After hollow droplet impacting on a substrate

After validating model numerical, simulation of solidification of hollow droplet and dense droplet of ZrO2 impacting on cold substrate of stainless steel are done with initial condition given in the Table 4.1Undercooling is not considered at solid/liquid interface. It assumed that as the temperature of liquid metal reaches to equilibrium freezing temperature(T_M) it starts solidifying. The value of heat transfer coefficient for this case is taken as h = 1×107W?m^2 KFigure 4.1 shows snapshots for spreading and solidification of the dense droplet and hollow droplet at different time. A similar spreading and solidification behaviour of a dense droplet and hollow droplet impacting on a substrate is observed as reported in 9. In both case solidifications start at same time that is 0.2 µs that is clear in figure 4-4, but at later time solid liquid interface growth is faster in the case of hollow droplet this is because of presence of counter jet. It can be also seen that the spreading ratio (defined as ratio of maximum spreading diameter to droplet initial diameter) for the case of hollow droplet is lower than that of dense droplet. This is because, in the case of hollow droplet, due to counter jet some part of liquid come toward axis while other part goes away from axis. But for the case of dense droplet liquid is continued to go away from the axis. The dense droplet


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