as humans are condemned to be free 268 they always tend to face the situations with alternatives and the choices will always be there but the essence depends upon the choices an individual makes even if it is the choice of doing nothing.
the zest of sartre’s philosophy or concept of freedom is that an individual is always unwilling to accept and acknowledge him being free. whereas camus view is also similar as he believes that the universe does not provide any restoration and therefore the path towards freedom can only give a sense of authenticity to an individual’s life. freedom is one of the most important and essential components of an individuals existence to make decisions and commitments along with responsibility that comes hand in hand. this becomes the integrity and ethicality of an individuals existence.
detailed discussion in the previous chapters makes it evident that camus social and moral outlook went through major changes between the time period of the stranger and the fall. the existential writers who influenced camus were kierkegaard like whom his major concern is the existence of an individual. second influence is nietzsche like whom he also believes in the lack of the objective of good and evil and believes that an individual should make his own values. third influence over camus is heideggers centrality of death to an individuals experiences. the last but not the least is sartres influence over camus regarding the existence of an individual which is absurd meaningless purposeless and full of void. these influences over camus are the most evident at the end of the novel the stranger where meursault in the most poetic passage yells his heart out at the chaplain of the prison and states nothing nothing mattered and i knew why. all elected by the same fate me and billions of privileged people like him who also called themselves my brothers 121 this poetic passage gives an undeniable insight into the existential outlook of meursault over life.
camus ideas on existentialism is clearly seen in the stranger and richard kamber states in on camus to understand meursaults views as because of deaths finality the way one lives and the choices one makes lack importance beyond the interests of individual human beings. 6 camus believes that people doesnot regard their moral beliefs as justified or acceptable by the divine reason. therefore to support this he states in the myth of sisyphus that all systems of morality are based on the idea that an action has consequences that legitimise or cancel it.there may be responsible persons but there are no guilty ones in its opinion. 50 meursaults anger in the above passage portrays the heart of camus central perspective throughout his absurdist phase. this central perspective could also be read as the moral of the stranger but the moral of the fall is a bit different because the fall gives the imprint of the last period and the most pessimistic period of camus and mans complete exile or detachment from nature.
in the stranger there are no guilty people whereas in the fall there are only guilty people. camus inthe fall condemns the whole clan of humanity as guilty. he believes that the whole community of humanity needs judgment but the primary objective or concern of humanity is to avoid it but he claims that the only way to avoid judgment is to judge your own self. clamence the fall states the more i accuse myself the more i have a right to judge you.
even better i provoke you into judging yourself and this relieves me of that much of the burden. 140 camus believes that he carry the same guilt as the others but the measures can be taken in order to dilute it a little and lose some burden is by confessing the guilt to others and extending or approaching the judgement over others as clamence in the fall exclaims that i was wrong after all to tell you that the essential was to avoid judgment. the essential is being able to permit oneself everything.i havent changed my way of life; i continue to love myself and to make use of others. 141 the purpose of camus the fall could be clearly expressed by clamence.
clamences condemning of himself could be seen as camus idea to force people to condemn themselves in order to live a more light at heart life without much burden on their shoulders of the guilt they committed. the hypocrisy of clamence in the novel could be seen as his attack over the fellow intellectuals by his parodying of their hypocrisies. clamence is relatable to all the allegations that sartre has put on camus but clamence instead of denying them accepts them all and paints a gloomy picture of grim humanity. camus does not paints the humanity as the most horrible of all but his central moral is to first condemn selfishness especially of clamence where he neglects or ignores the drowning woman.
secondly to recognise and examine our own selfish side through clamences extreme selfishness. third is to accept and learn to deal with the guilt. to accept a guilt an individual has committed is the most difficult aspect but if one does so he can live an even better and relaxing life. as camus in the fall tries to explain it through clamence that only the confession of my crimes allows me to begin again lighter in heart and to taste a double enjoyment firstof my nature and secondly of a charming repentance. 141 camus through the fall wish the people to be open about their flaws as recognising our own flaws will help an individual to recognise the flaws and guilt of the others too. camus believes that the individual should confess their guilt to others and others in return should confess their guilt to them rather to god who might not exist. therefore the drastic change in camus writing could be seen through meursault the stranger who is seen as a character completely devoid of any morals or values which could be the basis of his innocence and on the other hand clamence the fall who is full of guilt and repentance.
both the characters through their ups and downs come at the end to accept the absurd nature of life or existence and find solace thereafter without confining to the set standards of the society and accepting the absurdities of life. camus believes that the existence of an individual is absurd and the more we put resources to find order in the universe the more we push the rock up the hill but all the efforts remain futile at the end of it and an individual is left with nothing. richard kamber in on camus states in this context that the absurdity of this condition became all too real when camus life and career were tragically cut short with a car accident that took his life on january 3 1960. 6 all his efforts and steps to understand meaning and purpose of existence become futile when the rock rolls back to the bottom.
even sartre after the death of camus praises his works by keeping aside his grudges against him. germaine bree in camus: a collection of critical essays-jean paul sartre quotes the praise of camus by sartre as he represented in our time the latest example of that long line of moralists.his obstinate humanism narrow and pure.but on the other hand he reaffirmed the existence of the moral issue. 173 to conclude the above discussion camus can be read as an idea who cannot restrict his ideas or confine his ideology within one aspect or one ism be it existentialism marxism communism socialism or any other philosophy as such.
his ideas and works show his interest in the existential study of an individual existence and an individuals condition therefore he appears as an existentialist like sartre. their philosophies and concepts give a direction to an individual to live a meaningful and purposeful life based on their own choices decisions and values by accepting all absurdities and taking the responsibility of their actions.