Analysis of social policies is for academics while analysis for social policies can be done by every interested layman or person do you agreeThe phrase ‘social policy’ generally has two possible meanings. It is used to refer to the academic subject called Social Policy or, more importantly, it means social policies themselves, that is to say the intentions and activities of governments that are broadly social in their nature Social policies can be examined in the intentions and objectives that lie behind individual policies or whole groups of them the administrative and financial arrangements that are used to deliver policies and the outcomes of policies, particularly in terms of who gains and who lose (Motchams ).
Lindsay and Parrot (1996) view social policy as primarily refers to guidelines and interventions for the changing, maintenance or creation of living conditions that are conducive to human welfare. Therefor social policy are education, health, housing, employment and food for all people. Social policy is part of public policy, but public policy is more than that, it is economic policy, industrial policy, and also social policy. Titmus (2008) notes that social policy can be seen as positive instrument of change , thus social policies are activities of governments in providing money and services to their citizens Noyoo (2016) notes that progressive traditions of social policy acknowledge the three roles that social policy is supposed to play in any society.
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First, it plays the social function which lies in reducing the impact of lifecycle risks through social insurance and alleviating poverty through social assistance. In this way social policy helps people to stabilise their lives and support their families. Second, it plays the political function which refers to its stabilising effect, whereby, social justice and greater equality become vital factors for building trust and social cohesion and contribute to political stability Third, the economic function of social policy hinges on widening the productive capacity of a society through the inclusion of marginalised areas and social groups in the growth process, and through investment in improved health and education. This definition of social policy also extends to health, education and labour market policies, and supporting social development which is based on the integration of social concerns into all aspects of public policy In this regard, it can be noted that public policies that affect the welfare of citizens are known as social policies Motcham ( )views social policy as encouraging academics and researchers to study new objects evident in the paradigm shifts .
the new social policy emerges from a narrow neo liberal ideology of thee capitalist state action and social welfare assistance .The thrust to have policy change in the construction of social development lies in capability of those who formulate and implement social policies .Academics are encouraged to reflect particular social policies in a critical fashion , trying to make it easy to imagine and understand the contents of issues that social policy as social policy analysts. Badlock ( ) asserts that in every society ,government entities enact law .make policies and allocate resources ,social policy can be generalised as a system of law ,regulatory measures , courses of action and funding priorities concerning promulgated by government entity and its representatives.
Therefor individuals and groups try to shape social policy through education and advocacy of interest groups Definitive answers to the supply, poverty eradication and inequality are likely to remain elusive, and as such, it is important to sustain the opportunities for discussion, experimentation, innovation and learning in social development approaches considered. Finding ways to preserve these conditions and to encourage deeper appreciation for the contextual factors that shape development outcomes can be significant contributions, despite themselves be counterintuitive new forms of coherence and cooperation international social policy primarily refers to guidelines and interventions for the changing, maintenance or creation of living conditions that are conducive to human welfare(Motchaam).MModern government is based on a social contract between citizens and the state in which rights and duties are agreed to by all to further the common interest. Citizens lend their support to a government through taxes and efforts to a country’s good; in return, governments acquire legitimacy by protecting the people’s rights and through public policies that benefit all. However, policy making is often captured by powerful groups and elites, making government policies biased and unaccountable to the majority of citizens. With half the world’s population living below the two-dollar –away poverty line, ineffective social policies can be the spark for state breakdown (Ortiz,2007) There are different approaches in management especially in today’s turbulent ongoing days.
Because environment changes a lot so policies and policy making strategies always changes and becoming more complicated and sophisticated. Now policy-based management is one of these strategies. Policy-based management is an administrative approach that is used to simplify the management of a given endeavour by establishing policies to deal with situations that are likely to occur. Policies are operating rules that can be referred to as a way to maintain order, security, consistency, or otherwise forth a goal or mission.
For example, a town council might have a policy against hiring the relatives of council members for civic positions. Each time that situation arises; council members can refer to the policy, rather than having to make decisions on a case-by-case basis ( Noruzi, 2011).The nature of policy issue is thus relevant not only to scientists and scholars of politics, sociology and public administration but also for scholars and practitioners in institutions and organizations of different governments, businesses and NGOs and civil society in general. While social policy and its impact on society have been subject to much debate, often of a critical nature, the evidence continues to mount that a better formulation, design and implementation of an adequate social policy has a positive impact on social development. thus, social policies are necessary for nation building because the benefits of economic growth do not automatically reach all.
social policies are not only justified from a humanitarian point view instead they also use economic and political need for future growth and political stability (whitley etal(2000), Social Policy is also distinct as an academic field which focuses on the systematic evaluation of societies’ responses to social need. For example, in Iran some pioneer universities have a specific university courses and studies on policy and policy making universities like Tarbiat Modarres University is as an example of this pioneer university who has a good background on this studying (Rittel ; Webber, 1973) Social Policy is the study of social services and the welfare state. In general terms, it looks at the idea of social welfare, and its relationship to politics and contradictory agendas (World Bank, 1980).
According to Kapur etal(1997) Clausen’s successor, Barber Conable oversaw a Bank ‘rededication’ to pro-welfare and anti-poverty measures in Bank policy . Flying in the face of opposition from the United States administration, the Bank drew up a new Core Poverty Program (CPP) to tackle hunger in Africa and to deal with the social costs of adjustment. Buttressed by support from UNICEF and the call for ‘adjustment with a human face’ (Cornia et al., 1987), the Bank focused on constructing ‘safety nets’ using social emergency programmes and social action funds. At the same time, the message was reinforced that investment in human resources through health, education and population programmes was good for growth. The Bank’s 13th World Development Report on the theme of Poverty focused on promoting the productivity of the poor while providing them with basic social services, especially education, complemented by programmes of targeted transfers and safety nets (World Bank, 1990) contradictory agendas (World Bank, 1980).According to Gill etal (2005) the privatization of pensions in developing countries, encouraged by the world Bank from the 1980s, demonstrates a similar record. From 1984–2004, the Bank assisted 68 countries with pension reform through over 200 loan operations.
A multi-pillar strategy was promoted based on a combination of publicly and, in particular, privately funded mandatory and voluntary plans (World Bank, 1994, 2000). Yet in the face of high costs, low returns and limited coverage, the experiment is now considered by even the Bank itself to have been a failure. A recent Bank evaluation admitted that over-preoccupation with fiscal sustainability had obscured poverty reduction and protection goals, and that this approach had not considered policies to protect those vulnerable elderly not covered by public pension schemes (World Bank, 1994). Policy research and analysis tend to involve researching an issue with the expectation of generating political interest and influencing legislation. For example, medical and scientific research is often drawn upon in legislative activity, for example, introducing laws on passive smoking. Political groups often conduct policy research to show the flaws of existing regulatory regimes alongside making calls for further research, for example, measuring the extent of global warming.
Torgerson (1986) that policy analysis are those activities aimed at developing knowledge relevant to the formulation and implementation of public policy. Clearly such research is not without controversy, as, in recent months, there have been stories of failures to publish reports on global warming for fear of influencing the 2004 United States presidential elections (Revkin, 2006), and of the reshaping of criminological research findings to suit the updates and analysis, including a critique of the government’s first report to Parliament on the likely costs of the scheme which includes, for the first time, set up as well as running costs .Academics are frequently called on to comment on policies, which are ever-present at policy workshops, conferences, and summit, thus they are treated as analysts of social policies. Policy research and analysis tend to involve researching an issue with the expectation of generating political interest and influencing legislation. For example, medical and scientific research is often drawn upon in legislative activity, for example, introducing laws on passive smoking.
Research and analysis can play the essential role of both understanding and informing policy deliberations. Majone (1989) argues that there are many different ways in which academic contributions might influence the policy process, for example, by providing standards of argument and an intellectual structure for public discourse. A major goal, therefore, is to ensure that all the main issues are clarified before the legislative process proceeds. However, this type of policy research may encounter resistance and interference, when findings do not fit with prevailing political research and analysis can play the essential role of both understanding and informing policy deliberations. The formulation of public policy rests, in practice, mainly with the legislative institutions at the different levels (spheres) of government and administration, political functionaries, leading public officials, pressure groups and interest groups. These institutions and people, however, cannot play a central role in policy formulation if adequate information relevant to policy is not available.
It is mainly in this context that public officials, who perform their duties on a daily basis at grass roots level, are in a position to provide valuable information for the development of public policy. It is the public official who is confronted continuously with the implementation as well as the cause and effect of policy. The public official is therefore, in an excellent position not only to identify limitations and constraints in policy, but also to initiate effective procedures to rectify them. This practical reality coincides partially with Quade’s premise that policy analysis, in some cases, is nothing more than well-considered and accurate reasoning in respect of policy matters. This means that officials who are conversant with the basic methodology of policy analysis could possibly play a more important role in the practical analysis of public policy in future. As mentioned, the official is, strictly speaking, in an excellent position to make a contribution in this regard.Badlock( ) posits that public officials have to carry the burden of other administrative and functional activities and can therefore devote only a limited amount of time to the actual analysis of policy.
The results are that other bodies become involved in policy analysis, either as individuals or as groups specifically appointed for the purpose of policy analysis. Social policy-making has been traditionally seen to be the domain of political office bearers, with key role-players being the ministers of the state and/or senior public officials. While the responsibilities for policy statements such as statutes, regulations and statements by public officials or politicians and policy implementation remain largely the responsibility of the state, it must be borne in mind that such policy statements and decisions rest on policy demands.Roux (2012) policy demands should reflect the needs and aspirations of civil society. Basing from given enormous data that exists in both formal and informal welfare organisations, social workers are in strategic positions to inform policy content. In the South African context, the formal welfare sector refers to those organisations registered in terms of the National Welfare Act of 1978 and to those financed by the government. Informal welfare organisations are not registered in terms of the National Welfare Act, 1978 and are not subsidised by the Government (White Paper for Social Welfare, 1997). In future the implementation of new legislation, which proposes alternative funding criteria that take into account programme financing, will try to ensure that all organisations are accorded equal status.
Despite the consultative and participatory processes in South Africa, the reality is that policy-making is essentially a political process. Issues of political expedience may often supersede the recommendations of civil society or policy analysts. Thus, there is no guarantee that the formal policy document will reflect the views of citizens. It is essential as social work practitioners and educators, locate themselves in society and fulfil ethical obligation in advocating on behalf of those who are most marginalised. While align themselves with the political and social transformation in South Africa, there is need to challenge government where policies do not cohere with professed reconstruction and development principles adopted by the government. An institutionalized culture of policy analysis is the linchpin for effective policy implementation and policy delivery. It promotes excellence in policy formulation and implementation through long range interrogation of national issues facing the polity.
At the national level, literature generally links institutional policy analysis capacity with enhanced strategic policy management, informed decision making, feasible policy interventions and inclusive policy processes. At the individual level, professional training in policy analysis imparts skills relating to research, communication, management, implementation and problem solving. The need case for a policy analysis culture is particularly pertinent in Africa where despite the attainment of political independence in 1960s, states are yet to wield overall control over their policy systems and resource endowments. As aptly captured by Baffour Ankomah, systematic policy analysis is critical in “solving the great conundrum” -a reference to why Africa despite being the richest continent in the world by natural resources, has remained the poorest by bank balance Policy analysis research should generate data that enable the African continent to own its resources, establish the extent of its mineral endowments and also ensure transparency and intergenerational sensitivity in resource extraction, allocation and utilization. Resource extraction and utilization has for decades been at the expense of local beneficiation and value addition as it continues to be exported in their raw state and in the process creating employment opportunities elsewhere.
Policy analysis, if prudently utilized, serves as a potent tool for the liberation of the continent.This view of policy analysis is also echoed in Pal (1989) who defines policy analysis as the “disciplined application of intellect to policy problems”. Policy analysis is characterized as a cognitive process that involves learning and thinking through policy problems. For this author, International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research, 2014, 1(1): 12-25 16 cognition permeates the entire policy process, from problem formulation, adoption, implementation and evaluation. Cognition is at play when citizens debate and defend their positions on what national policy options should be adopted. Pal (p: 8) presents policy analysis as a “collective process” in which multiple actors (the attentive public, those affected, academics, the media, parliamentarians and civic groups) are involved. Information is generated by consulting and interviewing diverse policy stakeholders.
This investigative nature of policy analysis, as argued by Pal (p: 9), calls for “discipline”. It calls for reflection, creativity, imagination, exploration and selfcriticism. Underscored here is that policy analysts have to sift through forests of information in order to sniff out the underlying causes of the problem. Lack of patience and discipline could lead to situations in which symptoms are mistaken for underlying causes. Cognition and discipline underlie policy analysis because in analyzing policy problems, policy analysts have to separate those „directly? affected from those who are „indirectly? affected by the problem. In other words, good policy analysis should ensure that policy benefits are realized by targeted groups.
Policies have notoriety for benefiting those outside the target range. Drawing from this discussion, sound policy analysis is based on systematic research, broad-based consultation and debate and long range monitoring and evaluation of policy programs.Hanekom (1987) indicates that apart from public managers who are key figures in the implementation of public policies, some public institutions like legislators, the courts of law, the interest-groups, community institutions and government departments should be actively involved in policy implementation.
The political office bearers and the law enforcement agencies are particularly important for the process of policy implementation to succeed. Prosecution of people who flout environmental policy can only be enhanced when there is political will to effectively and efficiently implement the police. Mtisi (2004) argues that, in Zimbabwe politicians usually condone environmental degradation activities during election times because stopping such activities would cost them votes: in Zimbabwe Shortcomings in government, civil society, industry, and academia were provided as pointing to the need for collaboration. In terms of evidence and policy in Zimbabwe, participants articulated that the government is renowned for formulating good policies, but implementation of such policies was the primary weakness. A need to design strategies in which the government can upscale on policy implementation was identified.
Researchers were encouraged to produce comprehensive and well-researched policy documents able to inform government on significant local issues. Although the country is faced with resource constraints, the participants highlighted the need to set up institutional processes that involve people within government, academia, and industry In 1995, with assistance from the IMF, the Ghana governrnment introduced a new policy framework dubbed “Ghana Vision 2020” as a blue print for sustainable development. The government and the IMF envisaged that the new development framework would foster stronger economic growth and better living standards for the people of Ghana (IMF, 1999). The primary objective of Vision 2020 was to streamline fiscal, monetary, and social policies that will encourage private-sector involvement, export expansion, and balanced social and regional development (IMF, 1999).
Such an agenda reflected a need for economic growth that also provided social protection measures that aligned with principles of recognitive and distributive justice. However, although the government and its development partners viewed this as the foundation for Ghana’s strategy for raising living standards and reducing poverty (IMF, 1999), some critics condemn it as a mere collection of policy statements that lacked consistency and implementation focus.Research and analysis can play the essential role of both understanding and informing policy deliberations. Majone (1989) argues that there are many different ways in which academic contributions might influence the policy process, for example, by providing standards of argument and an intellectual structure for public discourse. A major goal, therefore, is to ensure that all the main issues are clarified before the legislative process proceeds.
However, this type of policy research may encounter resistance and interference, when findings do not fit with prevailing political