoring in the water of soil , real time monitoring thetemperature and humidity acquisition of the temperature and humidity data tothe Zigbee stations of gateways node.
One of the mostimportant sensor for PA field measurement is soil moisture sensor. Soilmoisture is the water that held in the spaces between soil particles. Soilmoisture is the key parameter to determine when to irrigate and amount of waterto supply. Block diagram of sensor node Precision irrigation involves the accurate and preciseapplication of water to meet the specific requirements of individual plants orcrops and minimize adverse environmental impact. It is also estimatedthat 40% of the water used for agriculture indeveloping countries is lost, either by evaporation, spills, or absorption bythe deeper layers of the soil, beyond thereach of plants’ roots..
Commonly accepted definitionof Precision irrigation is sustainable management of water resources whichinvolve esapplication of water to the crop at the right time, righ amount,right place and right manner thereby helping to manage the field variability ofwater in turn increasing thecrop productivity and water use efficiency alongwith reduction in energy cost on irrigation. Hedley and Yule suggested watersavings of around 25% are possible through improvements in applicationefficiency obtained by spatially varied irrigation applications IV.MOTIVATION Reducing the energy utilization has now becomea crucial objective for many people. Transparency in the power consumption andregular feedback on electricity utilization must be provided to consumers sothat they can make some changes in the power consumption pattern to saveelectricity. In today’s generation the electricity bill that we get does nothave our daily consumption details as well as the reason that because of whichappliance your electricity bill is high from the previous one. It only has thegraph of monthly electricity consumption and not the day to day electricityconsumption. For this purpose smart electricity meters that can be remotelymonitored in furnishing the users with the feedback regarding the electricityusage and controlled are used.
In real-time, this system helps in identifyingthe biggest electricity consumption and helps consumers in decreasing theirelectricity utilization. It also helps you reduce your daily electricityconsumption by seeing the graph of day to day consumption of differentappliances and you can come to know about that appliance which has the largestenergy consumption at the end of the day. We are also going to implements theconcept of automatic switching of light when there is no one in the room toreduce the electricity consumption in our project.
V. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT 1)Pest Management Pest detection and control is at least as old as agriculturebecause there has always been a need to keep crops free from pests. A number ofcapabilities so far expected for pest control in agriculture using wirelesssensor network.
Agriculture is considered as the oldest occupational activity,after that pest management and control is then born. Farm people usuallywant to keep their crops free fromdestructive pests as possible for these creatures may bruise their yieldsresulting to a poor harvest and poor food quality. There are many advantageoustechniques proposed for pest control in agriculture using wireless sensornetwork.
One of these techniques may include pest identification throughphysical characteristic detection. The system has a gathered data about thephysical attributes of pests, when such pest is detected, the system can easilyknow what type of pest it is and immediately suggest possible ways on how tomanage the farm situation.2)Agricultural Water Management Water consumption around the globe has increasedseven times in the course of the last century. The level of ground water isdeclining. It is know that 1.1 billion people across the world live withoutsatisfactory access to clean water.
This results in the death of roughly 2million people per year due to lack of water related diseases. Politicalstability itself is at risk, as experts predict that upcoming conflicts aremost probably about water resources. As water supplies became scarcer, there isthe need to manage water consumption. Water consumption has increased 11dramatically in the past decade.3.Water is a precious resource, it is also considered as a source of conflictamong nations. World water commission reports estimates that water us-age willincrease by one half over the next 25 years. The application of wireless sensornetwork (WSN) for a water irrigation control monitoring is composed of a numberof sensor nodes with a networking capability that can be deployed for an ad hocand continuous monitoring purpose.
The guideline involvedl such as the waterlevel and motor movement of the gate controlling the flow of water will bemeasured in the real time by the sensors that send the data to the base stationor control/ monitoring room.. VI.OBJECTIVEForests areimportant sources for biodiversity and ecological balance.
They provide manybenefits and it is the main functions for water and soil conservation, geneticresources for plant and animal, and also source of wood supply and other forestgoods. However, recently the green forest environment has been interrupted bynon ethical activities such as illegal logging and also country developmentactivities that decrease the benefits of the forest contribution. Thus, inorder to ensure long term forest autonomy, it is important to implement amonitoring system that is responsible in providing effective monitoring forforest environment 1. Severalstudies have highlighted forest monitoring system 2. Rather thanusing disposable batteries as power supplies,3 use nodesolar power system and lithium-ion battery for power continuity and introducethe regulator control of the system method and design of software systembriefly. Their system can improve the lithium-ion battery life to ensurebusiness continuity of system. But for the implementation of solar powersystem, it still needs to redo the experimentation on the operation of chargeand discharge control to make sure the control and estimation of battery poweraccuracy fulfil the system requirements.
Forest monitoring is not limited toenvironmental issues only, but it also includes fire monitoring and detectionin forests4 We know thatfire forest can lead to environmental degradable. Therefore, based on thisawareness, 5 develop aframework on forest monitoring and fire detection which discovers sensor nodesdeployment approach, an architecture for fire detection sensor network,interaction protocol of intra-cluster and inter-cluster. They develop asimulator to perform simulation tests in order to examine the proposed systemprotocols and components. In the end, their system manages to provide effectiveand efficient operation that conserve less energy without disturbing the rapidreaction capability. In other studies, 6 proposed a fire detection system that usesa wireless local area network (WLAN) together with sensor node technology. Thesystem set in wireless mesh network uses multi-sensor nodes with IP-basedcameras to detect the presence of fire. When a fire is discovered by the nodes,the sensor alarm propagate via wireless network to a central server.
Theclosest wireless camera to the multisensor is selected by the central server,and it transmits a message to it to retrieve real-time figures from the area.The most important benefits from this study is that it integrate sensory datawith VII.RESUL &DISCUSSION 1. In monitoring reports, presentation ofresults should emphasize data summaries, summary statistics, charts, graphs,and illustrative or exploratory analyses.
In-depth trend analyses, hypothesis testing, and power analyses can alsobe included if the statistical methods used are specified in a peer-reviewedprotocol, or have undergone peer review in previous reports. In general, in-depth, complex statisticalanalyses that have not been previously peer reviewed should be reserved foranalytical reports. However, un-reviewedanalyses can be included in monitoring reports provided appropriate externalpeer review occurs before the report is finalized, and provided the timelinessof the report is not compromised.
2. Monitoring reports should interpret the mostrecent data in view of results from previous years, and should discuss how theresults address the monitoring questions. The organization of these sections should clearly highlight anyconclusions regarding resource condition or ecosystem integrity, particularlythose pertaining to declines or threats. VIII.ACKNOWLEDGMENTThis IJIREICE report on “Wireless sensor based system forfield monitoring and plant protection” has been possible only because of kindco-operation lent by our teacher and project guide Mrs.
Sonal Barve whichthis would not have been possible. We would also like to thank ourparents, who have provided us with all resources and the support needed to gainknowledge and complete this project. Atlast I would like to thank Dr.
B.K. Mishra (Principal), Dr.Kamal Shah(DeanR&D), Dr.Sandhya Save (Electronics department, HOD) for their guidance andsupport. At last I would like to thank Dr. B.
K. Mishra (Principal), Dr. KamalShah(Dean R&D), Dr. Sandhya Save (Electronics department, HOD) for theirguidance and support. IX. Conclusion This paper presents a cropmonitoring system based on wireless sensor network.
IoT has importantsignificance in promoting agricultural information. ARM 7 processor isintegrating with the sensors (temperature, humidity and water level) used foragriculture monitoring and crops production. Depending upon the threshold valuemotor is controlled automatically. The monitored crop details are uploaded tothe cloud via the IoT gateway. Hence the farmers can easily to access andcontrol the agricultural production, whereas saving the input materials,improving efficiency, productivity and profitability in farming productionsystem.