Assignment when the company was asked by the

Assignment 1: Tim’s Horton’s gets roasted 1 Assignment 1 Tim Horton’s gets roasted Noof Al-Hajri- 60074798 Mariem Hadded- 60083631 HN2140: Attendance and Disability Management – Section 2 Instructor: Elizabeth RideoutAssignment 1: Tim’s Horton’s gets roasted 2 November 1, 2018 The original plan was not reasonable in its design or administration in this case because Tim Hortons did not refer to the Qatar Labor Law article 14 when they made the decision to terminate Noor. Tim Hortons should refer to the Labor Law 14 before making any decision against an employee in order to avoid any violation regarding employee rights.

Tim Hortons did not specify the real reason when they made the termination decision against Noor. Also, the termination decision was not accurate, as they did not have any documentation to prove the reason for the termination. In addition, when the company was asked by the court, they said that the reason behind Noor’s termination was due to her negative performance and not due to her disability.

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Noor had no idea about the termination decision that they took against her as they failed to have documentation to prove the reason behind her termination. The employer (Tim Hortons) terminated the employee (Noor) after 10 years of loyal service. The company did not follow the progressive disciplinary process since they immediately gave Noor a written warning without even giving her a verbal warning. Tim Hortons has terminated Noor without applying the progressive disciplinary process correctly which should have started with verbal, written, suspension and termination. Tim Hortons failed to have evident documentation that outlined the reason behind Noor’s termination. In addition, they did not follow the Qatar Labor Law articles 14 in order to be legally defensible in front of the law. If Tim Hortons would have referred and followed the Labor law 14, it would have helped them to take corrective actions in order to avoid any violation toward Noor’s rights.

Assignment 1: Tim’s Horton’s gets roasted 3 Yes, there were numerous human rights violations based on Noor’s disability as she went through health issues (cancer), which forced her to miss work on a regular basis and it was non-capable absenteeism. Tim Hortons failed to comply the employee rights and the disciplinary procedures through the actions discussed below. Tim Hortons did not support Noor during her health disability although she worked with the company for 10 years as a loyal employee. The company did not meet with Noor even once they noticed some incompetence in her job performance. The company should have discussed with Noor about her job performance issues and the mistakes that she made in her job, in order to understand the reasons that forced her to do those mistakes frequently. then they could provide appropriate accommodation for her such as giving her less responsibility, flexible time, and less the work than what she used to do in the past. This can help Noor to feel more comfortable and less stressful in her job, as she will have less tasks that can increase her job performance, which also, will help her to avoid doing mistakes. Furthermore, the company did not pay Noor during her absence leave as she used to miss the work because of her health disability.

The company violated Noor’s rights, as they did not pay her during her medical absence and the missing days, which is considered as a violation of Noor rights. Moreover, Tim Hortons has failed to provide evident documentation regarding the decision to terminate Noor based on her job performance so, they did not legally defensible. The company (Tim Hortons) did not even refer to the Qatar labor law in order to have documentation before taking anyAssignment 1: Tim’s Horton’s gets roasted 4 decision about an employee such as employee performance, disciplinary process, and employee rights which they failed to apply in Noor’s situation.

In addition, the company failed to have accurate documentation that proved the steps they took against Noor such as progressive discipline and the medical certificates. If these documentations were applied, it could have helped Noor to know exactly why they terminated her. The company also, violated Noor rights because they did not follow the progressive disciplinary steps correctly before terminating her from the job as they gave her a written warning without even discussing with her the reason behind termination decision and without providing her with any help to accommodate her. No, Tim Hortons did not operate within its rights because the company did not follow the legal practices before taking any actions regarding the employees’ rights. These actions should follow and refer the labor law No. 14 in order to be legally defensible in case of any problem that arises between the employee (Noor) and the employer (Tim Hortons).

The management violated their rights to terminate an employee as they did not apply the disciplinary procedures and the Qatar Labor Law effectively. In addition, Tim Hortons failed to follow the disciplinary process correctly when they gave Noor a written warning without giving her a verbal warning first. As we discussed during the class there is a good solution that can fix the damages between the employee and the employer relationship, which is called the “last chance agreement”. Last chance agreement can have positive impact for both the employer and the employee, as it will give the opportunity for the employee to retain the job by improving their performance. InAssignment 1: Tim’s Horton’s gets roasted 5 addition, it can make a better relationship between both parties.

Tim Hortons failed to provide this last chance agreement to Noor. In Tim Hortons case, there were several legal considerations, for example Tim Horton’s violates Noor’s rights when they did not compensate her for the injury to dignity, feelings and self-respect which was entitled to her as well as they did not compensate her during her medical leaves and the sick leave days. The company failed to compensate Noor once her health disease was proven. The article (114) in Qatar labor law 14 (2004) states that the employer should pay the compensation for the disability within a period not exceeding 15 days from the date of proof. Moreover, the article of (112) state that if a dispute arises between the employee and the employer regarding any medical matter that the employee may face and could relate to his/her work, they must refer the medical issue to the competent medical authority. The decision completed by that authority must be finalized. Tim Hortons failed to refer to the medical authority, they terminated Noor without having any evident documentation that outlines the reason of the termination. ?Tim Horton’s failed to assess a Disability Management program services for the disabled employee as a legal considerations : .

This program provide the following servicesAssignment 1: Tim’s Horton’s gets roasted 6 ? Promoting a positive environment for disabled employees where they can work in safe and comfortable workplace. Also,, by providing them the right equipment and tools in order to do their job effectively. ? Consulting with the Management and Human Resources department in case to any workplace disability issues. ? Facilitate the interactive process for reasonable accommodation which refer and follow with the Qatar Labor Law 14 policies and procedures. ? Providing education and early intervention services in order to prevent any disabling workplace injuries in the future.

ASSIGNMENT B.A. English Literature. NOVEL: TO KILL

ASSIGNMENT 1 : READING FOR PLEASURESubmitted by: J.Puja , Roll no: 171102044, II B.A.

English Literature. NOVEL: TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD -Harper Lee One of America’s most famous and elusive novelists is Harper Lee (1926-2016).Her two novels, ‘To kill a mockingbird’ and ‘Go set a watchman’ are celebrated by English literarians as unputdownable works even today.

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She won the Pulitzer for ‘To kill a mockingbird’ which was published in 1960. This novel is set in 1930s Alabama. ‘To kill a mockingbird’ tells the story of Miss.Scout Finch, a young girl and her father Mr.Atticus Finch, a lawyer in Maycomb. This story is both a coming-of-age tale and an insightful social commentary: When the small Alabama of Maycomb is rolled by the trial of an African American man, Mr.Tom Robinson, who was accused of raping a white woman named Miss.

Mayella Ewell. After the death of Scout’s mother, Miss.Calpurnia took care of Atticus Finch, Scout and his son Mr.Jem Finch (Scout’s elder brother). Calpurnia was a coloured woman and the family cook for the Finch’s family. Apart from the protagonist, her brother Jem Finch and her friend Dill are to be appreciated. The curiosity of these three children about the happenings of incidents in Maycomb are well demonstrated in simple terms. The mysterious neighbour Mr.

Arthur Radley(who was called by the neighbourhood children as ‘Boo Radley’) was a good twist at the end of the novel, who saved Scout and Jem. Scout Finch is the protagonist of this novel. She confronts difficult questions of Gender, Class and Prejudice.

Scout Finch craves learning. Her experiences at the school brings hard lessons about social class in Maycomb and what it means to feel empathy for those who are marginated. “I think there is just one kind of folks.

Folks…” -Scout FinchShe learns that breaking from gender expectations requires leaving the innocence of childhood behind and more than a little bravery. “Shoot all the Bluejays if you want, if you can hit’em. But remember, it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.” -Atticus Tom Robinson’s case, which focuses on a false accusation of rape forces Scout to confront the painful realization that prejudice can overshadow truth. Atticus was assigned by the court-house to defend Tom Robinson. This resulted in a commotion among the white people of Maycomb and word spread soon throughout the town.

People started to think and talk bad about Atticus and called him a ‘nigger-lover’, which his children didn’t like but tried to remain calm as Atticus said. This case has also caused danger to the lives of Scout and Jem as Mayella Ewell’s father tried to kill them but was finally saved by Arthur Radley. “Atticus, he was real nice”, Scout said. “Most people are, Scout, when you finally see them” said Atticus Finch. Thus, this novel is a well-structured story of a young girl, a town, a glimpse of the age where the state of African Americans was not good. This book has been made into 10,00,000 copies each year and sold all around the world.

It is one of the most influential novels which English literary history has ever seen.

ASSIGNMENT the total consumption of pork is

ASSIGNMENT 1: ESSAYResearch Paper: Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis in the smallholder pig value chains in urban of Vietnam (Dang-Xuan et al., 2017)General ContextMeat and meat products are consumed on a large scale worldwide. In Vietnam, the total consumption of pork is 70% and pig production is the main source of income for more than 4 million small farmers in the country (Nga et al.

, 2015). The per capita pork consumption of Vietnam population is approximately 29 kg (OECD, 2018). Consumption of pork can result in a disease known as Salmonellosis. Salmonellosis is one of the most common type of foodborne illness throughout the world.

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It is considered as a biggest problem by the Ministry of Health, Vietnam. It is caused by Salmonella which is a gram negative bacteria belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae and consists of two species namely S. Enterica and S. Bongori (Yokozawa, 2014).

Salmonella strains are present in wide range in the intestinal tract of warm and cold-blooded animals. Salmonella can infect a wide range of hosts including man, insects, birds, etc. Salmonella infections occur mainly due to the consumption of food containing animal faeces.

Water is also identified as a source of Salmonella in food. Two serovars namely S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi can cause fever and are known as typhoid strains. Non typhoidal strains are S. Typhimurium and S. Enteriditis (Baer, Miller, & Dilger, 2013). Non typhoidal Salmonella infections cause gastroenteritis.

Contaminated foods of animal origin could not be recognized because there is no change in their smell or appearance. Salmonella can be killed by proper cooking however, unhygienic conditions of the workers working in slaughterhouse may result in contamination (Thai, 2007). Salmonella contamination can occur at any point in the food chain for example at farm, during processing or distribution. Main source of salmonella contamination is the slaughterhouse. Once the salmonella present on carcass gets favourable conditions, it multiplies to harmful levels (Malorny, Löfström, Wagner, Krämer, & Hoorfar, 2008). Various studies have been conducted to find the prevalence of Salmonella in pork and all have reported the presence of Salmonella in high amounts (Van, Moutafis, Istivan, Tran, & Coloe, 2007). However, the extent of risk depends on several factors such as consumption pattern and cooking methods. In Mekong Delta Harbor of Vietnam, Salmonella is found in high amounts in pigs, chicken and ducks.

Contamination of Salmonella in pork was found to be higher than that in some developed countries (PHAN et al., 2005). Aspect of Food Safety Risk Assessment covered by the articleThe article which is discussed here covers the quantification of risk of salmonellosis in humans through the consumption of pork in urban areas of Vietnam. Salmonella was identified as the hazard and dose response and bacterial growth models were obtained from literature. Salmonellosis is more prevalent in Vietnam because of high consumption of pork.

It is more fatal to children as compared to adults. Three out of ten districts in the Hung Yen province of Vietnam. Household producers of pigs were classified as small, medium and large based on the number of pigs they had. Slaughterhouses were classified as small and medium based on the number of pigs slaughtered per day. At retail level, classification was based on roadside vendors, commune markets and central markets. Total of 36 pig farms were selected for sampling. Swabs of four different sites of pen floor and final carcass were collected.

In slaughterhouse, pigs were selected randomly based on the total number of pigs slaughtered in that slaughterhouse. From retail market, 108 cut pork samples were collected. The National Institute of Veterinary Research, Hanoi, Vietnam tested the samples for the presence or absence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella increased from slaughterhouse to the retail pork cuts thus suggesting that Salmonella contamination is occurring throughout the entire supply chain.

Exposure assessment was performed using data from consumer surveys. Structured questionnaire was used for survey along with a focus group discussion where the cooking methods and consumption pattern was discussed based on gender and age group. From the focus group discussion, it was found that a person consumed on an average 74 g boiled pork/meal and this amount varied by age (37 g/meal – children, 100 g/meal – adult) and gender (87 g/meal – adult female, 73 g/meal – adult male).

Furthermore, cross-contamination was also considered as a source of salmonella in pork. Four different scenarios were analysed for cross-contamination. The use of same knife and cutting board for raw and cooked pork had the highest cross-contamination rate. For risk characterization step of risk assessment, dose-response and exposure assessment were combined and a risk model was developed. The effect of temperature on the growth of Salmonella species was predicted using predictive microbiology models. The annual incidence rate was estimated to be the lowest in children as compared to adults. Pork can become contaminated from Salmonella at the breeding or fattening farm, during transportation, lairage or slaughter.

Infection with Salmonella during transport or lairage could be due to stress, contact with excreting pigs, improperly cleaned truck (Swanenburg, van der Wolf, Urlings, Snijders, & van Knapen, 2001). Novelty of the articleSalmonella infections in humans are major economic problem (Tirado & Schmidt, 2001). Majority of Salmonella serovars can cause non-typhoidal infections in humans. Due to globalization and an increase in travel among people, these types of infections are becoming an issue throughout the world. A contaminated product produced in one country may be consumed in another country and it may result in an outbreak. Salmonella infections are transmitted mainly through contact with animals, contaminated water or consumption of contaminated animal products such as raw meat, pork, chicken and so on (Vo et al.

, 2006). It is crucial to understand this agent, its behaviour, propagation and the incidence rate in Vietnam because of large scale consumption of pork and chicken which is discussed above. Risk analysis is not properly understood and applied in some developing countries like Vietnam due to lack of resources and manpower. Establishing a risk assessment model is required in Vietnam’s informal market because most of the domestically produced food is sold there. Selected research article provides an entire risk assessment on human salmonellosis in pig value chain which could provide valuable information to scientists and policy makers regarding the risk present and helps in identification of points in the supply chain where control measures need to be implemented. The article discussed here is the first published QMRA model for food safety in Vietnam.

QMRA models help in identifying the risks and factors that affect food safety. These models require quantitative microbiological data which is still hampered and therefore assumptions are included which result in high degree of uncertainty (Malorny et al., 2008). This study focused on the importance of small and medium farmers and slaughterhouses in Vietnam. It further reveals the application of QMRA in the value chains and gives information regarding handling risks.

QMRA models are applied mainly in developed countries and are in the initial stages in the developing countries. In the QMRA model developed in this article, the 90% confidence intervals are wide. The variability parameters (amount of pork consumed and salmonella concentration on the contaminated boiled pork) used had a wide variety.

FindingsThe number and type of samples collected and analysed are discussed above the “Aspect of Food Safety Risk Assessment the article is covering”. Swab analysis of pen floor and carcass showed that the salmonella was present in higher amount on the carcass (41.7%) as compared to pen floor (33.3%). Among 40% of the carcass swabs were Salmonella positive.

This is comparable to the finding of high income countries where 55% of the pork carcass was found to be Salmonella positive. Also, this study showed an increase in Salmonella prevalence along the food chain with around 40% of retail samples being positive. This value was very high in comparison to high income countries however, it was very low as compared to low income countries. Also, in this study cross-contamination due to the use of same knife and cutting board for raw and boiled pork was considered as the main contributor to human salmonellosis. Furthermore, interview of consumers revealed that more than half of them buy pork from central market and the rest buy from commune market.

Finally, it was concluded that there were high levels of Salmonella along the smallholder pig value chain from farm to fork (retail pork) and some strict control measures needs to be taken to protect the health of the consumers. Some of these control measures include implementation of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) at the farm level, proper infrastructure development for slaughter and public education regarding cross-contamination.LimitationsAlthough this study showed some significant findings, it had some limitations too. Some of the limitations are discussed below.1.

The reduction of Salmonella while cooking in household was uncertain. For studying various scenarios of cross-contamination, sampling from household was not done due to cost and ethical considerations. 2.

The model developed in this study was not validated. Use of field data for attribution studies would have resulted in a more robust model. However, it was more expensive and challenging.

There is a huge difference between the government reports and hospital cases which may be due to underreporting or underestimating.3. The quantity and frequency of pork consumption depended on the individual and time. Therefore, the actual cross-contamination and concentration of Salmonella might be over-estimated. 4. The model developed in this study was not specific to any Salmonella strains. Also, it was not able to differentiate the susceptibility in different consumer groups. ReferencesBaer, A.

A., Miller, M. J., ; Dilger, A. C. (2013).

Pathogens of Interest to the Pork Industry: A Review of Research on Interventions to Assure Food Safety. 12(2), 183-217. doi:doi:10.1111/1541-4337.12001Dang-Xuan, S., Nguyen-Viet, H., Unger, F.

, Pham-Duc, P., Grace, D., Tran-Thi, N., .

. . Makita, K. J. I. J. o. P.

H. (2017). Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis in the smallholder pig value chains in urban of Vietnam. 62(1), 93-102. doi:10.1007/s00038-016-0921-xMalorny, B., Löfström, C.

, Wagner, M., Krämer, N., ; Hoorfar, J.

(2008). Enumeration of salmonella bacteria in food and feed samples by real-time PCR for quantitative microbial risk assessment. Applied and environmental microbiology, 74(5), 1299-1304.

doi:10.1128/AEM.02489-07Nga, N., Lapar, M. L., Unger, F.

, Van Hung, P., Duong, N. H., Huyen, N., . . .

Thi Be, D. (2015). Household pork consumption behavior in Vietnam: Implications for pro-smallholder pig value chain upgrading.OECD. (2018). Meat Consumtion (indicator). Retrieved from https://data.oecd.

org/agroutput/meat-consumption.htmPHAN, T. T., KHAI, L. T.


, OKATANI, A. T., AKIBA, M., ; HAYASHIDANI, H. (2005). Contamination of Salmonella in Retail Meats and Shrimps in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. 68(5), 1077-1080. doi:10.

4315/0362-028x-68.5.1077Swanenburg, M.

, van der Wolf, P. J., Urlings, H.

A. P., Snijders, J. M. A., ; van Knapen, F. (2001).

Salmonella in slaughter pigs: the effect of logistic slaughter procedures of pigs on the prevalence of Salmonella in pork. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 70(3), 231-242. doi:

1016/S0168-1605(01)00546-3Thai, N. P. J. J. C.-F., MVPH thesis. (2007).

Prevalence of Salmonella on Pig Carcasses at a Slaughterhouse in Hanoi, Vietnam. Tirado, C., ; Schmidt, K. (2001). WHO surveillance programme for control of foodborne infections and intoxications: Preliminary results and trends across greater Europe. Journal of Infection, 43(1), 80-84.


0861Van, T. T. H., Moutafis, G., Istivan, T.

, Tran, L. T., ; Coloe, P. J. (2007). Detection of Salmonella spp. in retail raw food samples from Vietnam and characterization of their antibiotic resistance. Applied and environmental microbiology, 73(21), 6885-6890.

doi:10.1128/AEM.00972-07Vo, A. T. T., van Duijkeren, E.

, Fluit, A. C., Heck, M. E. O. C.

, Verbruggen, A., Maas, H. M. E., ; Gaastra, W.

(2006). Distribution of Salmonella enterica Serovars from humans, livestock and meat in Vietnam and the Dominance of Salmonella Typhimurium Phage Type 90. Veterinary Microbiology, 113(1), 153-158. doi:

1016/j.vetmic.2005.10.034Yokozawa, T.

(2014). A study of Salmonella prevalence in pork value chain from pig slaughterhouses to markets in Hung Yen, Vietnam. BSc thesis in Veterinary Science, Hokkaido, Japan: Rakuno Gakuen University.,


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