All living organisms on earth consist of one

All living organisms on earth consist of one or more cells. They need the energy to fuel the metabolic reactions of growth, development, and reproduction. While most of the plants perform photosynthesis to provide their own food, most of the animal attain their energy requirements out from cellular respiration, which is near-opposite processes. Photosynthesis assimilates carbon dioxide and synthesizes carbohydrate from encompassing the harvest of solar energy and water primarily whereas, in cellular respiration glucose molecule is the one being consumed to derive energy and store it in form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules. In addition, oxygen gas is consumed through cellular respiration and carbon dioxide is produced, which is reversed in photosynthesis.
The photosynthetic process can be divided into two parts, the light reaction, and dark reaction. In the light reactions, which take place in the thylakoid membrane system, hydrogen is withdrawn from water and passed along a series of hydrogen carries to NADP, so that NADPH2 is formed and oxygen is liberated. Each photoreaction takes place in a reaction center in association with specialized light-harvesting pigment-proteins and electron transfer agent. The set of specific functional components associated with light reaction is referred to as photosystem II, P680, and photosystem II, P700. These processes generate a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane that drives the formation of ATP. While in dark reaction (Calvin cycle) which takes place in the stroma, the chemical energy ATP and NADH derived from the light-dependent reactions drives both the capture of carbon in carbon dioxide molecules and the subsequent assembly of sugar molecules to produce three-carbon sugars—glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, which form glucose. The two reactions light independent and dependent uses carrier molecules to transport the energy from one to the other.
Cellular respiration is series of linked chemical reactions that can be best understood if it is separated into four stages. These are glycolysis, breaking down pyruvate, citric acid Cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis. In glycolysis, glucose undergoes a series of chemical transformations. In the end, it gets converted into two molecules of pyruvate, a three-carbon organic molecule. In these reactions, ATP is made, and NAD+ is converted to NADH. Pyruvate oxidation. Each pyruvate from glycolysis goes into the mitochondrial matrix. There, it is converted into a two-carbon molecule bound to Coenzyme A, known as acetyl CoA. Carbon dioxide is released and NADH is generated. Citric acid cycle. The acetyl CoA made in the last step combines with a four-carbon molecule and goes through a cycle of reactions, ultimately regenerating the four-carbon starting molecule. ATP, NADH and FADH2, are produced, and carbon dioxide is released. Oxidative phosphorylation. The NADH and FADH2 made in other steps deposit their electrons in the electron transport chain. As electrons move down the chain, energy is released and used to pump protons out of the matrix, forming a gradient. Protons flow back into the matrix through an enzyme called ATP synthase, making ATP. At the end of the electron transport chain, oxygen accepts electrons and takes up protons to form water.
Overall photosynthesis and cellular respiration are defined as life-sustaining processes. They share a mutual beneficial relationship, both of them cannot occur without the presence of the other. Photosynthesis takes place in its own efficient series of steps. However, there are some noticeable similarities between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. For instance, they both involve series of Redox Reaction. In cellular respiration, electrons transport from glucose to oxygen, forming water and releasing energy. In photosynthesis, they go in the opposite direction, starting in water concluding to form glucose. Like cellular respiration, photosynthesis also uses electron transport chain to make H+ concentration gradient to make ATP.


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