At the stage of adolescence many biological, social and psychological changes occur. In physical changes there is growth in height and weight, anatomical development, growth of arms and legs, their hands, feet and nose seem to play an important part in adolescent development. The marked physical and emotional growths of adolescents result in strains that frequently precipitate. Stress and anxiety as reflected in physiological, psychological and social behavior. The period of adolescence is most closely associated with the teenage years, although its physical, psychological and cultural expressions can begin earlier and end later. For example, although puberty has been historically associated with the onset of adolescent development, it now typically begins prior to the teenage years and there have been a normative shift of it occurring in preadolescence, particularly in females. Physical growth, as distinct from puberty (particularly in males), and cognitive development generally seen in adolescence, can also extend into the early twenties. Thus chronological age provides only a rough marker of adolescence, and scholars have found it difficult to agree upon a precise definition of adolescence.
The social scientist looks at the adolescent as going through a period of ambiguous role expectations. The young person often cannot decide whether a situation calls for acting as a child or as an adult. The purely sociological approach does not complete the portrayed of the adolescent experiences. It illuminates only social aspect. The psychological aspect deals with the crisis of identity. Erikson’s concept ‘identity crisis’ deals with the relationship between what a person appears to be in the eyes of others and what he/she feels it. Crisis does not a break down or catastrophe but rather a ‘crucial period’ what development must move one way or another and around the young person must be established.
Adolescence also brings some emotional changes in the individuals. These changes are often accompanied by emotional tensions. The adolescence is exposed to new social situations, patterns of behavior and societal expectations, which brings a sense of lack of confidence. It increases the incidence of depression. They show the tendency of impulsive urge to take immediate actions, which often leads to risk taking behavior. Their body image can bring a sense of fun, pride, shyness or unhappiness, changes in habitual pattern of behavior, attitude and personality.
There are marked changes in social interest. They use new set of values in selection of friends and social grouping. Along with these changes adolescence also brings in negative syndrome like self centered, showing off, emotional immaturity, stubbornness, irritability, unsatisfactory relationship with the family members and others and conflict with family and others. The period shows rapid shift between self confidence, self esteem and well being.
Role of our education should be catering to the need of changing society. As a result of knowledge exposition our societal norms, cultural Practices, traditions, customs, beliefs, way of life and even our thinking strategies are also influenced. Hence it is the pre requisite of our mobilized society is to have modified educational objectives. All the level of our educational practices should be designed for fullest development of an individual. Educations facilitate an individual for all round development of inner potentiality, which should be life centered and practically applicable in their life situations.
Education should help an individual to inculcate, various values including individual, societal, national and international values. It also helps an individual make aware of global challenges and develops an ability to meet such challenges. Our educational practices should facilitate for balanced development of cognitive, affective and psychomotor development of an individual. However education for mental health is not gaining much importance in our school education. Good mental health helps an individual to develop balanced personality. It is a status of an individual which helps psychological well-being of a person in the society.