Assignment future food supply. Possible options are

Assignment No: 2
Title:
Seminar
Topic:
Pollinators-future outlook
Submitted to:
Dr Mubashar Hussain
Submitted by:
Nadia Ilyas
Roll No:
17130814-015
Course Code:
Zoo-460
Programe:
M.Sc II

Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc517596803 h 3Possible options PAGEREF _Toc517596804 h 3Self-pollination PAGEREF _Toc517596805 h 3Self-pollinating plants PAGEREF _Toc517596806 h 3Pollination by humans PAGEREF _Toc517596807 h 4Creation of new insecticides bacteria harmless to bees PAGEREF _Toc517596808 h 4Synthetic biology-creation of new cells PAGEREF _Toc517596809 h 4Robot bees PAGEREF _Toc517596810 h 5Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc517596811 h 5Threats of Pollinators: PAGEREF _Toc517596812 h 6Colony collapse in honey bees: PAGEREF _Toc517596813 h 6Humming birds thrive PAGEREF _Toc517596814 h 6Lepidopterans PAGEREF _Toc517596815 h 7A horizon scan of future threats PAGEREF _Toc517596816 h 7Methods: PAGEREF _Toc517596817 h 7

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Pollinators-future outlook
Introduction:
Faced with a huge reduction in the bee’s population, there are some future outlooks. Bees are responsible for the pollination of fruits that we eat. This does not augur well for our future food supply. Possible options are following.

Possible options:
Self-pollination
Pollination by humans
Creation of new insecticides bacteria harmless to bees
Synthetic biology-creation of new cells
Robot bees
Self-pollination:
Plants and in particular trees have mostly evolved along the lines of cross pollination with the help of bees,wasps,butterflies,bats,moths,birds and other animals. The basic reason for that is cross breeding brings new variety of genes into the
Hereditary system, thus making the species fitter, stronger to withstand climate changings and more resistant to diseases. There is possibility that mutations may bring in new variants with perhaps new advantages.

Figure no 1: Self pollination
Self-pollinating plants:
Mostly it occurs for annual flowers and plants but also for trees. One example of self-pollination is Cleistogamy, which occurs before the flower opens. The pollen is released from anther within the flower or the pollen on the anther goes down a tube from the styles to ovules. Mostly this happens for certain type of orchids and grasses. We can alter the genetic makeup of plants and trees through the seeds in such a way that they can all be self-pollination.
Grafting of young trees can produce self-pollination.

Pollination by humans:
Our society will soon be faced with the problem of potentially unemployed masses of people. The solution is that countries like china use humans for cross pollination by means of brushes.

Figure no 2: pollination by humans
This is already being done for apple and pear orchids in Sichuan province. Apple and pear are very valuable crops at the top of fruit chain. Scarcity of bees makes human pollination economically sensible.in Brazil, humans are used for pollinating the passion fruit.
Creation of new insecticides bacteria harmless to bees:
DNA is the basis of all living cells. Its structure is simple yet beautifully double helix. Two are strands of helix are tied together by pairs of molecular nucleobases. They are adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine, which pair up four nucleobases. A with T and G with C. In this way new insecticides bacteria also created which are harmless for bees.

Synthetic biology-creation of new cells:
In his new book, life at the speed of life, from the double helix to the down of digital life, Venter describes how to synthesize a new functional genome. The starting point is a most simple goat bacterium that is one million bases long.using the 4 base chemicals A, T, G and C from the laboratory, they synthesized the complete genome of the bacterium. This chemical was then injected into an empty host cell and new bacterium proved to be an accurate enough version of the original goat bacterium that it was able to manufacture a specified sequence of proteins.

Figure no: 3
Robot bees:
Harvard university micro biotics lab has been making robot trees. This robot bee has a 3 cm wingspan and only 80 milligrams. It can perch on a surface and take off again using electrostatic adhesion and it is filled with some vision, optical flow and motion sensors. This robot bee is tied to power source. Scientists at Cornell university are developing a neuromorphic chip processor ,which would copy the large number of neurons in the neural network in the brain.it will be fitted with camera ,expanded antennae for tactile feedback, contact sensors on feet and air flow sensors that look like tiny hairs. We can produce enough robot trees.

Figure no 4: Robot bees
Conclusion:
Bees are disappearing at fast rate. They are important for pollinating the fruits that we eat, cotton clothes that we wear etc.Inspite of all future options listed above society would still do best to put its efforts on making bees survive by reducing the threats to them such as harmful insecticides. Surely it is our power to do if we realize they are precious to us.1
Threats of Pollinators:Colony collapse in honey bees: Honey bees are maintained in managed colonies of tens of thousands of bees living within one hive under the care of beekeepers. Effects of environmental pesticides and herbicides are very severe for pollinators. Climate changings also effect the pollinators.
Figure no: 5
Humming birds thrive:
Humming birds plays an important role as a pollinators. Their population decreasing day by day. Some species of hummingbirds in the northern ranges of the Andes face a more threats. Climate change is also a threat .It effects the pollinators. Therefore climate changings, habit, habitat loss and forest fires could quickly change the status of humming birds species.

Figure no: 6
Lepidopterans:
Butterflies and moths serve as pollinators but in very different ways. Their species also in threat due to sprays .In this way it effects the pollinators. 2
A horizon scan of future threats and opportunities for pollinators and pollination:
Methods: We followed a horizon scanning approach based on the Delphi method.

The same approach has been used since 2010 to generate global horizon scans for conservation and thus it provides a reliable and accepted methodology. The exercise was carried out by a core group of 17 pollinator experts balanced across area of expertise and geographic knowledge. One member from the agrochemical industry accepted, but withdrew before the first stage of process was completed. 3

Assignment Pollinators-future outlook Introduction: Faced with a

Assignment No: 2
Title:
Seminar
Topic:
Pollinators-future outlook
Submitted to:
Dr Mubashar Hussain
Submitted by:
Nadia Ilyas
Roll No:
17130814-015
Course Code:
Zoo-460
Programe:
M.Sc II

Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc517596803 h 3Possible options PAGEREF _Toc517596804 h 3Self-pollination PAGEREF _Toc517596805 h 3Self-pollinating plants PAGEREF _Toc517596806 h 4Pollination by humans PAGEREF _Toc517596807 h 4Creation of new insecticides bacteria harmless to bees PAGEREF _Toc517596808 h 5Synthetic biology-creation of new cells PAGEREF _Toc517596809 h 5Robot bees PAGEREF _Toc517596810 h 6Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc517596811 h 7Threats of Pollinators: PAGEREF _Toc517596812 h 7Colony collapse in honey bees: PAGEREF _Toc517596813 h 7Humming birds thrive PAGEREF _Toc517596814 h 8Lepidopterans PAGEREF _Toc517596815 h 8A horizon scan of future threats PAGEREF _Toc517596816 h 9Methods: PAGEREF _Toc517596817 h 9

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Pollinators-future outlook
Introduction:
Faced with a huge reduction in the bee’s population, there are some future outlooks. Bees are responsible for the pollination of fruits that we eat. This does not augur well for our future food supply. Possible options are following.

Possible options:
Self-pollination
Pollination by humans
Creation of new insecticides bacteria harmless to bees
Synthetic biology-creation of new cells
Robot bees
Self-pollination:
Plants and in particular trees have mostly evolved along the lines of cross pollination with the help of bees,wasps,butterflies,bats,moths,birds and other animals. The basic reason for that is cross breeding brings new variety of genes into the
Hereditary system, thus making the species fitter, stronger to withstand climate changings and more resistant to diseases. There is possibility that mutations may bring in new variants with perhaps new advantages.

Figure no 1: Self pollination
Self-pollinating plants:
Mostly it occurs for annual flowers and plants but also for trees.One example of self-pollination is Cleistogamy, which occurs before the flower opens. The pollen is released from anther within the flower or the pollen on the anther goes down a tube from the styles to ovules. Mostly this happens for certain type of orchids and grasses. We can alter the genetic makeup of plants and trees through the seeds in such a way that they can all be self-pollination.
Grafting of young trees can produce self-pollination.

Pollination by humans:
Our society will soon be faced with the problem of potentially unemployed masses of people. The solution is that countries like china use humans for cross pollination by means of brushes.

Figure no 2: pollination by humans
This is already being done for apple and pear orchids in Sichuan province. Apple and pear are very valuable crops at the top of fruit chain. Scarcity of bees makes human pollination economically sensible.in Brazil, humans are used for pollinating the passion fruit.
Creation of new insecticides bacteria harmless to bees:
DNA is the basis of all living cells. Its structure is simple yet beautifully double helix. Two are strands of helix are tied together by pairs of molecular nucleobases. They are adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine, which pair up four nucleobases. A with T and G with C. In this way new insecticides bacteria also created which are harmless for bees.

Synthetic biology-creation of new cells:
In his new book, life at the speed of life, from the double helix to the down of digital life, Venter describes how to synthesize a new functional genome. The starting point is a most simple goat bacterium that is one million bases long.using the 4 base chemicals A, T, G and C from the laboratory, they synthesized the complete genome of the bacterium. This chemical was then injected into an empty host cell and new bacterium proved to be an accurate enough version of the original goat bacterium that it was able to manufacture a specified sequence of proteins.

mage of JCVI-syn3.0 by Tom Deerick and Mark Ellisman of the National Center for Imaging and Microscopy Research at the University of California at San Diego.

Figure no: 3
Robot bees:
Harvard university micro biotics lab has been making robot trees. This robot bee has a 3 cm wingspan and only 80 milligrams. It can perch on a surface and take off again using electrostatic adhesion and it is filled with some vision, optical flow and motion sensors. This robot bee is tied to power source. Scientists at Cornell university are developing a neuromorphic chip processor ,which would copy the large number of neurons in the neural network in the brain.it will be fitted with camera ,expanded antennae for tactile feedback, contact sensors on feet and air flow sensors that look like tiny hairs. We can produce enough robot trees.

Figure no 4: Robot bees
Conclusion:
Bees are disappearing at fast rate. They are important for pollinating the fruits that we eat, cotton clothes that we wear etc.Inspite of all future options listed above society would still do best to put its efforts on making bees survive by reducing the threats to them such as harmful insecticides. Surely it is our power to do if we realize they are precious to us.1
Threats of Pollinators:Colony collapse in honey bees: Honey bees are maintained in managed colonies of tens of thousands of bees living within one hive under the care of beekeepers. Effects of environmental pesticides and herbicides are very severe for pollinators. Climate changings also effect the pollinators.

Figure no: 5
Humming birds thrive:
Humming birds plays an important role as a pollinators. Their population decreasing day by day. Some species of hummingbirds in the northern ranges of the Andes face a more threats. Climate change is also a threat .It effects the pollinators. Therefore climate changings, habit, habitat loss and forest fires could quickly change the status of humming birds species.

Figure no: 6
Lepidopterans:
Butterflies and moths serve as pollinators but in very different ways.Their species also in threat due to sprays .In this way it effects the pollinators. 2
A horizon scan of future threats and opportunities for pollinators and pollination:
Methods: We followed a horizon scanning approach based on the Delphi method.

The same approach has been used since 2010 to generate global horizon scans for conservation and thus it provides a reliable and accepted methodology. The exercise was carried out by a core group of 17 pollinator experts balanced across area of expertise and geographic knowledge.One member from the agrochemical industry accepted, but withdrew before the first stage of process was completed. 3

Assignment the long-term vision “AmBisyon 2040” targeting

Assignment No. 1 – Affairs of the state under the present administration
Dennis B. Danao
University of the Philippines Open University
Submission date: September 22, 2018
Affairs of the state under the present administration
President Duterte’s victory in the election positioned the Philippines on a podium much different from his predecessors’ political style and leadership. His popularity since day one reflected his commitment for change and transformation particularly in the area of peace & order and corruption in our government systems. In our country where the elites are at the top, his triumph meant that the mass is clamoring for real change. His medium term development plan (PDP 2017-2020) that is anchored on the long-term vision “AmBisyon 2040” targeting the poor will ensure that inclusive programs will ensure economic growth & stability.

The past years has been crucial for the Duterte government when sweeping change gets going. Amidst tensions and political pressures, Duterte has improved law & order with his crackdown on illegal drugs along with the clean-up of the police force. Big time drug lords and their cronies are relentlessly polluting our communities to this day. The PNP & PDEA’s has been working progressively with the president’s trust to secure our highly-infested communities with illegal drugs. Their operations, upon the president’s order, busted millions worth of shabu laboratories in remote areas of the country and freed our barangays of this menace in our society killing the future of even our younger children. To eradicate the enemies of the state, he has been attacking drug syndicates who are under the protection of erring government officials and police authorities. Duterte did not backed down from ISIS extremist that prowled in Marawi (Mindanao) and ultimately came out victorious. Now, the Marawi rehabilitation through Task Force Bangon Marawi (TFBM) is underway at an overall cost of P86.5 billion with countries i.e. US, Australia, the WB ; ADB who indicated their interest to provide financial support.I see a leader who is pragmatic in spite of several deficiencies. He has made progress on the implementation of Train Law (Tax Reform for Acceleration ; Inclusion) which raises the tax exemptions for lower income earners. While TRAIN is being criticized as anti-poor due to increased taxes in the midst of an inflation, Pres. Duterte pushed for it in a move to tax powerful private enterprises in the country. In running after tax evaders, the government managed to collect from PAL P6 billion worth of unpaid air navigational charges. The Philippine tobacco giant Mighty Corp., through government effort, paid P40 billion worth of tax liabilities. Said revenues will help the government fund its nationwide infrastructure programs.

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Duterte is also keen on adding a third telco player in a race to improve our telecom system. Reports revealed that by December a third player will be identified. Local and foreign entities have shown their interest this endeavor. Pres. Duterte signed and approved the long overdue RA 11032 (Ease of Doing Business ; Efficient Government Service Delivery Act) which aims to improve the country’s competitiveness climate in doing business better by eliminating red tape in our bureaucracy. The law is an amendment of the Anti-Red Tape Act of 2007. His inexorablecampaign for fighting graft and corruption became inevitable when he created the PACC (Presidential Anti-Corruption Commission)to probe erring officials in all branches of the government.The Build BuildBuild program, an ambitious infrastructure investment, is the major highlight of Dutertenomics. This economic feat hopes to transform the Philippines into a more robust market which include building & rehabilitation of airports, railways, bus transits, building of roads & bridges, and seaports. The national program identified 75 flagship projects for its implementation with an overall budget that is expected to hit up to P9 trillion by 2022 with 35 of these have been approved and are now ready for execution.

The list goes on i.e. launching of the OFW bank to cater to the needs of OFWs, free tuition fees in 112 state universities & colleges, RA 10969 that reassures farmers of free irrigation including its upgrade, 10-year passport & 5-year driving license validities, RA 10349 (Revised AFP Modernization) that aims to improve and modernize the AFP, laglag-bala in NAIA & other airports, free internet access in public areas, penalties for hospitals and medical clinics that refuse to administer treatment and support in times of emergency are among the few accomplishments demonstrated by the current administration. Also, the proposal of San Miguel Corp. to build a new airport in Bulacan is at the negotiating table. This venture will be a huge financial risk on the part of the government nonetheless, it would positively guarantee economic returns in the long run.

I did not vote at the last 2106 election being an OFW in the Middle East but I calmly appeal for change which is categorically inevitable in all governments. None of us can say that life is trouble-free in an imperfect world where we strangely inhabit. Ours is a dimension with struggles and barriers that will defy our resolve and human faith. Perhaps this is how I want to paint our government with all the strains it has on its shoulder today. Truth be told, there is no president who has not undergone drawbacks that daily confronts his office and leadership. I value nationalism, democracy and human dignity though our ideals are not parallel to the kind of bureaucracy we have that is evidently weak and inefficient. Genuinely, let us value change by giving Pres. Duterte the opportunity to perform its mandate. He needs our reason and not our rage in building a democratic but tough state that truly embraces our aspirations and renewed national pride as Filipinos.

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