Abstract:The conception of cybercrime is relating to the age of information super highway of the contemporary world. Now-a-days cybercrime has emerged as an alarming a great social problem in Bangladesh as well as the worldwide. It causes harm to the privacy of individuals as well as creates threat to the international peace and solidarity like hacking, sending malicious mails, spreading vulgar pictures, cyber terrorism and illegal using of intellectual properties.
This paper confirms the ICT Act, 2006 a historical step in the cyber world. The ICT Act was enacted in Bangladesh for prevention and control of Cyber Crimes. With the coming into force of ICT Act, it becomes necessity to introduce certain consequential change in certain provisions of the Penal Code, 1860 as also in the Evidence Act, 1872 in the legal system of Bangladesh in order to meet the new requirements of the cyber space.
In this regard, the socio-legal analysis suggests how every country of the world can enact effective legal provisions within the purview of their national boundary to protect cybercrimes from cyber space.INTRODUCTION:Cybercrimes have risen so dramatically in recent years that they have seemingly replaced old-fashioned, organized crime.The proliferation of technology devices and other equipment; their pervasive use across age, gender, socioeconomic and geographic boundaries; and, for many, a false sense of information security have merged to create a perfect storm for cybercriminal activity. In fact, cybercrimes have risen so dramatically in recent years that they have seemingly replaced old-fashioned, organized crime.
A cybercrime is defined as an intended act involving the use of computers or other technologies, and the criminal activity must take place in a virtual setting, such as the Internet. 2 Cybercrimes share three elements:1. Tools and techniques to perpetrate a crime2.
Approach or methodology for executing the criminal plan – known as a vector3. Crime itself that is the end result of those plans and activities (a cybercrime is the ultimate objective of the criminal’s activities)”The modern thief can steal more with a computer than with a gun. Tomorrow’s terrorist may be able to do more damage with a keyboard than with a bomb” Babu, Maya (2004).1. 3 Nature of Cyber CrimeA cybercriminal can destroy websites and portals by hacking and planting viruses, carry out online frauds by transferring funds from one corner of the globe to another, gain access to highly confidential and sensitive information, cause harassment by e-mail threats or obscene material, play tax frauds, indulge in cyber pornography involving children and commit innumerable other crimes on the Internet. It is said that none is secure in the cyber world.
The security is only for the present moment when we are actually secure. With the growing use of the Internet, cybercrime would affect us all, either directly or indirectly.1.
4 Classification of Cyber CrimeCyber Crimes can be mainly classified as:? Traditional crimes committed on or through the new medium of the Internet. For example, cheating, fraud, misrepresentation, defamation, pornography thefts etc. committed on or through or with the help of the internet would fall under this category.? New crimes created with the Internet itself, such as hacking and spreading viruses etc.? New crimes used for commission of old crimes. For example, where hacking is committed to carry out cyber frauds.Kinds of Cyber Crime2.
1 Kinds of Cyber CrimeWe are living in a digital world where computers are not just an ordinary thing anymore but a “necessity” to our everyday lives. Most of us only knew a little about computer security threats, the most common were “virus” and “worm. “Let us examine the acts wherein the computer is a tool for an unlawful act. This kind of activity usually involves a modification of a conventional crime by using computers. Here is the list of the prevalent Cyber Crimes, some of which are more widely spread and harmful. Such as: Hacking, Virus, Trojans and Worms, Cyber Pornography, Cyber Stalking, Cyber Terrorism, Cyber Crime Related to Finance, Cyber Crime with Mobile & Wireless Technology, Phishing, E-mail Bombing, E-mail Spoofing, Data Diddling, Salami Attacks, Logic Bombs.
Let we describe the world most Cybercrime:Top 10 DARK SECRETS OF CYBERCRIME10. THE SCALE OF CYBERCRIME:In 2014 along, an estimated 1 billion data records were compromised worldwide in cyber attacksWhile a whopping 47% of Americans had personal information stolen. Chances are you’re already a victim of cybercrime. But it’s not just individuals at risk, The US Department of Defense has to deal with 100, 000 cyberattacks per day… and 58% of corporate PCs are affected by one or more malware infections. All that swiped data can be turned into serious money, with cybercrime costing the global economy up to half a trillion dollars every year. That’s the same as the entirety of the world’s illegal drugs trade.09.
BULLETPROOF HOSTING:Thousands of people, business, and government bodies use bulletproof web-hosting services…To help prevent their websites from being taken down by attackers, and to store data securely and privately. However, such services are often exploited by cybercriminals to anonymously operate malware, botnets, spam, and host illegal data. One web-hosting service provider, McColo, was responsible for two-thirds of all spam on the internet before it was taken down in 2008. Another, the Russian Business Network, required customers to commit a cybercrime before being allowed to use their service. they are suspected of operating the storm botnet that infected up to 50 million computers worldwide, creating an army of zombie computers under their control. In 2007 this Botnet was so powerful that it could theoretically have taken an entire country offline by overloading its network with traffic.08. CYBER’S MOST WANTED:Evgeniy Mikhailovich Bogachev is the world’s most wanted cybercriminal with a $3 million bounty on his head by the FBI for information that leads to his arrest.
He is known online as ‘lucky12345’ and his scheme involves tricking people into installing the trojan program ‘Game over Zeus.. which capture bank details, passwords, and other personal info. It has infected over 1 million computers and earned ‘lucky12345’ a fortune of $100 million.
He’s ever reported to have installed ransomware in a police station in Massachusetts. Ransomware is a type of malware that stops users from accessing their files and demands a ransom regain access to their database of mugshots and the station had to pay up in order to regain access to their database of mugshots. However, as Russia doesn’t extradite accused criminals to other countries…. it’s unlikely Bogachev will ever be arrested.
07. ONE INTERNET, MANY LAWS:Around 70% of cybercrime crosses national borders, which can make it difficult to catch perpetrators. What is illegal in one country might not be considered illegal elsewhere. According to a UN report, controlling or sending spam was not a criminal offense in 63% of countries… including India… Russia…and Brazil. This is despite the fact that spam can carry malicious code that could potentially track a user, steal data, or install malware. The lack of consistent laws makes it difficult to bring spammers to justice in places like the UK or USA where sending spam has been restricted since 2003.06.
CATCH ME IF YOU CAN:Despite being the biggest facilitator of illegal file sharing on the planet. The private Bay continues to operate after more than a decade online. But how? In 2006, after its offices were raided and servers taken, it returned within three days creating a widespread network of servers. So, shutting one down wouldn’t make a difference to the site’s operation.
Then, in 2007 Pirate Bay attempted but failed to buy the micronation of Sealand. So, they could create their own country with no copyright laws. Instead, they moved their operations to the cloud. Their servers run on over 20 virtual machines and the providers don’t even know they’re hosting the pirate Bay.
This essentially puts them beyond the reach of police raids.05. UNRESTRICTED FREEDOMThe online anonymity offered by bulletproof hosters can be used be used by journalists to avoid state censorship and Wikileaks have utilized such services. Yet, that same freedom can be exploited by terrorists.
One service, known as CloudFlare, has been reportedly used by ISIS to protect terrorist sites. A US government hearing heard that two of ISIS’s three biggest chat rooms were shielded by CloudFlare. According to hacktivist group Anonymous ISIS is using the service to protect 40 terrorist websites devoted to propaganda, discussion, and terror training.
Cyber-terrorist attacks by ISIS have reportedly led to the phone numbers for the heads of the CIA, FBI and NSA being made public and the group have attempted to hack, and take down, the US power grid.04. THE UNCLEAR OPTIONWhile governments are often trying to fight cybercrime many of them also use it to their own advantage through espionage and warfare. Perhaps the most famous example was a piece of malware called Stuxnet installed on computer in Iran and operated from servers in Denmark and Malaysia. This worm, thought to have been developed by Israel and the USA sabotaged Iran’s nuclear program, but disguised it to look like a series of accidents.
The cyberweapon ultimately destroyed 20% of Iran’s centrifuges damaging their ability to produce nuclear material.03. THE DARK WEBThe untraceable anonymity of the Dark Web has been used by cyber-criminals looking to make serious money. An estimated 9% of all listings on the Dark Wed are to do with fraud. Stolen card details can for as little as $5 while logins for a $20, 000 bank account are sold for just $1, 200. But, the illegal drugs trade is even bigger accounting for over 15% of all Dark Web sites.
One of them, The Silk Road, netted owner Ross Ulbricht $80 million in commission from a whopping $1. 2 billion worth of sales. Other services on the site included firearm sales, hackers for hire and even hitmen. It was shut down in 2013.
02. CARBANAK – THE EVOLUTION OF CYBERCRIMEChances are most people haven’t heard of Carbanak but it’s actually responsible for the biggest Cybereist in history stealing $1 billion from over 100 financial institutions around the world. And they did it all from their keyboards in Russia, Ukraine, and China, between 2013 and 2015. E-mails infected with Carbanak malware let the gang record what happened on the screens of banking staff.
After months of studying behavior, they would transfer money to their own accounts or order ATMs to give out cash at predetermined times. In a single rail they could steal up to $10 million. It marks the beginning of a new type of cybercrime, one that targets the banks directly rather than stealing from individual customers.01. THE INTERNET OF HACKED THINGSCybercrime has largely been limited to computers and cell phones but the internet of things will leave everyday objects open to attack.
Baby monitors have been hacked, allowing strangers to spy on and ever talk to little children. One couple reported hearing obscene noises coming from the monitor watching over their 2-year-old daughter. In 2015 students at the University of Alabama were even able to hack pacemakers. This gave them control of a person’s heart rate and they had the potential to slow it down or speed it up until the person died. Similar research demonstrated that a Wi-Fi enabled sniper rifle could have its aiming system taken over by unintended users.
All of which suggests that the world’s first cyber-murder might not be too far away.Cyber Law in Bangladesh:However, recently the National Parliament amended the ICT Act 2006, raising penalties for cybercrimes setting a minimum of 7 years imprisonment and a maximum of 14 years or a fine of Tk. 1 crore or both…. The ICT Act, 2006 as amended in 2013 is obviously a brilliant achievement of Bangladesh in the field of cyber law.
Conclusion:As we move forward into the 21st century, technological innovations have paved the way for us to experience new and wonderful conveniences in the how we are educated, the way we shop, how were entertained and the manner in which we do business. Capacity of human minds is immeasurable. It is not possible to eliminate cybercrime form the cyber space. It is quite possible to check them. History is the witness that no legislation has succeeded in totally eliminating crime from the globe.
The only possible step is to make people aware of their rights and duties and further making the application of the laws more stringent to check crime. Undoubtedly the ICT Act is a historical step in the cyber world. Further it cannot be denied that there is a need to bring changes in the Information Technology Act to make it more effective to combat cybercrime law are not made so stringent that it may retard the growth of the industry and prove to be counter-productive.