Assess the Prevalence of Camels Gastrointestinal Helminthes and associated risk factors in Harshin Districts of Fafan Zone, Eastern Ethiopia
Mahad Hassan Miad1, Berhe Mekonnen Mengistu1 and Habtom Kiros Bitsue1
1Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary, Mekelle University, Kelamino, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
Heavy helminthic infection causes significant impacts in the camel health, as a resulting have high morbidity and mortality rate. Despite, still have very unreliable and insufficient information in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objectives of this study was to estimating the prevalence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) helminthes and assess the risk factors associated with gastrointestinal helminthes infestation of camels in Harshin districts of Fafan Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study method was conducted for collection of faecal sample from the rectum of camels, and then we perform Flotation, Sedimentation and McMaster egg counting techniques to identify the egg parasites, and to estimate the burden of infestation of the parasites. The faecal examination under the microscope revealed an overall prevalence of 52.6%. Out of the total, 384 sampled 202 of camels’ excreted faeces with have helminthes eggs. The most common encountered parasites of eggs were Strongyle spp. (23.4%), Trichostrongylus spp. (23%), Nematodirus spp. (15.8%), Trichuris spp. (15.1%), Haemonchus spp. (17.1%) and Monezia spp. (5.2%). Regarding, the sex wise there were higher mean egg counted in female as compared to the male camels. Similarly, also there was statistically significant differences in mean eggs per gram (epg) of faeces were observed among other risk factors, like age, body condition score and faecal description (P0.05) (Table 2).
Table2: Association of the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in camels with different risk factors using Chi-square test (?2)
Variables No. of animals examined No. of animals found positive (%) ?2 P-value
Origin 132636 0.001
1.Lankeyrta 96 59(61.4)
2.Kuda 95 59(62.1)
3.Farha liban 193 84(43.5)
Sex 1.0108 0.603
Male 159 82(51.5)
Female 225 120(53.3)
Age (years) 4.3057 0.116
10 142 20(71.4)
BSC 2.7410 0.254
Poor 74 43(59.7)
Medium 167 82(48.5)
Good 143 77(54.2)
Faecal description 22.4487 0.000
Thick 228 102(44.9)
Soft 83 61(73.4)
Pellet 52 25(48)
Softgreenish 5 4(80)
Dark thick 16 10(62)
According, the present result of this study was found that GIT helminthiasis was one of the main problems of camel health in the study area. The finding of this study was in agreement with the previous result of other researchers that conducted GIT helminthiasis was the main problem of camel worldwide Fadl et al. (1992) and Rewatkar et al. (2009). Our present study revealed that out of the total, 384 camels examined 52.6% (202/384) of camels harbour at least one type of gastrointestinal helminthic parasite. This finding coincides with the previous reports of overall infestation rate 62.7% in Northern Tanzania Swai et al. (2011); 68.9% dromedaries’ in Nigeria Kamani et al. (2008); 78.0% in Sokoto metropolis Mahmud et al. (2014); 75% in Nigeria Ukashatu et al. (2012); 75.1% in Iranian Borji et al. (2010); 75% in Eastern Ethiopia Bekele, (2002) and 76.2% in Bahrain Abubakr et al. (2000). However, this finding was comparatively lower than the prevalence of prevalence reported of 80% in Southern Ethiopia by Bekele, (2010); 80.73% in Yabello by Demelash et al. (2014); 92.4% in Nigeria Bamaiyi et al. (2011); 96.9% in Eastern Ethiopia Tekle and Abede, (2001) and 98% in Jordan Sharrif et al. (1997). In contrast, our result was higher than the prevalence reports of 26.9% in camels of Egypt Ahmed, (2014); 28.4% in the camels of the desert thal of Pakistan Alvi et al. (2013) and 37.3% in camels of Faisalabad Azhar et al. (2013). Relatively the higher prevalence of GIT helminthiasis of camels in the study area could be attributed to lack of improved animal health management system and lack of knowledge of farmers in treating GIT parasites. The possible enlightenment for the variation among the countries might be the infestation rate could be variations in agro-ecological conditions between countries, which favor or disfavor the survival of the parasite eggs and larvae stage, and husbandry practices Allport et al. (2005) and Mohamed et al. (2008). Moreover, the occurrence of the parasite was associated with nutritional, level of immunity status of the animals, rainfall, humidity and temperature differences and season of examination on the respective study areas.
The prevalence of 23.4% Strongylus spp. of this study was lower than prevalence rate of reports of 87.3% Ukashatu et al. (2012) and 92.4% Bamaiyi et al. (2011). Meanwhile, 23% Trichostrongylus spp. was comparatively lower than of 79.67% finding of Demalesh et al. (2014); other gastrointestinal parasite eggs encountered included, Trichuris spp. (15.1%) and Monezia spp. (5.2%), which does not coincide with species rate finding of Demalesh et al. (2014) and Bamaiyi et al. (2011), Strongyloid spp. (32.9%), (8.5%), Trichuris spp. (0.64%), (11.4%) and Monezia spp. (10.64%) (1.9%), respectively, Nematodirus spp.14.7% was in contrast lower than 56.8% of Demalesh et al. (2014). In contrary, to other previous studies Trematode spps were not detected in this study and the main reason for this was absence of vector and less humidity of the study area. Because most of Trematodes require intermediate hosts to complete their life cycle and usually water snails which were found around water bodies were the most common vectors of many Trematode spps as described by Andrew, (1999).
The result of this study also showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of GIT helminthes in relation to sex (P >0.05); however, the intensity of infections showed significant association with sex showing high faecal egg count in female than in male. Although, the numbers of examined males were lower than females, due to this the prevalence and intensity infestation (FEC) rate was slightly higher in female 53.3% than 51.5% in male camels. This finding concur with most of previous researcher who have observed higher rates of parasite infestation/worm burden in female hosts to compared with the males Maqsood et al. (1996); Komoin et al. (1999); Valcarcel and Romero, (1999). Contrarily, Gulland and Fox, (1992) found higher rates of infestation in males than females. Generally, the higher prevalence of parasitic eggs were found in female than male camels counterpart may be due to the physiological peculiarities of the female camels, such as pregnancy and parturition, which usually constitute stress factors, thus reducing their immunity to fight the infections Wakelin, (1984).
The result revealed higher rates of infestation in camels >10 years old (71.4), than camels between 0.05).This result was agreed with Demaleshet al. (2014) observed higher prevalence in >10years old, but in contrary to this result with Swai et al.(2011) observed higher prevalence in 6-10 years old (70%). In the current study overall prevalence no was statically significantly (P>0.254), however, higher in poor body conditioned 59.7% than good 54.2% and medium 48.2%. This finding was in line with Swaiet al. (2011) who found higher prevalence in poor body conditioned (83.3%) followed by good (62.7%) and medium body conditioned (61.2%) camels. Generally, poorly nourished animals appear to beless competent in getting rid of infection although it is unusual for well feed animals to succumb the disease inright environmental conditions Kimberling, (1988).
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The result of the present study indicated that the prevalence of GIT helminthes in the study area was estimated to 52.6%. Prevalent in dromedary camels extensively managed in Harshin woreda. From this result gastrointestinal Nematodes are an important health problem in the study area; they affecting the wellbeing and productivity of camels. In this study six species of nematodes including Strongylus, Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus, Trichuris and Haemonchusspp. were identified whereas Moneziaspp. was the only cestode detected in the study area. It was found that body condition, age and origin was significant in association with prevalence of camel GIT helminthes.
Taking these facts into consideration the following recommendations are forwarded:
? Awareness creation on common parasitic diseases of camel should be given to camel owner of the study area in order to prevent helminthic infections,
? Strategic deworming should be implemented to reduce the exposure and
? Further studies should be conducted to determine the pathological impact of parasitic infections in the country.
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
? The authors have declared there is no any conflict of interests.
? The author sincerely would like to appreciate MekelleUniversity College of Veterinary Medicine for provision of the laboratory and other facilities.
? They also extend their thanks to the Harshin districts three peasant associations (PA’s) for providing their animals for sampling to conduct the study. Furthermore, Veterinary Parasitological Laboratory of Somali Regional State of Ethiopia
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