Learning outcome 1- Know the main stages of child and young person development.
1.1 Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years to include:
• Physical development
• Communication and intellectual development
• Social, emotional and behavioural development
Birth to Twelve months – In their first week, new born baby’s eyesight is not very clear, babies can see you just if you’re holding them very close. Babies body temperature will take few weeks to adjust as in the womb was a constant warm environment. Babies movements are uncontrollable as their muscle are not very strong.
Between four and six weeks babies usually have their first growth spurt, at this stage babies will be able to lift their head when sit upright or lie on their tummy. When babies are around three-months old, they can hold objects in their palm for few minutes.
From 3-6-months babies start to kick their feet, wave their arms when hearing or seeing someone they know. Now they can hold their head steady, can see objects more clearly and they can roll over. By the end of six-month babies will be able to, with some help, sit up straight. Babies muscles are much stronger now and some babies can sit up without help and can stand up on parent/carers lap and bounce. Babies will go from lying on their backs to sitting and then crawling.
One Year to Three Years – At this age children will be able to feed themselves if you give them finger food, successfully can use a spoon, start drinking from a plastic cup instead of a bottle. They can wave shake and stop to pick up small objects with finger and thumb. Children should now be confident on their feet and be able to climb upstairs with both feet together rather than one at a time, they will crawl upstairs with more confidence. They can put shapes into a shape sorter and play with building blocks without assistance. They push or pull toys while walking, if you sing a nursery rhyme they will start rock to the rhythm. Children can throw a ball while sitting or standing, they will climb trying to reach things and they will explore everything what is new. They can remove both shoes and socks, holds two cubes in one hand. Some of the children may start potty training, climb and stand on a chair. They will begin to recognize name and pick out common objects. Children will have more confidence in their balance, they can jump and stand on tiptoes and kick a ball forward without lousing balance. Holding a crayon with thumb and fingers trying to imitate circular, vertical and horizontal strokes. Begin to cut with blunt-edge scissors. With help from a carer many children will be able to learn to ride a bike with stabilisers.
Three to Four Years – Children now usually walk, climb and run and join in active play with other children. They can unbutton large buttons, open zip lock bags and lunch boxes. They are using one hand consistently for most activates, their balance is improving a lot, and should be able to balance on one foot and move in all directions. Children can co-ordinating hands to brush their hair and teeth.
Four to Five Years – At this age children should be dressing and undressing independently, put the shoes on correct feet and washing their hands without help. Children will be able to hop, skip and jump, make shapes with clay and copying simple picture using geometric shapes.
Five years to Seven Years – Physical development in children will be improving all the time and they will become very confident in activates such as running, slides, swings and using large equipment. They will be able to hold pencils and paintbrushes with 3 finger grasps and generating movement from fingers and not from wrist. Children at this age they should toileting independently, tying shoelaces, and using a knife and a fork for soft foods.
Seven to Twelve Years – Children at this age they will be able to control their speed when are running and swerve to avoid collision. Mai be able to ride a bike or using roller skates. Some of the children will start show interest in activities such as gymnastics martial art and swimming. Children will increase in body strength allowing them to run or swim for a long distance. They will develop manual skills such as cooking carpentry. A
round the age of nine, there is an increase of growth more pronounced than in other periods of childhood. Some of the children might approaching or reaching early puberty which can occurs towards the end of this category of an age. In girls will grow pubic hair and breasts and in boys will begin deepening their voice, they will start grow facial hair and they will experience testicular development.
Twelve to Sixteen Years -This period is referred to as adolescence, in this category, boys who didn’t start puberty yet will now show signs of going through puberty and both sexes will be developing, maturing and growing stronger. Will be a huge difference in size, height, strength and general appearance in young people. Boys will begin to develop sex characteristics, such as testicle and scrotum growth, pubic and body hair and deep voice. Girls will start their menstrual cycle, will also start developing parts of the body earlier than boys do, however at the end of this period of growth boy will be bigger than girls. By the end of this age category girls, depending on when they start their puberty may be almost mature and they are very close to on adult high.
Sixteen to Nineteen Years -Boys and girls at this age will be classed as adults, they are physical mature and their reproductive growth coming to an end. Boys will continue to grow taller until they reach mid 20’s.
1.1 Communication and intellectual development.
Birth to Twelve Months -In the first few weeks baby’s communication will be limited, only way to communicate at this first age is by crying. They will start crying when they will be hungry, when they need to be chance of nappies, when they feel uncomfortable or even if they wold like a cuddle to be warm, secure. They are looking at your face and listening to your voice when you talk to them. By one-month babies will respond to loud noises and briefly watches objects. They will start to develop their first smile around five to six weeks, they will smile back when you smile at them, in few months their first smile will develop in to a laugh. Babies easily can recognize familiar voices they will start gurgling, cooing and babbling. Babies will be able to clap their hand or wave goodbye when someone will wave to them. By the end of this category babies can make sounds like; da-da, ga-ga, ka-ka, ma-ma, ba-ba also will be able to respond to their own name.
One Year to Three Years – Children will be able to understand when you say no or bye-bye, now they will make the difference between moods and they will try to copy, if they will see someone upset they will start to cry, if someone will laugh they will laugh as well. Children might tell you few parts of the body to a doll or to another person. Can look through a picture book, they will say please or thank you if parent/carer will remember them, can use 4 words to do a sentence. Between 2 and 3 years children can express themselves and they can tell when they need to go to the toilet. At 3 years olds recognise fundamentals shapes as triangle, square and circle, colours as blue red and yellow and can make the difference between small and large. Identifies high and low tones in musical games, they will be able to enjoy music and dance.
Three to Four Years – Children at this age can say hello to adults without being remembered, also at this stage children should be able to remember some part of stories that are read to them. Vocabulary is increase and reach about 1000 words, now they use sentence with 5 words, understands words like ‘behind, or ‘in front of’, ‘in and out’. There are very curios and start asking questions like: where, what, who and start using plurals, adjectives, adding -ed to some words, showing the past tense. They will be able to show you with their fingers how old they are, between 3 and 4 children should start to understand the idea of adding something will be increase or if you take away will be less, should be able to put objects in groups by colour and size, big or small.
Four to Five Years – Children vocabulary now is around 1500 words, by the time they will be 5, children will speak about 2.000 words, they grammar will be more accurate. They will have a better understanding about the time such as ‘today, tomorrow, morning and afternoon and how long’. Children will be able to make a conversation about different topics, they can talk about what they might do. Children will enjoy sorting objects by size colour and which category belong to. They will be able to count to 20 but understand number concept up to 10, name objects by touch them, also recites nursery rhymes from memory. Children should be able to recognise some printed signs from the environment.
Five Years to Seven Years – Children at Five years of an age will ask the meaning of words and try to use the new words. The children can follow instructions in the same time when they will have a conversation. Their speech should be easy to understand as their grammar is correct spoken, they will start to discuss their ideas and give their opinions. Children can tell you about an event very clearly and very complex. They now understand the rules of conversation they will know when to listen and when to talk. The children at this age should know their full name and their address. Children will be able to understand the beginning, middle and the end of a story and can creating their own. By age of 7 most of the children will improve their reading, writing and simple numerical skills of adding and subtraction.
Seven to Twelve Years – Children of this group age can communicate effectively at play time or in their classroom, they can control the tone of their voice, can speak louder or quiet, lower or high. Children at this age they learn to express their own opinion and speak about a real or imaginary story. Now they can understand and speak around 15.000 words, should use adjectives and verbs to express themselves. Children learnt to write little letters to friends and family which can include descriptions that are very details. By the end of this group children should have all their speech and sounds. They can easily make a conversation on the phone and they can plan their speech. Can read a book on their own and they have the knowledge to predict words from the book. At this age they developed concept about numbers, time month seasons, and distance. Will be able to count backwords from 20, add, take away multiple digit numbers and learning multiplication and division. They will have an increased attention span, they will start to have interests in collections, hobbies and activities which also will can rapidly change the interest. Between 9-12 children can explain relationships between meanings of multiple meaning words of similarities. At this age should use more abstract and specific vocabulary and grammar, their writing will be more complex in sentence than in conversation, they will be more able to think, transfer information and discuss ideas.