Application: theories are the base for delivering nursing

Application: Systems Theory
Mina Gilannejad
Walden University
September 09, 2018
Different types of theories are the base for delivering nursing services by the healthcare organizations. There is one theory in the open system that was enhanced by Katz and Kahn in 1978. Healthcare organizations are considered as a social system by this theory that is classified into an interconnected subsystem. The interconnected subsystems consist of inputs, throughputs, outputs, the system as a cycle of events, and negative feedback (Meyer & O’Brien-Pallas, 2010). The purpose of this study is to recognize one of the challenges that are faced within the workplace and, showing that problem by implementing the open system approach. This study would provide the different features of the system theory such as inputs, throughputs, outputs, the system as a cycle of events, and negative feedback associated with the problem, which are described in this study. And, then the problem would be discussed and proper actions would be suggested to get better outcomes.
Subsystems of the Palliative care Unit
Inputs are the movement of energy and information that are received from an external environment to update the system. It is necessary to have enough nurses and supplementary staff in order to deliver throughput services, in addition, it is important to have other inputs such as materials to deliver better using nursing practices. Throughputs are energies which are changed inside the system by identifying the inputs. The example of the palliative unit is when throughput is able to provide adequate nursing care and services to meet the patients need. Outputs are materials, products, or services which must be sent to the external environment. Systems as a cycle’s event are considered the process of trading and altering energy that has to update the system as a result of producing duplicated events. Fund obtained from patients would help healthcare organization to cover the cost of services and invest in providing better quality care. Negative feedback is the information collected from inside organization about the functionality of the system in order to increase the productivity. Organizational performance indicators help to keep the organization on track and function in the best possible way. In the Palliative care unit, there are standards which are helping to sustain the quality of care, employee and patient satisfaction (Meyer & O’Brien-Pallas, 2010).

Problem Identified
Theoretically, cure-oriented care based on short-term illnesses have been focused on medical care. However, growing numbers of elderlies along with increasing complicated chronic diseases indicate the care provided is inadequate. All the healthcare providers should work closely to treat the patients along with encouraging the goals and desire of the patients (Schroeder ; Lorenz, 2018). It is necessary for a healthcare professional to notice when patients possibly are getting closer to the end of their life, so they would be able to choose a better transition to a palliative care method. Transition in palliative care has identified a problem (Gott, Ingleton, Bennett ; Gardiner, 2011).

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It is discovered that methodical transition to a palliative care method which is indicated in the policy for the acute hospital environment is not clear. It was mentioned particularly in a report that prognosis is not normally explained to the patients in the hospital. There are major obstacles such as the difficulty of standing back, professional rankings and lack of communications to have an effective transition to palliative care. Healthcare professional in both primary and secondary care recognized that there are remarkable obstacles to perform a policy of methodical transitions to palliative care in acute care settings (Gott, Ingleton, Bennett ; Gardiner, 2011).

Addressing the problem within an open system approaches
Approaching death caused by severe illness for one member of a family is causing a critical condition for the whole family. Studies have been always failing to consider the entire the family system and they just consider the member of a family who is sick. The entire family and their beloved one who is dying should be entitled to the care which consists of boundaries, balance, hierarchical subsystems and holism. In a hierarchy people or groups are classified based on their status, so every higher class consists of lower-level systems. Within the family’s boundaries, healthcare professionals are able to influence the entire family and make a difference. The family system has to be known as a unit and it is not possible to understand the whole family completely by assessing one of the members or subsystems separately. Change and stability can be balanced by the family. This shows that modification in one section of the system would be compensated by modifications in another section (Mehta, Cohen & Chan, 2010).

Healthcare professionals can take advantage of a Family System Theory Framework to give a high quality of care to palliative patients and their families and regulate the research procedure in order to assess the family (Mehta, Cohen & Chan, 2010).

Proposed resolution to the problem
Palliative care has improved over the past years and therefore has a better knowledge about elderlies with severe illness and is helping them to have a better quality of life. Nowadays, healthcare is facing a challenge to provide palliative care for patients with high-quality professional services. The key motivations for applying different methods to organize palliative care are to understand the patients’ needs for a complicated systematic plan of treatment and social advocacy, cost-effectiveness, and the challenges of organizing these services. Theoretically, networks of healthcare are a method of connecting separate services by escalating cooperation inside the organization and eventually optimizing the effectiveness of the system and the continuity of patient transformation. The frameworks of systems which are necessary to implement research on health care quality are classified into three categories such as system structure, the process of care, and patient outcome. The structure consists of human’s resources and materials. Process indicates the healthcare regulation which is applied by healthcare professionals and patients. The change which has been caused by patients to the treatment they receive is called outcome (Bainbridge, Brazil, Krueger, Ploeg & Taniguchi, 2010).
Collaboration care, community readiness, and client-centered care are the most important interconnected ideas in the framework. The characteristics of collaboration should be at the center of the assessment of these integrated networks. Palliative care depends on different expertise in order to meet patients’ needs. To achieve this goal, palliative care exclusively benefits from a collaborative approach. Healthcare professionals work together and take advantage of each other’s expertise to reach a mutual care procedure. The inter-professional team with collective expertise is more effective to arrange care delivery and to decrease complication of healthcare availability. Community and culture behaviors play an important role in healthcare. It is necessary to enhance the relationship between community, healthcare provider, and organizations to promote the concepts of healthcare network. In many countries around the world, the main element of nursing practice which is patient-centered care has been accepted. Both the healthcare provider and patient are satisfied with the role of patient-centered care. Also, in the community patient-centered care is important to educate the patient and to maintain methods that are necessary to promote effective transformation to improve chronic illness. Finally, the important motivations for network integrated care are to identify the needs of palliative patients for complicated treatment procedures and social advocacy with fewer financial burdens (Bainbridge, Brazil, Krueger, Ploeg & Taniguchi, 2010).

The status of nature of things is recognized by open system theory in which each section of organization contains a subsystem with interconnected sections. The production system is altering energy to prepare the provision of the task and to use skill and expertise to achieve the task more efficiently. The subsystems use energies, materials, and people within the organization limitation and stable the framework of the internal task by organizing activities and encouraging members (Meyer & O’Brien-Pallas, 2010).

Meyer, R. M., ; O’Brien-Pallas, L.L. (2010). Nursing services delivery theory: An Open system approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(12), 2828-2838.

Schroeder, K., & Lorenz, K. (2018). Nursing and the future of palliative care. Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing, 5(1), 4-8. Doi: 10.4103/apjon.apjon 4317
Gott, M., Ingleton, C., Bennett, M., & Gardiner, C. (2011). Transition to palliative care in acute hospitals in England: Quality study. BJM, doi: 10.1136/bmj.d1773.

Mehta, A., Cohen, S. R., & Chan, L. S. (2010). Palliative care: A need for a family systems approach. Palliative and Supportive Care, 7(1), 235-243. Doi: 10.1017/S1478951509000303.

Bainbridge, D., Brazil, K., Krueger, P., Ploeg, J., & Taniguchi, A. (2010). A proposed systems approach to the evaluation of integrated palliative care. BioMed Central Palliative Care, 9(8), 1-19. Doi: 10.1186/1472-684X-9-8


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