Bacteria and fungi are microscopic living organisms that are found around the world in all environments. In humans, both of these organisms can be harmless participants but can also interfere with the human body, causing diseases (Blanchfield, 2011). Bacteria are single-celled prokaryotic organisms, while fungi are either single-celled or multicellular eukaryotes. Bacteria can either be heterotrophic or autotrophic cells that reproduce asexually through binary fission, a cell wall made up of sugars and amino acids, and genetic material (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) with no membrane-bound nucleus. Archaea are microorganism that share characteristic of bacteria cells, however they inhabitat some of the most extreme environments on the planet like hydrothermal vents.
(B.Lerner & K.Lerner, 2007). Whereas, unlike bacteria and archaea, fungi are heterotrophic eukaryotic decomposers, that reproduce sexually, with a cell wall made of chitin, and a membrane-bound nucleus (Lerner & Wilmoth, 2004, p2549-2550). Bacterial species being so diversified, they are also systemized under cell shape, structure nutrients/energy, and environment to future understand common components of the bacteria allowing us to be able to additionally study and learn about them. (ADD PICTURE)”Individual bacteria can assume one of three basic shapes: spherical (coccus), rod like (bacillus), or curved (vibrio, spirillum, or spirochete)” (Kadner, 2014). Coccus bacteria can be oval, round or flat on one side, be in pairs of two, groups of four, or clusters of eight which form a staphylo.
Bacilli can either have pointed or square ends and usually form singly or long chains in a group called strepto. While spirillum forms a helix similar to a corkscrew giving it its curved shape (“Kingdom Archaea & Eubacteria”,2018). In terms of structure, all bacteria cells are bounded by a stiff cell wall which provides support for the cells membrane, and maintains pressure inside the cell for the nucleoid, ribosomes, vesicle, plasmid and cytoplasm. The surface of the cell wall also produces a jelly-like material known as a capsule. This “slime layer” contains chemicals used to stick to surfaces and to protect the cell in external conditions. Bacteria can acquire nutrients through photosynthesis, decomposition like fungi, or relying on other organisms by establishing a mutualistic relationship. Depending on the type of metabolism, certain species of bacteria may be aerobic or anaerobic.
Aerobic bacteria depends on oxygen to carry on cellular respiration, basic survival, growth and to multiply. In cellular respiration, glucose breaks down into carbon dioxide and water, creating energy for the aerobic cell. In addiction, aerobic bacteria has enzymes capable of decomposing toxic forms of oxygen.
Still, anaerobic bacteria can live without oxygen and can use inorganic substance like nitrite oxide or fermentation in replacement of cellular respiration; a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen. (B.Lerner & K.Lerner, 2007).
Binary fission is the most common way of reproduction in bacteria cells, by which the cell replicates its genetic material (DNA), divides it into two with each new cell receiving one copy of the original DNA, and after the cell wall forms across the parent cell (Bonner, 2016). The term “bacteria growth” refers to the timeline of their life span. A cells life can be divided in four different phases; lag, log, stationary and death phase (See figure 2). During the lag phase, the bacteria cell does not develop much as it prepares themselves to grow, it is not yet able to divide. The cell begins to double itself in the log phase, if in ideal growth conditions this phase last around 4 days. The stationary phase is where the number of viable cells remain the same (cell does not reproduce or grow). And lastly, the death phare is where the bacteria dies, due to lack of nutrients, temperature, or other harmful conditions. (Kadner, 2017)Other than archaea, most bacteria replies on factors like, moisture, temperature, oxygen and pH for the ideal environment.
Most bacteria succeeded in warm temperature around 37°C, the human body, therefore, provides an immaculate temperature for bacteria live. Disease-causing bacteria grows in neutral pH like the human body, while most other bacterias prefer a pH between 6.7 and 7.5. (B.Lerner & K.Lerner, 2007).