At the age of 4 a child will have grown their own personality, they often begin to have a sense of humour and will begin to have proper conversations with people when they are playing and being social. Children of the age of 4 are very social, they always want to be with other children. In Lucy’s case she lacks in social and emotional skills due to so little experiences. She attends nursery which helps her everyday as she meets new people and will begin to gain more confidence which will increase hr social skills, she will want to join in more activities with the other children which might lead to new experiences.
Whilst Lucy is at nursery she will learn new personal skills every day, such as learning to dress herself, and possibly learn zip up hr own jacket. This relates to the brief ‘Every day is a learning day’ as Lucy is learning new things every day in nursery, her social skills are increasing a she learns how to communicate properly. (Child development, 2012)A child the age of 4 will begin to think about things more and remember more stuff, their cognitive development will start to progress. When Lucy is at nursery she will learn to do something new every day, this could be by remembering something that another child has done and copying this in the future. Children start to remember different events, maybe something that has happened at home or nursery. Their memory skills will increase. Lucy will remember her dad, although she knows little of what happened she will remember him every day, meaning she might talk about her past to other people. Children love to count and at this age they can usually count to 20, but only understand the concept of number one, two and three.
Cognitive development relates to the brief ‘Every day is a learning day’ because each day they will either learn to count to higher numbers or learn the concept of more numbers, depending on the help at home Lucy might struggle to understand her numbers due to lack of attention and support. (Child Development, 2012)Physical development at the age of 4 is very important. Children can walk and run at this age, very often they are always on their feet at this time. Children of this age are very active, they like to be active always, this may be kicking balls about, on scooters and bikes etc. Lucy will have achieved both fine and gross motor skills, but this will continue to progress.
Gross motor skills are an easier skill for a child of this age, Lucy will be able to run about at nursery and at home. At home she does not own many toys to use her fine motor skills to increase her skills, but gross motor skills can be used without objects when she is running about. When Lucy attends nursery, she will take part in art, jigsaws, board games and other activities that will increase her fine motor skills. Lucy will use a pencil as she has learned this at nursery. She will be able to copy letters with support. This relates to ‘Every day is a learning day’ as both her fine and gross motor skills are still being progressed. (Child development, 2012)Factors Influencing DevelopmentOne influence that will impact a child’s development is a reconstituted family. If a child doesn’t have a great relationship with their parents or siblings this will affect their emotional, social and personal development.
This is a negative influence on the child’s development. Lucy’s father has left home, and Lucy now has a step-father and step-brother. Lucy doesn’t enjoy having a step brother because she does not receive much attention which makes her upset. Having a reconstituted family might affect a child’s personal skills, many children look up to their parents to learn a lot of skills, they want to be like their parents but due to Lucy’s mum being with someone she doesn’t like this may turn Lucy against her.
It will affect her emotional development; Lucy will feel angry, upset and confused. Lucy’s mother and father split up when she was very young, Lucy will face attachment anxiety as she misses her dad and is yet to understand why he left. This will affect Lucy’s long-term anxiety in all three emotional, social and personal because she has not had the love and attention needed to help her progress these skills, her anxiety will affect her social skills in the future, she will struggle to make new friends and speak out loud. Due to the lack of the attention she has had this may mean she has had no praise as a child, Lucy might be proud of things she has achieved but if her mum has not praised this it will knock her confidence, and this will affect her personal skills.
Although Lucy attends nursery, this means she may pick up on these skills as well as lacking in them due to circumstances. Lucy will learn to be independent as she gets little attention. This relates to everyday is a learning day as each day Lucy will learn to be independent, as Lucy does not learn many social and emotional skills at home, this learning will come through nursery. (child care ; Education,2014)A second influence that will impact a child’s development is education. This is often a positive influence on a child’s life, in Lucy’s case this is a positive influence as she will learn many of her skills here such as social and emotional that she does not learn at home. Lucy being in nursery will help her overall holistic development, this being her social, emotional, cognitive, language and physical development.
Lucy will learn new skills at nursery which will influence her development. Lucy will always be in a setting where there is a large or small group of children, this gives her a chance to be social. As Lucy socialises with other children, this may influence her social and emotional skills in later life as she has had interaction as a child with other children, she is having the opportunity to play in an environment which supports play.
Lucy will learn and see that she needs to take turns and listen to other people which is an important skill that everyone needs to be able to do. Socialising will also help Lucy to develop her own personality, helping her with her feelings. At home Lucy’s physical development will not be improving much, due to little money this means Lucy will lack in toys to improve her fine motor skills, at nursery she will be using her hands, fingers and arms every day. This will increase her fine motor skills, she will use paint brushes, scissors, and possibly complete puzzles and games. At this age, children will also begin to think for their self’s and remember certain things, their cognitive skills will be improving every day. They hear poetry and nursery rhymes, this may help Lucy to pick up on new language which will help her speech and language skills in the later life.
She will be close to meeting her milestones, this means she will be able to continue to increase these skills throughout school and encourage her to do well. This relates back to the brief ‘Everyday is a learning day’ as Lucy will learn something new every day in nursery, things such as how to copy her name, learn new vocabulary and improve her holistic development. (How Education Affects Early Child Development, 2012)Another factor that will affect a child’s development is technology. This can be both a negative and positive influence on a child’s life.
Depending how much use of technology a child gets, this can often be a positive influence on a child’s development as they learn new things using technology. When Lucy is at home she doesn’t get to experience new things and gets lack of attention, this means she is most likely to sit watching telly or sitting with an iPad which her and her brother share. According to Phillipa Roxby on the BBC page “Research from the University of Wisconsin, presented at a meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development this week, found that children aged between two and three were more likely to respond to video screens that prompted children to touch them than to a video screen that demanded no interaction.” Lucy has only just passed this stage, this could mean that whist she is not getting support at home she may still be learning through technology. Technology is also said to be a fast way of learning, children are figuring out how to spell words, so they can search what they are looking for, which increases their language development. Technology can be a negative influence too, children can often be stopped communicating with their parents as their parents are glued to their phones whilst sitting in the house, walking down the street, and most of the time they don’t hear their children because they are concentrating on their phones. This can affect children’s experiences, they like to be praised by their parents but if their parents are not watching they will not be getting encouraged or praised, this will slow down their social and emotional development.
Although technology can be a positive influence, if the children are not using the correct apps and websites, it will not be developing any skills. Whereas if children are being supported and told what apps to use, they could be developing skills they do not have. Lucy does not get this support always but can still learn. This relates to ‘Every day is a learning day’ because it is proven that technology can also be a positive influence on a child and they can learn using specific apps, such as maths and language games as this still makes it fun for a child. (Does technology help or hinder a toddler’s development, 2013)Another factor that will influence a child’s development is having a healthy diet.
A child must receive a balanced healthy diet to be physically healthy. If a child is not receiving all the minerals, vitamins and proteins they need this can often cause a deficiency which can make a child very ill and tired. If child is eating too much food which contains saturated fats and sugar this may also lead to obesity. Lucy will get healthy snacks every morning when she attends nursery which will contribute to the vitamins she eats. As a 4-year-old Lucy will enjoy being with her friends at nursery and going out to run about in the garden. Nutrition will affect Lucy’s physical health and lead to more problems in later life, Lucy will not have enough energy to play and will want to sit inside a lot, this means no physical exercise is being done.
This can lead to bad health for Lucy, she might gain weight, be tired and lazy, become unwell and she might get deficiencies in things such as iron. Lucy will be informed at nursery that the things she is eating are healthy, and that it is good to drink water. A child of this age likes to help making snack, so Lucy will be choosing her own healthy snack which will encourage her to eat and try new healthy foods. At home Lucy’s mother does not work, which means although they do not buy much food in she often has time to make dinners, such as pasta dishes which includes cheap ingredients, but this an also be healthy as the pasta is providing carbs for Lucy and if this includes meat it will give her some protein, meaning she is getting some energy.. As Lucy is getting some of the correct vitamins and minerals, this might mean her physical health will still be developing correctly as she will still be able to run about and participate in activities. It will also help her emotional and social development, if Lucy is eating the correct foods she will have energy, this means she will be more likely to socialise. This relates to ‘Everyday is a learning day’ because each day that Lucy eats something new, both at nursery or at home she will discover what s healthy and what is not with the support of an adult.
(Child Care & Education, 2014)Explaining Theories of DevelopmentOne theorist that can be applied to Lucy’s situation is John Bowlby, Lucy has attachment issues as her father left her and her mother when she was very young, she has learned each day how to cope with this. John Bowlby was a British child psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who researched and investigated effects of a mother and child being separated, but later agreed that there is more than one attachment figure. John Bowlby’s attachment theory relates to a child’s Emotional, social and personal development. Bowlby’s theory helps to explain the development of the child Lucy, who is 4 years old. Lucy was 3 when her father left, she had to figure this all out for herself why he left and now has attachment issues from the father. Bowlby believes that having attachment issues can lead to a child having problems such as aggressiveness, depression, dependency anxiety and affectionless psychopath.
This is all caused by attachment anxiety and may affect them in later life. As Lucy is very young, this has affected her emotionally and socially, at nursery Lucy will have had support and been encouraged to be social which will help Lucy in the future. This relates to ‘Everyday is a Learning day’ as Lucy has had to learn to cope without a father, this has affected her emotional, socially and personally which she will be developing each day in nursery.
(Overview on attachment theory, 2004) A second theorist that can be applied to Lucy’s situation is Maslow. Maslow’s theory is a pyramid model based on different levels and it is a motivational theory, named the hierarchy of need. Maslow believes that the lower level of the pyramid must be met before you can move onto the next level. A child’s physical needs must be met, such as food, water, shelter and clothing before they move up to safety needs which is their protection from danger. Lucy struggles with the lack of attention she gets which comes under her social needs and her self-esteem. This means if Lucy is not meeting these levels then she is also not going to develop her self-actualization needs. Lucy is meeting her physical and safety needs, this means she is getting the nutrients she needs, and she has a roof over her head and clothing.
Lucy does not meet her social needs, self-esteem or self-actualisation. Social needs cover family and friend relationship and giving and receiving affection. Self-esteem is about feeling a sense of achievement, self-respect and feeling special and valued. The top of the pyramid is self-actualisation, this means being happy/content, being able to express yourself and being creative. Maslow believed that it is difficult to reach your full potential unless you meet all levels. This links to ‘Every day is a Learning day’ as Lucy is going to need to need to develop social skills through nursery to reach the next level of the pyramid. (simply psychology, 2017) Another theorist that relates to Lucy’s situation is Jean Piaget, his theory is based on cognitive development.
Piaget believes children cannot undertake certain tasks until they are psychologically mature enough, his theory is about children learning in different stages depending on their age. He also believes that children should play and experiment to learn and they learn in 4 stages:1. The sensory motor stages2.
The pre-operational stage3. The concrete operations stage4. The formal operational stage’The pre-operational stage’ relates to my child Lucy, as this is ages 2-7 years. Piaget says that to meet this stage, they must meet the stage before this which is ‘The sensory motor stage’ as they must meet an important development to progress onto the next, this is ‘object permanency. This means being able to remember people and objects when there not in sight of the child.
Lucy has progressed passed this stage as she remembers her father, and he has left her house. The stage Lucy is at is developing language skills, being able to express their feelings, this might be by describing events and other humans, possible family members. Piaget believes that children who are in this stage of learning are ‘egocentric”, this means that children do not understand other people’s views or opinions. This means for Lucy, she might not understand her mother’s opinion on her father as she is too young. Piaget’s theory relates to the brief ‘Everyday is a learning day’ because for Lucy to be at this stage, this means she has progressed from the first stage. (An Introduction to Child Development, 1994)Evaluating Theories of Development John Bowlby’s Theory is about a child bonding an attachment with their carer, although John Bowlby believed it was only the mother they had an attachment with, he was then leading to believe that it was more than just the mother. Children can have attachments to brothers, fathers and grandparents depending on who their main carer is. Lucy has attachment anxiety after her father left as this was the person who gave her most attention.
Rudolph Schaffer and Peggy Emerson believed that Bowlby should not have just focused on the mother as an attachment figure, he should have opened his research to a wider variety of people. I believe that a child will always have more than one attachment figure in their life and one of them is not always their mother. Often a child may live with their father, or grandparent and if this is the person consistent in their life then I believe this will be the attachment figure in their life.
Bowlby believed that a child being taken away from their attachment figure can cause behavioural problems such as distress, despair and detachment. Joyce Robertson done research on this and believed that john Bowlby’s theory was correct, most children do experience anger and distress when they lose or are taken away from the attachment figure in their life. It can lead to both physical and psychological problems in the later future. This relates to everyday is a learning day as Lucy will have to learn to cope with her anger. (Developmental Theory in Early Education and Childcare, 2009)Maslow used a combination of different research methods to come up with his theory. When he began his research, he decided he would focus on a specific people, he wanted to look at emotionally healthy people only, and he looked at their peak experiences. He said that humanistic psychologists look for people’s strengths. This means, he was not looking at every child, so his research method only applies to certain children instead of wide variety.
Maslow used a method called a biographical analysis. This method in a scientific perspective is often seen as very subjective as it is only based on the researcher’s opinion and no one else has a say in this, this means the research is very narrow. It is said that Maslow’s theory is not entirely correct in a scientific view, as his research methods were based on his opinion, only looking at certain people, certain ages and a biographical analysis which means this is very biased. Due to Maslow only looking at adults, this makes it hard to look at children using his theory. I believe that each level must be met before moving up to the next level, as I think that not may people will be happy if they are hungry or tired and don’t have any shelter. If someone doesn’t have any protection from danger under safety needs, then they will not feel valued which is the next level. If someone doesn’t feel valued, you will not have any self-esteem. Maslow’s theory relates to ‘Everyday is a learning day’ because each level needs to be met before you can move up to the next one, this means that for the children to be able to learn they must meet every level.
(Simply psychology, 2017)Jean Piaget’s theory is based on cognitive development, his theory is said to be unrealistic due to the small sample that he gained his research from. Jean Piaget based his research and results on his children and friends who all came from Switzerland, this was said to be biased. Although Jean Piaget’s theory was often criticised, it also had strengths. He conducted many experiments to prove that his theory was correct.
I believe that Piaget’s theory is correct in most cases, children will progress in stages. Piaget said the first stage is the sensory motor stages, which I believe this is always the first step development in a child.