As early as 336 B.C., elevators are already known to have been in use in Ancient Rome.
During the Middle Ages, “basket” elevators were used to transport goods to several mountains. During this time also, some secluded monasteries has no land access, that’s why elevators are already of great use.The etymology of the word “elevator” is derived from the modern Latin word ‘elevare,’ which means ‘raise’.Elisha Graves Otis introduced the first safety contrivance of elevators in the year 1852.
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Then, Wener Von Siemens, a German inventor, invented the first electric elevator in the year 1880. Eventually, an easier way of using elevators was invented. It comes with automatic doors and it was patented in 1887. The first commercially installed electric elevator was during the year 1889.The early elevators are said to be open cars, compared to that of today which are enclosed ones.
The early elevators are operated either manually (by people or animals) or by water-driven mechanisms. The source of power of some of these elevators is through water, as hydraulic elevators were also invented. Hydraulic elevators require water pressure.Aside from hydraulic elevators and electric elevators, vacuum or also known as pneumatic elevators were also invented. Unlike hydraulic elevators which requires water as its source of power and electric elevators which are of great use today, vacuum or pneumatic elevators doesn’t require a machine to function.
As it is called vacuum, suction is used to transport the elevator in between floors.There are different types of elevators and each has a unique way of operating mechanism. It also varies in size, depending on where an elevator is to be constructed.The counterweight functions as elevators work in simple hoists. The elevator is balanced by a big counterweight that weighs the same amount as the elevator is half loaded. Or in other words, 40-50 percent of the total weight and the elevator.
And the counterweight functions while the elevator is going up the counterweight goes down, vice versa. Which helps the motor to easily raise or lower the car. Because of the counterweight, the motor now is using less force to either move the car up or down.
The elevator is more safe, because of lesser force was used and less strains on the cables. The counterweight also reduces the elevator amount of braking. A fully loaded elevator would be really hard to pull upwards if there were no counterweights. The counterweight makes the control of elevator car easier. The safety brake is preventing the elevator car from crashing to the ground floor. There was a spring loaded with hooks at the top of each car.
It sprung towards the metal teeth in the rail, locking and making the car safely in position. The speed governors is a regulating system with a heavy flywheel with huge mechanical arms inside it. The arms are inside the flywheel by a spring. Some governors are mechanical and others are electromagnetics, others still use together mechanical and electric components.Modern elevators safety system have multiple safety systems.
Like a suspension bridge cable, cables in an elevator is made of several metal strands of wire twisted together so if a failure occurs, it will not cause any problems. Modern elevators now have a separate cables supporting each car, so when one cable fails others are still functioning properly. Even if all the cables break, this system will still support or hold the elevator in place. Modern elevators now have a hydraulic gas spring to cushion the impact if the safety breaks will fail to make you much safer inside the elevator. Along with the many advancements today, technology can impart a big role in the development of even better elevators in the future. Nanotechnology is one of the several factors that can be taken into consideration to improve the use of elevators in the future. By nanotechnology, the elevators no longer need a technician because it can already repair itself of any damage or dirt.
Nanotechnology can help in aiding the problems of elevators immediately.Another factor that can be considered is that elevators can travel at a faster speed. Thus, it can travel at a faster speed especially to taller buildings but at a shorter span of time.
Also, with the use of clean energy, future developments in elevators can already be renewable. It can no longer affect the environment and can be obtained at a very low cost. It can also help in improving the living conditions in some countries.