and high-profile, particularly those surrounding hacking, copyright infringement,

and living.

HerePublic are now capable of doing things which were not imaginable few years ago.Internet has enabled the use of website communication and a lot of anytimeanywhere the IT solutions for the betterment of human kind. Cyber crime is avery serious threat. Governments, police departments and intelligence unitshave started to react cyber threats.

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In this paper, we will try to discussabout cybercrime in detail including the types, methods, technical reasons andadverse impact of cyber crimes on a network as well as the behavior ,psychology behind this crime & some effective solutions .Introduction: Cyber crime,  is the crime thatinvolves a computer and a network.1 The computer may have been used in the commissionof a crime, or it may be the target.2Actually cyber crimes can be defined as:”Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individualswith a criminal motive that causes intentionally harm the reputation of thevictim or cause physical or mental harm3. Cybercrime can threaten aperson or a nation’s security and financial health.

4 Issues surrounding these types of crimes have becomehigh-profile, particularly those surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, unwarranted mass-surveillance, sextortion, child pornography, and child grooming. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is intercepted or disclosed, lawfully . Governmentaland non-state actors engage in cybercrimes, including espionage, financial theft, and other cross-border crimes. Activity crossinginternational borders and involving the interests of at least one nation stateis sometimes referred to as cyberwarfare .Cyber Crime :Cyber crime is the latest  the most complicated problem in the cyberworld. “Cyber crime  said to be thosespecies, of which, genus is the daily crime, and where either the computer is asubject of the conduct conventional crime”. “Any criminal operation that uses acomputer  target or a means forenternalize further crimes comes within the of cyber crime” .

The computer maybe used as a instrument in the following kinds of activity- financial crimes,pornography, online gambling,hacking, computer information hacking crime, emailspoofing,  cyber defamation, cyberstalking. The computer may however be act the following cases- unauthorized access to  computer networks,and the informationcontained in the electronic form, data didling, salami attacks,  web jacking, theft of computer system,physically damaging the computer system.4Causesof Cybercrime:Cyber criminals always want to make big money. They target richpeople or rich organizations like banks, casinos and financial firms where ahuge amount of money flows daily and hack sensitive information. Catching suchcriminals is difficult. Hence, that increases the number of cyber-crimes acrossthe globe. Computers are vulnerable, so laws are required to protect andsafeguard them against cyber criminals. We could list following reasons for thevulnerability of computers:§  Easy to access – The problem behind sequrites acomputer system from unauthorized access is that there are many possibilitiesof breach due to the complex technology.

Hackers can steal access codes,advanced voice recorders etc. that can fool biometric operation easily andbypass firewalls can be utilized to get past many security operation.5§  Capacity to store data in comparatively smallspace – The computer has the unique characteristic of storing data in avery small space. This makes  easier forthe people to steal information from any other storage and use it for ownbenifit.

5§  Complex – The computers run on operating systems and these operating systemsare programmed of millions of codes. The human mind is imperfect, so they cando mistakes at any stage. The cyber criminals take advantage of these gaps.5§  Negligence – Negligence is one of the characteristics in human conduct. So,there may be a possibility that protecting the computer system we may make anynegligence which provides a cyber-criminal the access and control over thecomputer system.5§  Loss of evidence – The data related to the crimecan be easily destroyed. So, Loss of evidence has become a very common problem which paralyzes the system behind the investigation ofcyber-crime.

5Different types ofcyber crime:Hacking: It is a simple term that definessending an illegal instruction to any other computer or network. In this case,a person’s computer is hacked so that his personal or sensitive information canbe accessed. The criminal uses a variety of software to crack a person’scomputer and the person may not be aware that his computer has been accessedfrom a remote location.

Often, government websites are a hot target for hackersbecause it helps them gain notoriety which is further fuelled by aggressivemedia coverage. This is different from ethical hacking which is used by manyorganization to check their Internet security protection.6Child pornography and Abuse: The internet is being highly usedto abuse children sexually worldwide. This is also a type of cyber-crimewherein criminals solicit minors via chat rooms for the purpose of childpornography. The Cybersecurity department of every nation is spending a lot oftime monitoring chat rooms frequented by children with the hopes of reducingand preventing child abuse and soliciting.6Data diddling:Data Diddling is unauthorised altering of data before or duringentry into a computer system, and then changing it back after processing isdone. Using this technique, the attacker may modify the expected output and isdifficult to track. In other words, the original information to be entered ischanged, either by a person typing in the data, a virus that’s programmed tochange the data, the programmer of the database or application, or anyone elseinvolved in the process of creating, recording, encoding, examining, checking,converting or transmitting data.

This is one of the simplest methods of committing acomputer-related crime, because even a computer amateur can do it. Despite thisbeing an effortless task, it can have detrimental effects. For example, aperson responsible for accounting may change data about themselves or a friendor relative showing that they’re paid in full. By altering or failing to enterthe information, they’re able to steal from the enterprise.

Other examplesinclude forging or counterfeiting documents and exchanging valid computer tapesor cards with prepared replacements. Electricity boards in India have beenvictims of data diddling by computer criminals when private parties werecomputerizing their systems.7Web jacking:Web jacking derives its name from “hijacking”. Here, the hackertakes control of a web site fraudulently. He may change the content of theoriginal site or even redirect the user to another fake similar looking pagecontrolled by him. The owner of the web site has no more control and theattacker may use the web site for his own selfish interests. Cases have beenreported where the attacker has asked for ransom, and even posted obscenematerial on the site.The web jacking method attack may be used to create a clone of theweb site, and present the victim with the new link saying that the site hasmoved.

Unlike usual phishing methods, when you hover your cursor over the linkprovided, the URL presented will be the original one, and not the attacker’ssite. But when you click on the new link, it opens and is quickly replaced withthe malicious web server. The name on the address bar will be slightlydifferent from the original website that can trick the user into thinking it’sa legitimate site.

For example, “gmail” may direct you to “gmai1”. Notice theone in place of ‘L’. It can be easily overlooked.7Prevention of CyberCrime: We know that Prevention is always better than cure.

 We should keep in mind the following things.1.     For prevent cyber stalking avoiddisclosing any information pertaining to one self.

This is as good asdisclosing anyones identity to strangers in public place. 2.     It is urgent to avoid sending anyphotograph online particularly to strangers and chat friends as there have beenincidents of misuse of the photographs.3.     Everyone must use latest and updateantivirus software to guard against virus attacks.4.

      It is necessary always keep back up volumes sothat one may not suffer data loss in case of virus contamination 5.      Never send someones credit card number to anysite that is not secured, to guard against frauds.6.      Always keep a watch on the sites that  children are accessing to prevent any kind ofharassment  of children. 7.     At last  It is better to use a security programme thatgives control over the cookies and send information back to  the site as leaving the cookies unguarded .  AwarenesseditAstechnology advances and more people rely on the internet to store sensitiveinformation such as banking or credit card information, criminals are going toattempt to steal that information.

Cyber-crime is becoming more of a threat topeople across the world. Raising awareness about how information is beingprotected and the tactics criminals use to steal that information is importantin today’s world. According to the FBI’s Internet Crime Complaint Center in2014 there were 269,422 complaints filed.

With all the claims combined therewas a reported total loss of $800,492,073.43 But yet cyber-crimedoesn’t seem to be on the average person’s radar. There are 1.5 millioncyber-attacks annually, that means that there are over 4,000 attacks a day, 170attacks every hour, or nearly three attacks every minute, with studies showingus that only 16% of victims had asked the people who were carrying out theattacks to stop.44 Anybody who uses theinternet for any reason can be a victim, which is why it is important to beaware of how one is being protected while online


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