Abstract— Regarding to the necessity of developing sustainable concepts in the fields like tourism that are the base of long term development, in this paper we tried to analyze concepts like sustainability, carrying capacity and necessity of attending them in which we can reach these goals. Given different environments and variety of topics in attractions that here our bed is natural environment, we used qualitative Matriz (SWOT) based on taken strategies using conceptual analysis of Manning And Lime from mentioned operator and also the most visited existing tourists, orally prepared in tour that is strength of decision making in the attraction quality and help us and planners in developing to deal with probable dangers effectively that has been made attractions in exposure. Our case study is Badab Soort springs that is known as second natural place of Iran after Damavand peak.
Given the importance of domestic tourism and its more positive effects inside the country and stakeholder’s extra enjoyment and many other factors, there should be more attended by officials for alike sample of country and this issue is considered due to the existence of foreign sample (Turkey), whilst tourists are attracted to this place intending many pull factors and its interests finally flow into the packet of another country. Indeed it hopes to be applied suitable priorities in macro level by local managers and planners. Keywords— Sustainability, carrying capacity, Badab soort, tourism, SWOT. I. INTRODUCTION U nderstanding usage of sustainability and carrying capacity is essential in tourism development in planning and designing of environment. Environmental sustainability is consistent by maintaining ecological and biological processes, relevant resources 1. Economic sustainability, meaning that when economic development is carried out with high efficiency, is in a way that is applied the necessary comments and control over resources and can be preserved for future generations. Study addressed in here is physical aspect affecting environmental features and activities done in those places.
Activities such as shopping, leisure, play tennis or golf or dinner can be done in many places but if these activities are conducted in an atmosphere of joy and happiness, will be more enjoyable. Thus the environmental quality or destination of passengers can play an important role in the success of the site. This means that if tourists, travelers and visitors know the place crowded, polluted or clean, will affect his decision in enjoying of the environment. For example, the Chernobyl nuclear accident and oil spill from a large tanker in Alaska, both lead to reduce the tourists to visit those places 2.
In case of interaction between the environment and human, environment and human are palced in the spotlight. A large proportion of tourists are traveling for the purpose of experiening natural environment, and visiting monuments by doing activities such as walking, hiking, wildlife watching and scenic areas 3. The largest and most visible impact of tourism on the environment is physical damage 4. Alongside with development of environmental sustainability, development of buildings lead to improve environment that tourists need and are provided in the preservation of historical and cultural heritage that comes from local revenue tourists, and also infrastructure development, construction machinery, road construction, plumbing, water and sewage systems installation and such things and revenues from tourism are used in this way. This type of activities in developing lead to reduce pollution and improve environment quality 4, 5. The effects of tourists on the environment, depends on managerial practices and planning that should be done by the relevant organizations. More negative impacts of tourism on the environment belong to the sites that have fewer managerial control or there is no administrative actions.
Many tourism activities have unplanned negative effects on the environment. Thus, sustainable tourism for minimizing such impacts and maximizing the positive effects, implement strategies for planning and managing. One of the main strategies in environmental management, is neccessity of environmental adjustment that how do the activities are done in environment bed in terms of crucial criterion are considered. Now these existing strategies and concepts for preparing initiatives must be in priority. Here we are supposed to explain basic concepts of environmentally sustainable development for providing solution according to the environment. II. MethodologyIn this article by using qualitative SWOT matrix model approach, given the dimensions of the environment we are trying to ultimately provide strategies based on tourism operators and most visited tourists of the place that can relatively give good insight to the planners at the local level and help them developed quality of tourism destination.
III. SustainabilitySustain Ability is a clear explanation of the concept of sustainability, the Ability of human beings to sustain. Sustainable development is defined in “Our Common Future” as meeting the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs 6. Creation of an environmentally responsible future requires a vision of our global community and efforts to develop, promote, and implement broader concepts of sustainable practices. Sustainability possesses many aspects of meaningful approaches summarized in the following thoughts: “.
..no generation can contacts debates greater than may be paid during the course of its own existence” 7.
Sustainability refers to the ability of a society, ecosystem…
functioning into the indefinite future without being forced into decline through exhaustion…
. of key resources 8. The focus and scale of sustainability efforts depend on local conditions, including resources, politics, individual actions, and th unique features of the community.
A. sustainability approachesKnowing “what sustainability development is “why we need it” lead to an understanding of how it can be implemented. Several agencies and individuals have developed lists for sustainability criteria, indicators, and measures. Sustainability is an abstract concept that is difficult to aggregate empirically as it is difficult to assign quantitative values for some of its components. In tourism development, many economic values may be measured with reasonable accuracy, such as total revenue affected directly by numbers and the types of tourists. Other values such as social impacts, local identity, ecological integrity, health hazard, or beauty values are not quantitative values and are difficult to measure numerically. IV. the need for sustainable developmentThe Rio De Janeiro Earth Summit (1992) focused world attention on critical issues of sustainability and natural resources to develop a plan of action for future global partnership to achieve concrete sustainability goals.
The world was confronting worsening conditions of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy, and the continuing deterioration of the ecosystems on which we depend for our well-being. Government attempted to forge an action agenda based on sustainable development principles 9.In the tourism industry, the spontaneous and unplanned use of certain destination areas has resulted in uncontrolled sprawl, destruction of natural environment, inadequate infrastructure, polluted waters and deteriorating tourism product. However in an attempt to reduce the problems of unplanned tourism, some sites are now being planned as integrated developments 10. The concepts of sustainability development encompasses Tolba (1987):· Help for the very poor because they are left with no option other than to destroy their environment;· Self- reliant development within natural resources constraints;· Cost- effective development using differing economic criteria to the traditional approach; that is to say development should not degrade environmental quality, nor should it reduce it productivity in the long run; and· The great issues of health control, appropriate technologies, food self- reliance, clean water and shelter for all.V.
sustainable tourismSustainable tourism is an extension for the concept of sustainable development and has become a major issue in recent years. Sustainable tourism is the tourism that allow visitors to enjoy an attraction, community, or region in such a way that local natural and environment and social vulture can be sustained indefinitely. So the issue is what criteria can be effective to have qualitative and thoughtful development. Here we imply some of these. ü The tourist’s experiences should draw upon the character of the environment, its aesthetics, culture, vegetation and wildlife.ü The tourism development should assist conservation, supplement local people’s incomes, bring new use and value to historic structure and enhance reclamation of derelict land.ü Planning design and setting of tourist development should be compatible with and, if possible, enhance the local landscape.ü Control of tourism should remain as much as possible in local hands; this control and the ensuring benefits should be spread through the community and, equally; those who do benefits should contribute to environmental conservation and enhancement.
ü Tourism investment should support the local economy and encourage a strategy dispersal of activity. Avoiding congestion and minimizing impacts 11.A number of tools have been developed to deal with the sustainability problems. Two of these tools are visitor management techniques and carrying capacity calculations. Here we will explain the carrying capacity concept and gradually its dimensions.VI. carrying capacityDiscussion of the impacts of tourism and the tourism development often leads to the question of capacity.
Many of the current problems of tourism stem from the pressure of that when capacity is exceeded, quality is reduced. The CC concept determines the acceptable level of use change for a resource beyond which that resource will be significantly degraded 12. The concept of carrying capacity was introduced in biology to define the limit a species population attrains given the environmental resistance indigenous to its location.A. tourism carrying capacity Tourism carrying capacity is the maximum number of people who can use a site without an unacceptable alteration in the physical environment and without an unacceptable decline in the quality of experience gained by visitors 13. B. Need for carrying capacity Policy It is useful to consider what purpose underline the efforts to estimate the carrying capacity of resources. As indicated numerous definitions of carrying capacity are in the literature.
a) Capacity is seen as a function of both environmental and social effects.b) A notion of sustained output (effects over time) is reflected.c) Recognition that carrying capacity levels will vary according to the type of activities under consideration and;D) That the formulation of a carrying capacity is dependent upon the establishment of clear management objectives for the areas.Commonly the need for policy is not recognized until the area has reached a decline stage.
If a policy is established in the early stages of tourism lifecycle, it is possible that the area might never reach a decline situation. An essential role of tourism policy makers is to determine the lifecycle of their destination, the optimum carrying capacity to sustain or obtain a desired lifecycle stage 14.Understanding the concept of carrying capacity is also essential for practical physical planning, management, and decision-making in tourism. The gap between theoretical models and the real world has to be closed by managers. Managers make value judgments to shape the environment according to their strategies and subjective goals. Planners and managers impose arbitrary maximal limits to recreational impacts, and develop minimal threshold for investments to be profitable. Decision makers can cope with problems of tourism growth by proper controlled development, rather than restrictive measures and remedial reactions.
Determining factors for carrying capacity in the application of appropriate coordination with some of the parameters is necessary. Now we will decribe these factros below. 1) Excessive rate of growth or change: The rate of growth is a factor that can influence all other variables, but is treated as a seprated approach to capacity because rapid change itself can have detrimental impacts 15. Problems might be caused by an inadequate system to make policy and management changes or by the absence of appropriate policies altogether.2) Resource limits: A common planning procedure is to conduct inventories of existing resources and to identify obstacles to development.
3) Tolerance by the host population: The preferences of a host population could be allowed to dictate the types and amounts of growth and change based on the premise that those most directly affected by tourism should be given the greatest voice in declining how to control it.4) Satisfaction of visitors: The attitude and experiences of visitors, if negative, can act to restrict the growth of tourism or to cause a decline in population in a destination area. However, this is a complex process since satisfaction is dynamic and constantly changing. Regard to debates we described for expanding topic, we will tempt to express debates about their relations with mentioned topic (the attraction). VII. Badab soort natural springsA collection of beautiful spas and Badab Soort springs in Orest (Mazandaran) is considered as an amazing natural masterpieces and beautiful fountain in the world and the second largest national monument after Damavand peak. Position of these springs in south east of Sarri town, at an altitude of 1841 meters above sea level and is located on the geopolitical village Everest. This beautiful place that covers about three acres, covered with coniferous forests form the north by mountains and hills and from the south overlooking the downstream valleys, and from the east with adjacent highlands and shrub and plants.
And from the west also surrounded by Orest Village. Badab soort mysterious springs comprising fourteen water springs that are quite different in terms of color, odor or taste. One of main springs is very salty and has a small lake, that mainly used in summer for swimming and spa, in a part of bottom of the lake that is called the Bermuda of Orest is a deep hole. At the edge of lake there are also black sediments with water that are useful for treatment of back and leg pain, skin diseases, rheumatism and migraines. Also due to the high salinity of lake and having minerals it does not freeze in winter and no animal can live in it. Other thirteen springs located in the vicinity of the springs, are much smaller and are known as the elixir of life. There are waters with orange color and slightly soure that are boiled from the earth permanently.
Also slightly around the crater of springs, deposit of iron oxid have laid. Sediments of Badab Soort springs flow from top of the mountain to bottom in myriads have created beautiful small pond in fifferent colors that it is displayed concealed hidden secrets and pristine enchanting in the world of nature. Badab soort springs is a geopark and coincidentlly has been formed of final folding of Alborz in quaternary period of geology. Of course, these springs are very young, becauese if you walk directly hundred meters toward north in the heights, you will reach old Badab Soort that is known as pit of time. But this is hundreds of years that spring has dried, but beauties have remained and if it was Faithful, undoubtedly would be one of the wonders of universe.
Another place is small badab that is called Shorsar comprised of two springs. The two springs are very small in size and are located in orest village and its health benefits are very good compared to other springs. Totaly around Orest village, there are three Badab in different geographical positions, that two of them are alive and each of them have springs with moderate temperature and in entire year is full of water. Visiting ponds and funtains of Badab Soort, freashen tourists.
The most imaginative scenes of sunrise and sunset are in spotlight and will not be forgotten from tourists’s spirit and mind. Badab Soort is beautiful in all seasons, and each season has its own beauty. But most visited times are spring and summer and in spring season is very blooming and green 16.VIII. Developing initiatives for attraction1. Construction of asphalt road about 5 km from the village center where tourists stop vehicles in Orest. Due to environmental issues paving path up the hill where the springs are located in the parking, is prohibited.2.
Connecting villages around Everest to Badeleh (Semnan) with Asphalted road and and connection of Badab soort to Ali Damghan fountain in Semnan province.3. Physical development in rural and urban.4. Great project of Orest area in order to introduce tourism attractions and development at the local level 17. IX. analytical model of manning and limeThe first rigorous scientific application of carrying capacity to parks and related areas came in the early 1960s with a conceptual monograph 18 and a preliminary empirical treatment 19. Perhaps the major contribution of Wager’s conceptual analysis was the expansion of carrying capacity from its dominant emphasis on environmental concerns to a dual focus including social or experiential considerations.
Three dimensions of carrying capacity of parks and related areas are shown as follows. Fig 1: (Manning and Lime, 1996) § Resource: The ecological characteristics of the natural resource base of parks and related areas help determine the degree of change in the environment that results from recreation use. Some reosurce bases are inherently more fragile than others. These resource characteristics should be studied and may become important guides in formulating management objectives/desired conditions and associated indicators and standards. § Experiential: The needs and wants of society are important in determining appropriate park and outdoor recreation oppportunities. Studies of visitors to parks and outdoor areas may suggest appropriate types and levels of outdoor recreation use and should be incorporated into carrying capacity analysis and management.§ Managerial: Legal directives, agency mission statements, and other policy-related guidlines may suggest appropriate managment objectives/desired conditions and related indicators and standards. Moreover, financial, personel, and other management resources may also suggest the types and levels of parks and recreation use that are feasible 18, 19.
In Manning and Lime analytical model, 3 concept of resource, experiential and managerial that are bases of attending carrying capacity in related areas, were cited. Here we will address the experiential concept and for better achievement through SWOT matrix, we are supposed to make qualitative initiatives and favorable policies alongside with sustainable development of attractions through one of the official tour operators1 of tourism and most visited tourists’s experience. This method is one of the strategic methods for adapting strengths and weaknesses within the system with external threats and opportunities of the system and provide systematic analysis to identify these factors and develop a long term plan that create best match between them. A model of long-term planning that is to maximize strengths and opportunities and minimize threats and weaknesses. Table 2: SWOT (IF) Weaknesses Strengths 1.
Lack of local guide in area. 2. Lack of warning sings. 3. lack of any proper.
facilities and services for tourists. 4. Lack of access routes for displacement. 5. Lack of official agencies following for relatively improving the tourism activities. 6. Infamous of area. 1.
The unique beauty of the natural landscape. 2. Curative springs.
3. The absence of any man-made phenomenon, even in the periphery of the site. 4. Combination of two semi-arid and temperate areas.
5. Chance of having domestic sample. Table 3: SWOT (EF) Opportunities Threats 1. Presence of stakeholders’s connectors for more encouraging of economic agencies and businesses.
2. Existance of northern corridor in transit route and adjacent areas. 3. Mineral deposits in the region. 4. Easier access of domestic tourists to the attraction compared with foreign sample (Turkey). 1.
Lack of suitable privacy for tourists versus steps, fountains and deteriorating. 2. Constructing mines and abuse of springs and danger of destroying.
Table 4: Strategies based on opportunities WO SO 1. Identify relevant stakeholders and develop partnerships to identify and detect attractions potential and action for destination marketing activities and engage in other civic organizations for providing related facilities. 2. Receiving support of main organizations for developing goals by connecting stakeholders with suitable financial asset that have proper purpose for their own works. 1. Partnership of firms and senior destination management organizations of foreign and domestic samples for exchanging mutual experiences.
2. Attempt to highlight the therapeutic function of springs in a way that by doing comprehensive investigations, happen minimal damage by cooperating with those in mining activities and in scientific promotion and productive result from these actions. Table 5: Strategies based on threats WT ST 1. Using experts of local community due to their better understanding of proper management of constructive and mineral activities and informing. 1.
Accessing by natural infrastructure and applicating them for preventing devastation. 2. Applying Alternative tourism for probable focus on other cases having better effects and it is to have possible activity. X. cunclusionSustainability has many dimensions and are different depend on type and finally policy making and designing environment are also different.
The art of work is that whatever our analysis about sustainability dimensions specifically carrying capacity as one of long term developing concepts become more real, their performance will be developed and we will not have a probable error, although it is difficult in practice. More attention should be directed toward the more sensitive regions and try to use appropriate models and results with regard to the target community, available resources (human, etc.) that are familiar with better working conditions and regional areas that can also provide economic activity promotion. Whatever present analysis and estimates by management, planning and experience together for a common goal, which is trying to meet the needs of future generations happen, it will be easier to achieve the millennium goals.XI. acknowledgementThanks to Milad Khorasani, undergraduate student of entrepreneurship management and Naser Ansari poor also in tourism management both from Semnan University that helped us to offer suggestions.
1 Semnan, Qaem blvd, Science and Technology Park of Semnan University, Ecotourism agency of Zamin Gasht Pars.